This review deals with the rapid reduction of a variety of organic functionalities, including a new selective reduction of carboxylic acid, with samarium diiodide in the presence of additives under mild conditions. The single electron donor ability of samarium diiodide can be enhanced with ligands around Sm2+ when sufficient electrons are supplied from the ligands. Mechanistic consideration of this enhancement led to our finding that carboxylic acid, ester, amide, nitrile, pyridine and other functionalities were rapidly reduced with samarium diiodide in the presence of a base, acid, water and methanol as ligands at room temperature in good yields. Particularly, these systems directly reduced carboxylic acid into alcohol and a samarium diiodide-85% phosphoric acid system immediately reduced an aromatic primary amide to aldehyde in good yield. Pyridines were reduced to piperidines with a samarium diiodide-base or water system in excellent yields; also, the aromatic nucleus of phenol derivatives was rapidly reduced with a samarium diiodide-base system. Furthermore, these organic functionalities were rapidly reduced with an Sm or Yb metal-hydrochloric acid system. Aliphatic and aromatic carboxylic acids with a coexisting aldehyde or that bearing a formyl group were selectively reduced to the corresponding alcohols with a new samarium diiodide-samarium triflate-methanol-base or water system within a few minutes at room temperature in good to almost quantitative yield.
Recent studies have revealed that the targeting therapy using monoclonal antibody against tumor associated antigens did not have a clinically satisfactory effect due to various physiological characters of tumor. We propose a novel approach targeting tumor vascular endothelium to solve the inefficiency of common tumor missile therapy. In this study, the tissue distribution of anti-tumor vascular endothelium monoclonal antibody (TES-23) produced by immunizing with plasma membrane vesicles obtained from isolated rat tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) was assessed in various tumor-bearing animals. Radiolabeled TES-23 dramatically accumulated in KMT-17 fibrosarcoma, a source of isolated TECs after intravenous injection. In Meth-A fibrosarcoma, Colon-26 adenocarcinoma in BALB/c mice and HT-1080 human tumor tissue in nude mice, radioactivities of 125I-TES-23 were also up to fifty times higher than those of control antibody with little distribution to normal tissues. Furthermore, immunostaining of human tissue sections showed specific binding of TES-23 on endothelium in esophagus and colon cancers. These results indicate that tumor vascular endothelial cells express a common antigen in different tumor types of various animal species. In order to clarify the efficacy of TES-23 as a drug carrier, an immunoconjugate, composed of TES-23 and neocarzinostatin, was tested for its antitumor effect in vivo. The immunoconjugate (TES-23-NCS) caused a marked regression of the tumor, KMT-17 in rats and Meth-A in mice. Thus, from a clinical view, TES-23 would be a novel drug carrier because of its high specificity to tumor vascular endothelium and its application to many types of cancer.
Effects of auranofin, an orally active chrysotherapeutic agent, were examined on the production of prostaglandin E2(PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in rat peritoneal macrophages and in RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Auranofin (1-10μM) inhibited PGE2 production in rat peritoneal macrophages stimulated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA, 16.2nM) at 8-20 h, but did not affect PGE2 production at 4 h. However, in non-stimulated rat peritoneal macrophages, auranofin increased PGE2 production at 4 h and had no effect on PGE2 production at 8-20 h. It was proved that auranofin (1-10μM) increased COX (cyclooxygenase)-1-dependent PGE2 production and inhibited COX-2-dependent PGE2 production in rat peritoneal macrophages. Auranofin showed no effect on the enzyme activities of the purified COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. Furthermore, auranofin did not affect the COX-1 protein level, but inhibited the TPA-induced expression of COX-2 protein. Therefore, it was suggested that auranofin inhibited PGE2 production by inhibiting the COX-2 protein induction in TPA-stimulated macrophages. In RAW 264.7 cells, auranofin (0.3-3μM) inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced NO synthesis by inhibiting the induction of NO synthase (NOS) protein expression. Auranofin did not affect the enzyme activity of iNOS (inducible NOS). Finally, using rat peritoneal macrophages, the effects of auranofin on PGE2 production and NO production were determined. Auranofin (10μM) strongly inhibited the production of PGE2 and NO, and the induction of COX-2 protein and NOS protein by TPA. Indomethacin, a COX inhibitor, partially inhibited NO production at the concentration at which PGE2 production was completely inhibited. On the other hand, L-NG-monomethyl -L-arginine acetate (L-NMMA), a NOS inhibitor, partially inhibited PGE2 production. NO production was completely inhibited at the same concentration as shown above. These findings suggest that PGE2 production and NO production partially affect each other. Therefore, the inhibition of PGE2 production by auranofin might be partly due to the inhibition of NO production, and the inhibition of NO production by auranofin be partly due to the inhibition of PGE2 production. In conclusion, auranofin inhibits both PGE2 production and NO production by inhibiting the upregulation of mRNA levels of COX-2 and NOS.
The renal proximal tubular cells play a principal role in limiting or preventing toxicity by actively secreting organic anions from the circulation into the urine. We isolated a cDNA coding a novel rat kidney specific organic anion transporter, OAT-K1, mediating transport of methotrexate (MTX). Moreover, we have isolated a new cDNA coding a rat OAT-K2, showing the 91% amino acid identity with OAT-K1. In this study, the mRNA distribution along the nephron segments and the transport characteristics of OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 have been analyzed. By the use of a reverse transcription-coupled PCR, OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 mRNAs were detected predominantly in the proximal straight tubules. When expressed in Xenopus oocytes, OAT-K1 mediated the uptake of MTX and folate, but not of taurocholate (TCA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), although OAT-K2 stimulated the uptake of MTX, folate, TCA and PGE2. In stable transfectants (MDCK OAT-K1 and MDCK-OAT-K2), each transporter was localized functionally to the apical membrane and showed transport activity similar to those in the oocytes. The efflux of preloaded MTX was enhanced in both MDCK-OAT-K1 and MDCK-OAT-K2 cells. These results suggest that both OAT-K1 and OAT-K2 are apical membrane bidirectional organic anion transporters, and participate in epithelial transport of lipophilic organic anions in the kidney.
This paper is a review of three topics related to bio-trace metals. First, the transfer of metals into tissues of patients with chronic diseases treated with hemodialysis is examined. Such diseases include chronic hepatitis, diabetes, and chronic renal failure. In these diseases, metal contents from fingernails were flexible but non-specific. Toxicity may appear as the amount of heavy metals in tissues of patients with chronic renal failure treated with hemodialysis. For example, cadmium and lead were not excreted from the blood of patients during the hemodialysis treatment, and, therefore, their amounts gradually increased in the blood of patients. The level of zinc increased and was excreted in the urine of diabetic patients and experimental animals. Calcium accumulated in the kidney of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats that were fed low zinc diets; and, as a result, severe renal failure occurred. From these results, complicaiton syndromes of either metal deficiency or excesses may occur in tissues of patients with chronic diseases. Second, the role of metallothionein (MT), an inducible protein, and the properties of MT isoforms have been studied on experimental animals. In the exocrine cells of the pancreas, MT was induced by various stresses such as zinc, STZ, alloxan and 4-aminopyrazolo-(3, 4-d) pyrimidine, but the effects of those stresses were not clear in the endocrine cells. Therefore, MT may have a role in the exocrine cells of the pancreas. In addition, we were able to separate completely MT-1 and MT-2 isoforms in cytosol fractions of tissues using a capillary zone electrophoresis system at neutral pH without any detergents. Each role of the MT isoforms in the tissues soon started to become clear. Third, cisplatin, a platinum-containing anti-tumor drug, did not penetrate into the brain tissue under physiological conditions, as there is a blood-brain barrier to cerebral tissues; however, it did penetrate with either short-term hypoxia or in the case of lipopolysaccharide-treated experimental animals. Nitric oxide, prostaglandin, and free radicals are related to the penetration. Older rats had a higher sensitivity to cisplatin than younger rats.
Crystallographic and optical characteristics of crystal habits have been investigated comparing the both results of goniometric and newly developed polarizing microscopic methods. It has been found that the predominant faces of crystal habits are mostly formed by (001) or (100) of orthorhombic or monoclinic system and (010) of monoclinic system, and a little part by triclinic (001). Not so many numbers of predominant faces were found to be formed by orthorhombic or monoclinic (110) making prismatic habits. Key refractive indices have been found to be uniquely measured from those habits, and it was also found that one or two of them were coincided with the principal refractive indexes, which will become important facts for the analytical use of crystal habits.
After intravaginal administration of a spermicide, nonoxynol (polyoxyethylene nonylphenyl ether, NPE) in female rabbits, the pharmacokinetics of NPE were examined by the HPLC method. The plasma levels after administration of NPE revealed a considerable amount of absorption of NPE into the circulation and the bioavailability after intravaginal administration was calculated to be 66% by comparison with that after intravenous administration. Unchanged NPE was not excreted into the urine in significant amounts even on intravenous administration. Nonylphenol (NP), a presumed metabolite of NPE, was simultaneously analyzed using GC-MS to assess the risk by its endocrine disrupting effects. Although the NP concentrations in the plasma were all below the lower limit of quantitation (10 ng/ml), small amounts of NP and its glucuronide conjugate were detected in the urine after intravaginal administration of NPE. Thus it was suggested that at least part of NPE absorbed in the circulation was metabolized to give NP. However, the sum of NP and its conjugate excreted in the urine was very small amounts (0.22% of dose). Therefore, it was assumed that the production of NP was not in the major pathway of the NPE metabolism.
DL-Lactic acid and its salts are added to food as acidulants, pH control agents, leavening agents, nutrient supplements and seasonings. However, the basic data concerning the safety and toxicity of these compounds are insufficient. In this article, we examined induction of hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice after acute intake of DL-lactic acid. Body weight change, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity, serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentration, liver and kidney weights, and renal lipid peroxide level could not be affected significantly in mice at 4 h after intraperitoneal administration of DL-lactic acid at 1.2 mmol/kg, indicating no induction of toxicity in the liver and kidney. In contrast, at 20 h after the treatment, SGPT activity, liver weight and lipid peroxide level were enhanced significantly, suggesting induction of hepatotoxicity. However, SUN concentration, kidney weight and lipid peroxide level could not be affected significantly at 20 h after the treatment, indicating no induction of nephrotoxicity.
While oxine-copper (OxCu) is generally used as an agricultural fungicide and induces a harmful effect on ecosystems, little information is available regarding a toxic effect of OxCu on mammals. In this article, we examined in vivo induction of toxicity and change of levels of glutathione and ascorbic acid, major biological antioxidants, lipid peroxide and copper (Cu) in liver and kidney 4 h and 24 h after intraperitoneal administration of OxCu at a low dose (0.05 mmol/kg) to mice. Increased hepatic ascorbic acid and Cu levels were found at 4 h after the treatment. In addition, body weight change was lowered and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase activity was elevated significantly compared to control at 24 h after the treatment, suggesting induction of systemic and hepatic toxicity respectively. These were accompanied by lowered lipid peroxide level and enhanced glutathione, ascorbic acid and Cu levels in the mouse liver. On the other hand, OxCu induced no elevation in serum urea nitrogen concentration 4 h and 24 h after the treatment, suggesting no induction of nephrotoxicity, accompanied by no change in renal lipid peroxide, glutathione, ascorbic acid and Cu levels. These results suggest that hepatic Cu elevation may induce hepatotoxicity and no renal Cu elevation may lead to no induction of nephrotoxicity after the treatment with OxCu.
While copper(II) gluconate (CuGL) is generally used as a nutrient supplement for infant foods and as an oral deodorant, little information is available regarding a toxic effect of CuGL on mammals. In this article, we examined in vivo induction of toxicity and change of level of glutathione and ascorbic acid, major biological antioxidants, lipid peroxide and copper (Cu) in liver and kidney 4 h after single intraperitoneal administration of CuGL at 0.05 and 0.10 mmol/kg to mice. Serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) activity, an indicator of hepatotoxicity, significantly increased compared to control in proportion to doses of CuGL. Hepatic level of glutathione measured as nonprotein sulfhydryl was not proportional to CuGL doses, but enhanced after dosing of 0.05 mmol/kg and lowered by 0.10 mmol/kg. Like SGPT activity, serum urea nitrogen (SUN) concentration, an indicator of nephrotoxicity, significantly increased in proportion to doses of CuGL. Renal glutathione level was not different from control after dosing of 0.05 mmol/kg and lowered by 0.10 mmol/kg. In both organs, relative organ weight and lipid peroxide level were not affected by the treatment with CuGL; ascorbic acid level was elevated after dosing of 0.05 mmol/kg and was not different from control after treatment with 0.10 mmol/kg; like SGPT activity and SUN concentration, Cu level significantly increased in proportion to doses of CuGL. These results suggest that in the liver and kidney after the treatment with CuGL Cu accumulated may induce toxicity, leading to level changes of glutathione and ascorbic acid and to no induction of oxidative damage.