Rat cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractants (CINCs) are the members of the CXC chemokine family. Four neutrophil chemokines, CINC-1, CINC-2α, CINC-2β and CINC-3, were purified from the conditioned medium of granulation-tissue culture. CINC-2α and CINC-2β differ only in the sequence of three carboxy-terminal residues and are produced by alternative splicing. CINC-3 had neutrophil chemotactic activity similar to that of CINC-1 and CINC-2, but induced greater calcium mobilization than CINC-1 and CINC-2. CINC-1, -2 and -3 induced calcium flux in CXCR2-transfected HEK293 cells. In addition, anti-CXCR2 serum inhibited neutrophil chemotactic activities of the three types of CINCs almost completely. These results indicate that rat CXCR2 is a unique receptor for CINC-1, -2 and -3. CINCs induced calcium mobilization through pertussis toxin-insensitive G-protein but induced chemotaxis through pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein. CINC-1/-2 and CINC-3 may stimulate both G-proteins with distinct efficiency. The concentration of CINC-1 increased transiently in rat air pouch/lipopolysaccharide inflammation, whereas the CINC-2 level increased linearly. The number of infiltrated cells increased up to 8h. The increase in cell number was correlated with the total concentration of CINC-1 and CINC-2. Northern blot analyses and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay showed that CINC expression was very low in rat macrophages without stimulation and increased after lipopolysaccharide stimulation. These data suggest that CINCs are expressed by inflammatory cells such as macrophages at a site of inflammation and play important roles in neutrophil infiltration.
The fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method is used to perform measurement of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) at many institutions. However, the values measured by the FPIA method are more vulnerable to overestimation than the high performance liquid chromatograpy (HPLC) method. In particular, it was not reported to perform exact therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) measurement. Since overestimation is likely in patients with renal dysfunction, the HPLC method is preferable for TDM measurement. This study investigates the clinical conditions that lead to overestimation in the FPIA method, paying attention to the relation of clinical laboratory data inspection values and the existence of hemodialysis(HD). Overestimation in the evaluation of TDM using the FPIA method was clinically examined with 116 serum samples obtained from 18 cases medicated with VCM. The relevance between overestimation of patients who had not had HD performed was 72.7±61.7%(means±SD). In short, the overestimation was greatest in HD patients. Since overestimation did not affect the evaluation of clinical TDM, such as an effect and a side-effect, the TDM of VCM was shown to be satisfactorily evaluated by the simple FPIA method.
The advantages of a technique as a diagnostic tool for examining the distribution of bio-trace elements in the living body are discussed. Time courses of the distribution of Be, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Y in the upper abdomen of living selenium-deficient rats were examined using the in vivo multitracer analysis technique. The dynamics of the elements were estimated by comparison with the distribution of As. Almost all As was taken up by red blood cells. The present findings of a decrease in Se and increase in Co in the liver of Se-deficient rats are in good agreement with the previous data that showed a decrease in Se and increase in Co uptake into the liver cell fraction of Se-deficient rats. Although the normalized uptake rate and the relative distribution of Co 48h after administration increased in Se-deficient rats, the early level of the relative distribution of Co was not lower compared with that in the normal group. This suggests that the high level of the normalized uptake rate and the relative distribution of Co in Se-deficient rats were affected by the decreasing excretion rate rather than by the increasing uptake rate of Co. The plateau level of relative distribution of Se in the Se-deficient rats is lower than that in normal rats, suggesting that the lower levels of the normalized uptake rate and relative distribution of Se in Se-deficient rats were due to the decreased uptake rate of the element.
The contents of iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in the organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, lung, and brain) and the liver cell fractions (nuclear, mitochondrial, microsomal, and cytosolic fractions) of Se- or vitamin E (VE)-deficient rats were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The contents of Fe in the liver of Se-deficient rats, and in the liver and the spleen of VE-deficient rats were increased compared with those in normal rats. Fe contents increased mainly in the microsomal fraction. Contents of Co in the organs and liver cell fractions of Se- and VE-deficient rats were markedly low, reflecting the Co contents in both diets. Contents of Zn in the organs and liver cell fractions of Se- and VE-deficient rats decreased to 60—80% of the contents in normal rats. The Se contents in Se-deficient rat organs except for the kidney, spleen, and brain were below the detectable level under the present conditions. Se contents in VE-deficient rat decreased to 50—80% of those in normal rats in all organs and fractions. It is suggested that oxidative stress due to Se- or VE-deficiency affects the dynamics of Fe and Zn.
Four known compounds have been isolated from the aerial parts of the Brazilian medicinal plant Pariparoba (Pothomorphe umbellata). They were an alkaloid, a flavone, a dihydrocalcone, and a steroid. The chemical structures were established to be N-benzoylmescaline, wogonin, uvangoletin, and β-sitosterol glucoside using spectral methods. Among these compounds, the main component N-benzoylmescaline showed significant antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori.