Some new developments of photochemical one-electron transfer reactions are described, and reaction mechanisms are discussed. Application of catalytic photoelectron transfer (photo-cleavage of sulfonamide) to the total synthesis of (−)-cannabisativine is also reported. In order to develop new synthetic methodology, conformational analysis of macrolide seco-acid is presented, and the design and application of seco-acids to the first total synthesis of lankanolide is also disclosed.
Our understanding of the function and etiology of various gastric diseases has exponentially expanded over the past 40 years. In particular, several animal models had been devised and used for screening of anti-ulcer drugs and elucidation of pathogenesis. This review describes how water-immersion stress ulcer model, Helicobacter pylori ulcer model, and acetic acid ulcer models were established in experimental animals. In recent years, genetically modified mice allowed rapid accumulation of very important findings. H2-receptor knockout mice revealed to exhibit Menetrier's disease-like gastric mucosal changes. Gastrin-transgenic mice infected with H. pylori revealed to develop gastric cancer. The hypothesis for the origin of parietal cells was provided.
Secologanin, a secoiridoid glucoside, is a pivotal terpenoid intermediate in the biosynthesis of biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids such as reserpine, ajmaline, and vinblastine which are biosynthesized via strictosidine, an alkaloidal glucoside, formed from secologanin and tryptamine. In secologanin biosynthesis, the oxidative cleavage process of loganin to secologanin and the hydroxylation of 7-deoxyloganin to loganin have remained unknown enzymologically and mechanistically. Cornoside is a unique glucoside with 4-hydroxy-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-one (benzoquinol) ring and is widespread in families such as Cornaceae, Oleaceae, and Scrophulariaceae but its biosynthesis, especially the oxidative process, remain to be investigated. Shikonin is a red naphthazarin pigment derived from the roots of Lithospermum erythorhizon and produced biotechnologically by cell cultures. Its biosynthesis including the production regulation mechanism has been investigated in detail. However, the naphthazarin ring formation process, probably starting with the hydroxylation of the side chain of geranylhydroquinone, a key intermediate at the late stage of shikonin biosynthesis, remained unknown. In the present review, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in the biosyntheses of three structurally and biosynthetically interesting compounds, secologanin, cornoside, and shikonin, a described together with the results of previous and recent biosynthetic studies. The biosyntheses of related compounds are also discussed.
Recently, many organometallic complexes, such as palladium, nickel, ruthenium, titanium complexes and others, were used for synthetic organic chemistry. We have developed many novel synthetic methods using these organometallic complexes for synthetic organic chemistry. As the organometallic complexes, nickel, chromium, molybdenum, ruthenium, zirconium, titanium, and palladium complexes, were used. Furthermore, bimetallic complexes having silicon-tin and silicon-zirconium bonds were investigated. On the other hand, utilization of gases in synthetic organic chemistry has been also developed. 1 atm pressure of gases such as CO, CO2, N2, ethylene and acetylene, could be used and the reaction procedure is very simple, that a balloon filled with a gas is connected on the top of the flask. Using our novel synthetic methods, we have synthesized many natural products and biologically active substances, such as cephalotaxin, mesembrine, tubifoline, strychnine, stemoamide, lycopodine, pumiliotoxin C, β-lactam, carbapenam and benzodiazepinone derivatives.
Thirty-six allyl substituted oxopyrimidine analogues such as barbituric acid (BA), barbiturates, uracil, thymine, and related derivatives including 13 new compounds were synthesized and their pharmacologic effects ([hypnotic activity, anticonvulsant activity against pentylentetrazol (PTZ)-induced seizures, and LD50]) and interactions with the barbiturates were evaluated in mice and rats. The results are briefly and parially summarized as follows. BA prolonged pentobarbital (PB)-induced sleep and had some central depressant effects. N,5,5-Triallyl-BA exhibited some hypnotic and anticonvulsant activities, although the other 5,N-allyl-compounds did not show any activity except for allobarbital (AlloB). N-Allyl-BA, 5-allyl-BA, N1,N3,5-triallyl-BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N1,N3,5,5-tetraallyl-BA also prolonged PB-induced sleep. Interestingly, N,5,5-triallyl-BA was the most potent in the interaction with AlloB, phenobarbital (PheB), amobarbital (AB), PB, and thiopental (TP) but not barbital (B). N1,N3,5,5-Tetraallyl-BA prolonged AlloB-, PB-, and AB-induced sleep but not B-, PheB-, and TP-induced sleep. N1,N3,5-Triallyl-B prolonged only PB- and TP-induced sleep. 5,5-Diallyl-BA prolonged PheB- and TP-induced sleep. N,5-Diallyl-BA prolonged only TP-induced sleep. In contrast, BA and N1,N3,5-triallyl-AB tended to antagonize AlloB, AB, and B. N1,N3,5,5-Tetraallyl-BA also slightly antagonized B, PheB, and TP. 5,5-Diallyl-BA antagonized only AB. The prolonging effects of BA, N,5,5-triallyl-BA, and N1,N3,5,5-tetraallyl-BA on PB-induced sleep were dose dependent. These results indicate that the position and number of allyl groups substituted on the structure of BA play an important role in their depressant activities. This review deals with the structure-activity relationship of allyl-substituted oxopyrimidines as part of our search for antagonists and agonists of barbiturates as well as their mechanisms of action.
The application of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening to biological targets has led to efficient identification of lead compounds in wide therapeutic areas. However, the physicochemical properties of some lead compounds are lipophilic with low water soluble. Since these parameters determine in vivo absorption, we established robust screening methods for solubility and Caco-2 membrane permeability which are applicable to our screening strategy based on the structure-pharmacokinetic parameter relationship (SPR). Of test compounds with different core structures, turbidimetric solubility and apparent solubility as determined by HPLC-UV analysis after dilution of aqueous media from DMSO stock solution was overestimated in comparison with the corresponding thermodynamic solubility obtained using a traditional shake-flask method. A new powder-dissolution method providing thermodynamic solubility similar to that in the traditional method was developed using 96-well plates for equilibrium dialysis. The throughput of the method was the almost the same as that using the apparent solubility method. In a conventional Caco-2 assay, membrane permeability (Papp) of some lipophilic compounds was underestimated due to low solubility in the apical site and adhesion to the device, resulting in a poor relationship between the in vivo absorption fraction and the Papp values. The addition of 0.1% Gelucire 44/14 into the apical site and 4% bovine serum albumin into the basolateral site improved the relationship. These newly developed methods are therefore useful to optimize lead compounds with less water solubility and high lipophilicity on the basis of SPR.
Metabolic screening using liver microsomes of rats and humans is an indispensable tool to optimize a lead structure and to select compounds for in vivo study. Elucidating the relationship between in vitro intrinsic clearance (CLint, app) and in vivo clearance (CLb) is a prerequisite for screening. We investigated the relationship between CLint, app in rat liver microsomes and CLb after intravenous administration in rats in eight projects. No relationship between these two parameters was found across all of the projects examined. However, there was a certain relationship in the same core structure of six projects, but not in the other two projects. The poor correlation in the projects was improved by considering serum protein binding or microsomal binding in the estimation of in vitro clearances. Although the binding assay was labor intensive, unlike metabolic screening, the introduction of the equilibrium dialysis method using a 96-well format increased the throughput. Optimization of metabolic stability was conducted on the basis of the structure-metabolic stability relationship (SMR) in one of the projects, showing a good correlation without the binding factors. The replacement of the piperazine with a homopiperazine moiety improved metabolic stability in the rat and human liver microsomes. The compound also showed a desirable in vivo pharmacokinetic profile in rats, suggesting that the SMR study on the confirmed in vitro and in vivo correlation is essential to the optimization.
Pharmacokinetic and metabolic screening plays an important role in the optimization of a lead compound in drug discovery. Since those screening methods are time-consuming and labor intensive, in silico models would be effective to select compounds and guide derivatization prior to the screening. We investigated in silico models for permeability in Caco-2 cells, brain distribution and cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition using molecular weight, lipophilicity (clog D7.4), polar surface area (PSA), and number of rotatable bonds (RB). A variety of test compounds was selected from different Caco-2 assay projects. The permeability determined exhibited a good correlation with a combination of PSA and clog D7.4 rather than with PSA alone. In the brain distribution, PSA, in addition to lipophilicity, was one of the determinant parameters, and compounds were significantly distributed to the brain in rats with the decrease in the PSA value. When this approach was adapted to CYP1A2 inhibition in the fluorometric assay, the inhibitory potential for two plane core structures was successfully predicted by utilizing number of RB, PSA, and clog D7.4. In particular, an increase in the number of RB weakened the inhibitory potential due to a loss of the plane structures. These results suggest that the PSA and RB are key parameters to design chemical structures in terms of the improvement of both membrane permeability in the brain and gastrointestine and CYP1A2 inhibition, respectively.
It is known that polyethyleneglycol (PEG) modification of the liposome surface leads to the formation of a fixed aqueous layer around the liposomes due to interaction between the PEG polymer and water molecules, which prevents the attraction of opsonins. When a combination of PEG-distearolyglycerol (PEG-DSG) whose characteristics are remarkably different is used, interaction between molecules occurs, leading to increased fixed aqueous layer thickness (FALT). From this speculation, we studied the effect of both modification of PEG900-DSG and PEG2000-DSG modified liposome on FALT, cell uptake and biodistribution. The FALT of mixed PEG modified liposome increased, compared to that of each single PEG modified liposome. In this mixed modification, maximum FALT was shown at liposome modified by added PEG-2000:PEG-900=2:1. This most suitable additional ratio was equal to actual incorporated ratio. On the other hand, cell uptake of mixed modified liposome containing doxorubicin (DOX) was similar with that of PEG2000 modified liposome. Furthermore, mixed PEG modification of liposome was tendency to increase cytotoxicity, compared to that of other modifications. After DOX contained liposome treatment, DOX distribution in the tumor and antitumor activity of DOX increase by mixed PEG modification. In conclusion, it was suggested that mixed PEG liposome (PEG-2000:PEG-900=2:1) was useful for cancer chemotherapy.
A survey was conducted to examine what the public expects of pharmacists. We created 26 questions based on 26 different situations that patients encounter at pharmacies in order to assess patient satisfaction/dissatisfaction. Some questions were designed to compare pairs of symmetrical situations. The survey was carried out in February and March 2001. The surveys were conducted with patients and/or patients' relatives who brought their prescriptions to pharmacies and with employees of pharmaceutical companies and their family members. A factor analysis extracted two factors among the 26 variables, the first being patient dissatisfaction and the second being patient satisfaction. However, factor loadings for some paired situations were not necessarily symmetrical and thus the absolute values of the scores were not equal. The results suggest that satisfaction on one side does not entail dissatisfaction on the other side and thus satisfaction and dissatisfaction can be examined as separate and distinct entities. Based on these results, we classified pharmaceutical services into two types. The first type is referred to as instrumental service. In this situation patients do not feel great satisfaction even if such service is provided. However, they feel great dissatisfaction if the service is not provided. The second type is referred to as expressive service. These patients feel some satisfaction if such service is provided, however, they do not feel a fatal dissatisfaction if the service is not provided. Our research documents that when examining data based on the assumption that there is a different dimensionality for patient satisfaction and dissatisfaction, it is possible to gain insights into new aspects of pharmaceutical services that are otherwise impossible to assess.