Cisplatin, a simple inorganic compound, has been one of the leading antitumor drugs for near 30 years. However, cisplatin has several drawbacks such as toxicity and drug resistance. Therefore, much attention has been focused on the development of new platinum complexes with improved pharmacological properties and a broader spectrum of activity to tumors. The recent advance of research on the molecular mechanisms of drug action and the cellular mechanisms of the emergence of resistance to cisplatin assists the rational design of new classes of platinum antitumor drugs, though details of both mechanisms still remain elusive. Information on DNA binding mode of platinum complexes, recognition and repair of DNA damage is instructive. Since several not cis isomers but trans isomers and not neutral complexes but cation complexes have been found active in vitro and in vivo, the early empirical structure-activity relationships of cisplatin analogues should be reevaluated. The hypothesis that platinum complexes which bind to DNA in a different manner will have different pharmacological properties has been tested, and now cationic multi-nuclear complexes and even trans-platinum complexes comprise unique classes of antitumor platinum-based agents with chemical and biological properties different from cisplatin. These new type platinum complexes are often effective to acquired cisplatin resistant tumor cells. In conclusion, the following complexes appear to offer great potential as new antitumor agents: (1) Complexes with distinctively different DNA interaction modes from cisplatin, which may circumvent intrinsic and acquired resistance to cisplatin through eluding the vigilance of DNA repair systems and (2) complexes with different tissue distribution or mechanisms of membrane transport which may exhibit a different spectrum of activity.
The number of patients suffered from diabetes mellitus has increased over the decades probably because of both lifestyle- and diet-changes. There are two types of diabetes mellitus. Type 1 diabetes mellitus is due to the autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic B cells, which results in absolute insulin deficiency, thus the patients require insulin injections. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is due to the insulin resistance and abnormal insulin secretion, thus the patients require exercise, diet control and/or oral hypoglycemic medicines. Each treatment, however, has some problems involving physical and mental burden, and formation of self-antibodies for insulin injections, and the severe side effects and discontinuation of insulin synthesis in the pancreas for hypoglycemic medicines. To overcome these important problems and find the replacements for the insulin injections and synthetic medicines, we attempted to develop new antidiabetic metallocomplexes with novel structures and mechanisms. In 1990, we first presented orally active vanadyl (+4 oxidation state of oxo-vanadium) complexes including vanadyl-cysteine methyl ester complex, which normalized hyperglycemia in the streptozocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats. Based on these findings, we have developed a wide variety of vanadyl complexes with different coordination environments around vanadyl ion. Following the study, we also challenged to develop orally active zinc complexes since 2002. This review focuses on our recent development of vanadyl and zinc complexes for anti-diabetic and anti-metabolic syndromes, together with the propose for the possible action mechanism of these complexes in adipocytes.
The clinical use of radioactivity centered upon diagnosis and therapy constitutes one of the greatest advances in non-invasive medicine. This medical field is called nuclear medicine. The nuclides of metallic elements abound in radionuclides used in nuclear medicine. For the diagnostic application, pure gamma ray-emitting short-lived radionuclides, which possess low gamma energy emission, are useful due to high permeability in the body, and radiometals such as 99mTc, 201Tl, 67Ga and 111In have received great attention for diagnostic applications. Another clinical application of radionuclides is the therapeutic field. Since therapeutic nuclear medicine involving the use of internally administered radionuclides bases on the damage of radiation from the radionuclide to the target component in the cell, beta particle emitters, which provide high radiation dose, are useful for this purpose. Some compounds labeled with metallic radionuclides such as 90Y, 89,90Sr, 186,188Re and 67Cu have received attention for therapy. These metallic radionuclides have received the most attention due not only to their nuclear physical characteristics, but also to their inherent capacity to coordinate with a great variety of ligands. This great versatility allows the rational design of radiometallic compounds that show high and specific localization in a target tissue, an essential requirement for nuclear medical use. This paper describe some examples of successful drug designing using radiometallic compounds for nuclear medicine. Better knowledge of physiology and a more rational use of bioinorganic chemical principles will contribute to the development of new radiometallic compounds for targeted diagnosis and therapy.
Zinc is an essential trace element and serves as the active center of approximately 300 enzymes. Therefore, zinc deficiency may be associated with a variety of clinical features such as hypogeusia, hyposmia, growth retardation, dermatitis, alopecia, gonadal hypofunction, abnormal pregnancy, susceptibility to infections, delayed wound healing, impaired glucose tolerance, and increased carcinogenesis. Zinc deficiency was reported to be on the increase in the Nagano Study conducted from 2003 to 2005. Zinc therapy is classified into two categories, zinc-supplementary and -specific treatments. Ordinarily, zinc-supplementary therapy is carried out for the symptoms and diseases caused by zinc deficiency. On the other hand, zinc-specific therapy is applied to obtain copper- and iron-chelating, antifibrotic, and antidiabetic effects. The availability of zinc-specific therapy is now confirmed in humans and animals. Hereafter, the safety of zinc therapy needs to be examined further.
Nuclear receptors function as ligand-inducible transcription factors that regulate various physiological functions such as development, reproduction, and metabolism. Dysregulation of the metabolism of cholesterol, triglyceride, and glucose leads to the metabolic syndrome including type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. Studies of nuclear receptors promise to provide discoveries of therapeutic agents against the metabolic syndrome. Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily and is activated by bile acids. FXR regulates the metabolism of not only bile acid but also cholesterol, lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose, and is considered a potential therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome because of these functions. Nuclear receptors have two regions for transactivation, a constitutive activation function (AF-1) and a ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2). AF-1 and AF-2 seem to require interactions with coactivators for the activation function and both work synergistically to give full transactivation of nuclear receptors. However, coactivators for AF-1 activity are poorly understood, whereas coactivators required for AF-2 activity have been well studied. To understand the molecular mechanism of AF-1 in FXR, we isolated proteins associated with AF-1 by GST pull-down assay using the N-terminal region of FXR and nuclear extracts from HeLa cells. This review focuses on the roles of FXR and our new findings regarding FXR-associated factors.
[Objectives] Pitavastatin is the first totally synthetic HMG-Co A reductase inhibitor in Japan that significantly reduces LDL cholesterol while raising HDL cholesterol. Clinical trial showed that pitavastatin has potent effects for LDL cholesterol lowering and is expected effectively to prevent atherosclerosis. To clarify the mechanism of reduction of atherosclerosis by pitavastatin, we examined the effect of pitavastatin on foam cell formation of RAW264.7 macrophages. [Methods & Results] Macrophages were cultured with pitavastatin for 24 h and exposed to oxidized LDL with pitavastatin for 3 days. Pitavastatin decreased the cellular cholesteryl ester content in a dose-dependent manner, and this effect was not via inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase because the 3-30 nM pitavastatin did not inhibit [14C]cholesterol synthesis from [14C]acetic acid and the effect was not influenced by addition of mevalonic acid. Pitavastatin increased neutral cholesterol esterase (NCEase) activity and did not affect ACAT activity, and decreased the expression of CD36 and ABCA1 mRNA. The mechanism of the increase of NCEase activity was that pitavastatin directly modified the substrate state, which was cholesterol oleate emulsified with lecithin. [Conclusion] Clinical blood concentrations of pitavastatin prevent foam cell formation of RAW macrophages by oxidized LDL, and this was not via inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, and modify substrate condition.
Proteoglycans are macromolecules comprising a core protein and one or more glycosaminoglycan side chains. The macromolecules particularly derived from vascular smooth muscle cells accumulate in atherosclerotic vascular wall and are involved in the progression of vascular lesions. However, the functions of proteoglycans depend on the type of core proteins and microstructure of glycosaminoglycan chains, suggesting importance of the regulation of proteoglycan synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. Although the regulation of glycosaminoglycan chain formation is not clear, core protein synthesis is regulated by growth factors/cytokines, mechanical strain, coagulation factors, and other factors. Recently, we found that adiponectin, an adipose-specific plasma protein that exhibits antiatherogenic activities, regulates proteoglycan synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells.
When the arterial wall thickens and blood-diffusion capacity is low in atherosclerotic lesions, hypoxia is a key factor for the development of atherosclerosis. Under hypoxic conditions, >100 genes, including those encoding many growth factors, are known to be induced by a transcriptional factor, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). In this study, to examine whether HIF-1α-dependent induction of growth factors is associated with the proliferation and migration of vascular cells in atherosclerotic lesions, we studied the role of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), which is induced by hypoxia, in the pathogenesis and progression of atherosclerosis in human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs). Under hypoxic conditions, expression of HIF-1α increased time-dependently in human CASMCs with a concomitant increase in the proliferation and migration of cells. Under these conditions, the mRNA and protein levels of TSP-1 and the mRNA level of TSP-1 receptor, integrin β3, were also enhanced. Neutralizing antibody against TSP-1 reduced hypoxia-induced migration, but not proliferation. Similarly, RGD peptide, which binds to integrin β3, inhibited cell migration under hypoxia. In HIF-1α-knockdown CASMCs, in which expression of HIF-1α and TSP-1 mRNA and proteins is suppressed, hypoxia-induced migration was markedly reduced. In conclusion, hypoxia in atherosclerotic lesions induces TSP-1, which plays important roles in acceleration of the migration of human CASMCs and the progression of atherosclerosis.
Mönckeberg-type arteriosclerosis occurs as a complication in diabetic, uremic patients and in postmenoposal women. It has been shown that arterial calcification generates loss of elasticity in tunica media. We have already reported that the expression of tropoelastin (TE), the precursor protein of elastin, is suppressed by arterial calcification, although no changes of mRNA expression of the other elastic fiber components, such as fibrillins, was observed. We examined the effects of bisphosphonates, known as anti-osteoporotic drugs, in inorganic phosphate (Pi)-induced calcified bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) (in vitro arterial calcification model). Treatment with the bisphosphonate risedronate, significantly inhibited calcium deposition in the arterial calcification model. Risedronate also inhibited suppression of TE mRNA expression and the progression of osteopontin (OPN) and core binding factor-α1 (Cbfa1), an osteogenic transcription factor, by BASMCs calcification. Basically, bisphosphonates could inhibit phenotypic transition such as SMC to osteoblast-like cell. Inhibitory effects of bisphosphonates were also shown in female Sprague-Dawley rats with calcinosis induced by administration of an over-dose of vitamin D2 (in vivo arterial calcification model). It is known that arterial calcification is accelerated by oxidative low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL). Therefore we examined the effects of 7-ketocholesterol (7kc), a component of oxLDL, on in vitro arterial calcification. Thereupon, it was revealed that 7kc drastically accelerated Pi-induced calcification, and risedronate completely restored the calcification and mRNA expression accelerated by 7kc.
Signs characteristic of opiate withdrawal symptoms can be precipitated by an opiate antagonist after short-term infusion or even a single dose of an opiate both in humans and in animals. This phenomenon has been referred to as acute dependence. In contrast to extensive studies on chronic dependence, less is known about the neural mechanisms mediating acute dependence. It will benefit the development of appropriate therapies to facilitate opiate abstinence and reduced craving to better understand the mechanisms underlying acute opiate dependence and to determine whether there are dissociation and similarity between the early and fully developed stages of dependence. In the present study, we examined the influence of c-Fos expression in the amygdala in acquisition of conditioned place aversion (CPA) induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from a single morphine exposure 24 h earlier. The effect of microinjection into the central amygdaloid nucleus (CeA) of various kinds of glutamatergic neurotransmission inhibitors was also investigated. Findings showed that CeA displayed significant increase in c-Fos expression in the acquisition of CPA. Furthermore, CPA was attenuated significantly and dose-dependently by microinjection into CeA of all glutamatergic neurotransmission inhibitors (NMDA receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801), AMPA receptor antagonist 1-(4-aminophenyl)4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride (GYKI52466), metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonist (±)-α-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG), and glutamate release inhibitor riluzole). These findings suggest that CeA involves the acquisition of CPA induced by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from a single morphine exposure, and the function of the glutamatergic system projected from the amygdala to nucleus accumbens plays a facilitative role in formation of morphine dependence.
Recent findings have increasingly shown that sleep patterns are significantly influenced by psychological stress, such as social defeat, novelty stress, contextual fear stress, and psychological stress induced by the communication box. However, the exact association between psychological stress and sleep is still poorly understood. Therefore, in the present paper we will review related work based on our recent investigations. We have previously reported that total rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, but not non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep that is enhanced by psychological stress induced by the communication box in rats (Cui et al., 2007). In past decades strong evidence showed that neurotransmitters play a key role in the variations of the sleep patterns, such as acetylcholine, GABA and others. In addition to neurotransmitters, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is another important factor which influences sleep patterns. Therefore, this review will focus on the involvement of the neurotransmitters and the HPA axis in the changes of sleep patterns in response to psychological stress.
Generation of neural precursors persists throughout life in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus (DG) subgranular zone (SGZ) in rodent and human brains. In addition, newborn granule cells in the hippocampal DG are important for learning and memory formation. Brain injuries such as seizures or trauma could trigger endogenous programs for adult neurogenesis. Although brain ischemia also increases proliferation of neural progenitor cells in SVZ and SGZ, most neural progenitor cells are dead within 2 weeks after brain ischemia. In addition, there is no therapeutic agent to promote neurogenesis in the adult brain following brain injury. Here we found that intraperitoneal administrations of vanadium compounds, a stimulator of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) pathways markedly enhances brain ischemia-induced neurogenesis. Thus, vanadium compounds are potential therapeutic agent to enhance ischemia-induced neurogenesis through PI3K/Akt and ERK activation.
Recent clinical studies demonstrated that transient postprandial hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia may contribute to the development of hypertension. Therefore, we investigated influence of acute hyperglycemia and/or hyperinsulinemia induced by glucose or insulin infusion on neuronal and humoral control of vascular tone in rats. Euglycemic male Wistar rats were pithed under anesthesia and arterial blood pressure was measured. Changes in vascular responses to spinal cord stimulation (SCS) and intravenous bolus injections of noradrenaline, angiotensin II, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were studied by infusing various concentration of glucose or insulin. Continuous glucose infusion, which increased both blood glucose and serum insulin levels, significantly augmented adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses to SCS without affecting injection of pressor responses to noradrenaline or angiotensin II. In pithed rats with artificially increased blood pressure and blockade of autonomic outflow, glucose infusion attenuated CGRPergic nerve-depressor responses to SCS without affecting depressor responses to injection of CGRP, acetylcholine or SNP. In pithed rats treated with octreotide, which increased blood glucose without increasing serum insulin levels, glucose infusion caused only significant augmentation of adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses. Combined infusion of insulin and glucose, which resulted in increased serum insulin levels with euglycemic, significantly augmented adrenergic nerve-mediated pressor responses and attenuated CGRPergic nerve-mediated depressor responses. The present results suggest that acute hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia increases adrenergic nerve-mediated vasoconstriction, which is partly associated with the blunted CGRPergic nerve function, and that plasma insulin concentration associated with hyperglycemia may be responsible for alteration of neuronal vascular regulation.
Reaction rates and selectivities can be critically affected by the reaction field. Using a diverse set of reagents and reaction systems, the author reviews a variety of ways to control the reaction field. In the first example, we discuss 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride (DMT-MM), which serves as an exceptionally convenient reagent for dehydrocondensation. In particular, formation of carboxamide by DMT-MM was found to take place even if water or alcohol were used as a reaction medium. Thus, chemical modification of carboxyl groups and/or amino groups of highly polar substrates, such as amino acid derivatives, peptides, glyco-chains, and nucleotides, can be simply effected by mixing them with DMT-MM in aqueous or alcoholic solvents. The author also found that a tertiary amine catalyzes the activation step of carboxylic acid with 2-chloro-4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazine (CDMT) via in situ generation of coupling reagents. Proceeding further in this direction, we determined that artificial acyltransferase and cyclotransferase could be formed by conjugation of a tertiary amine catalyst to host-molecules to mimic a substrate binding site. Finally, the micellar interface, well known for promoting hydrolysis, clearly provides a superior reaction field for dehydrocondensation. When a 1,3,5-triazine-type amphiphilic dehydrocondensing agent was used, bimolecular dehydrocondensation between amphiphilic carboxylate and amines was highly accelerated (2000-fold) in a micellar system. Spontaneous membrane fusion was induced by adoption of the micellar reaction in the ceramide synthesis at the surface of membranes. All together, these diverse findings strongly support the central importance of the reaction field in controlling reaction rates and selectivity.
Cefpodoxime proxetil (CP) is a prodrug with poor oral bioavailability because of its metabolism to Cefpodoxime acid (CA) in luminal contents and intestinal epithelial cells. In the present investigation, regional variability in different segments of the gastrointestinal tract vis-à-vis solubility and metabolism were investigated, and the results indicated potential for a gastro retentive (GR) dosage form. Suitability of a GR dosage from for CP and finally in vivo efficacy were investigated. Thereafter, an effervescent floating GR dosage form was developed for CP and evaluated in rats. The GR dosage form improved the oral bioavailability of CP significantly by about 75%, hence providing a proof-of-concept. The Tmax value increased to 1.43±0.24 h from 0.91±0.23 h of pure drug, while Cmax values of 4735±802 ng/ml and 3094±567 ng/ml were obtained for the GR dosage form and pure drug respectively.
Occasionally, pain control with the fentanyl patch may lead to overdose at an initial dose of 2.5 mg, as well as during dose increase from 2.5 to 5.0 mg. Respiratory depression and other adverse drug reactions associated with fentanyl overdose have been observed in several of our patients. We developed a procedure for applying one-half of the fentanyl patch formulations and evaluated the new mode of application by examining the fentanyl concentration in 32 patients with cancer-related pain who had been using the fentanyl patch for pain control. While some patients were treated with the full-sized 2.5-, 5.0-, or 7.5-mg formulations, others were treated with the half-sized 2.5-mg formulation. The fentanyl patch was equally divided by drawing a line on the side on which the product name and dose were written. Tegaderm was applied to the patient's skin, and after detaching from the protective liner, half of the patch was applied to overlap Tegaderm along the line and the other half applied directly to the skin. Blood samples were collected 48-72 h after patch application. The mean serum concentration of fentanyl given in the half-sized 2.5-mg formulation was 0.286 ng/ml, which was approximately one-half of the concentration of the full-sized 2.5-mg formulation, 0.544 ng/ml. Therefore the 2.5-mg fentanyl patch, applied using the one-half procedure we developed, is clinically useful.
No previous reports have compared clarithromycin (CAM), rifampicin (RFP) and ethambutol (EB) containing regimens with and without an aminoglycoside antibiotic kanamycin (KM) for the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium aviumcomplex (MAC) disease. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the clinical efficacy of KM using data from 40 patients who received combined chemotherapy for MAC disease with or without KM in the National Hospital Organization Tokyo Hospital from July, 1999 to December, 2005. All patients were administered CAM, RFP and EB for 6 to 12 months, and 20 of the 40 simultaneously received combined chemotherapy with KM. The difference in the backgrounds of the groups was not statistically significant. The improvement rates of clinical symptoms and radiological findings were significantly higher in the KM-treated group than in the KM-untreated group (75% versus 35% and 80% versus 25%). Moreover, the sputum relapse rate was significantly lower in the KM-treated group (18% versus 75%). However, there were no significant differences in the sputum conversion rate (55% with KM versus 40% without KM). As for adverse reactions, there were no significant differences between the groups. Furthermore, we examined time-kill kinetics of KM and streptomycin (SM) against a clinical isolate of M. avium.Most M. aviumwas killed by KM and SM at concentrations higher than MIC (8 μg/ml), and concentration- and time-dependent killing by KM and SM were almost identical. These observations indicate that KM is effective for treatment of patients with MAC disease.
Bioactive compounds that may control the specific differentiation from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into cardiac-like cells have been screened from herbal medicines. Among seven preparations, Panax ginseng was found to promote the differentiation into beating cells and to sustain their beating for longer than the control. Active compounds were found in its water-soluble fraction. Although they were not isolated, their candidates were surveyed in 42 compounds selected from the database of P. ginseng. Finally we found that vitamin B12 (VB12) and methionine were active. VB12 accelerated the differentiation into beating cells and made the beating rate constantly 100%. Moreover, VB12 was effective in the recovery of beating that was inhibited by spermine action. The mechanism of action of VB12 is discussed in termo of the relevance of intercellular electrical signal transduction.
The present study was designed to investigate the possible role of free radicals in cardioprotective effects of ischemic, pharmacological and remote preconditioning. Isolated rat heart was perfused on Langendorff apparatus with Kreb's Henseleit solution and subjected to 30 min global ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. To assess myocardial injury, coronary effluent was analyzed for lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activity. Myocardial infarct size was estimated using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining. Ischemic preconditioning, pharmacological preconditioning (angiotensin II; H2O2), remote aortic preconditioning markedly attenuated I/R induced increase in lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase release and myocardial infarct size. Administration of N-Acetyl Cysteine (NAC), in vitro, during ischemic and pharmacological, and in vivo during remote preconditioning attenuated the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning. On the basis of these results, it may be concluded that sub threshold generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) may activate redox signaling which may be responsible for preconditioning induced cardioprotection.
The purpose of this study was to assess the bitterness intensity and pH of the solutions of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAM-DS), carbocisteine preparation (CC), and the concomitant use of both drugs. We conducted 6 types of human gustatory sensation tests with 6 healthy male volunteers. As a result, there was almost no difference in the bitterness intensity of CAM-DS between the branded (the latest and former preparations) and the generic formulations. The bitterness intensity of CAM-DS (the latest and former preparations of the branded as well as the generic formulations) was almost equally enhanced by mixing it with either the branded CC-DS or the branded and the generic carbocisteine granule (CC-Gr). On this occasion, the enhancing the bitterness of the branded CAM-DS (latest and former preparation) was nearly avoided safely by dosage form's changing CC-DS or CC-Gr to the branded CC-Sy. However, unlike the branded CC-Sy, some generic CC-Sy failed to suppress the bitterness. Furthermore, it was proven that some generic CAM-DS were shown to exhibit bitterness when mixed with even branded CC-Sy. In conclusion, it should be noted that the extent of bitterness of the mixture of CAM-DS and CC highly varies among the generic formulations.
A simple and rapid method for screening of drugs in health foods using 2-dimensional TLC was established. The development systems were: (1) ethyl acetate/methanol/28% ammonia (85:10:5), (2) cyclohexane/toluene/diethyl amine (65:25:10), (3) methanol and (4) ethyl acetate/methanol/25% ammonia (85:10:5). System (1) and (2) were run as 2-dimensional high-performance TLC, and System (3) and (4) were run as 2-dimensional conventional TLC. Sample extracted with methanol from health foods was applied to standardized two 2-dimensinal TLCs and 4 Rf values obtained from 4 development systems were compared with reference Rf values which were measured previously using standard materials. The repeatability of reference Rf values were secured by standardizing development conditions and pattern of 4 Rf values was specific for 80 drugs. Moreover, using 2-dimensinal TLC enable to assign 4 Rf values to unknown substance without influence of matrix from health foods, so it was possible to determine drugs comparing 4 Rf values. This method could be applied as first screening test for prevention of health crisis occurred by drugs added to health foods illegally.