In recent years, highly antimicrobial properties of cedar heartwood essential oil against the wood-rotting fungi and pathogenic fungi have been reported in several papers. Antimicrobial properties against oral bacteria by hinokitiol contained in Thujopsis have been also extensively studied. The relation of naturally derived components and human immune system has been studied in some previous papers. In the present study, we focused on Japanese cedar, which has the widest artificial afforestation site in the country among various tree species. Extract oil was obtained from mixture of sapwood and heartwood of about 40-year cedar grown in Oguni, Kumamoto, Japan. We examined the influence of extract components from Japanese cedar woods on the expression of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) during heating, and on the micronucleus formation induced by the treatment of bleomycin as a DNA damaging agent. Cell lines used in this study were human fetal glial cells (SVGp12) and human glioma cells (MO54). Remarkable suppression of the Hsp70 expression induced by heating at 43℃ was detected by the treatment of cedar extract in both SVGp12 and MO54 cells. We also found that cedar extract had an inhibitory tendency to reduce the micronucleus formation induced by bleomycin. From these results, the extract components from Japanese cedar woods would have an inhibitory effect of the stress response as a suppression of the heat-induced Hsp70 expression, and might have a reductive effect on carcinogenicity.
It has been recommended that active learning methods, such as team-based learning (TBL) and problem-based learning (PBL), be introduced into university classes by the Central Council for Education. As such, for the past 3 years, we have implemented TBL in a medical therapeutics course for 4-year students. Based upon our experience, TBL is characterized as follows: TBL needs fewer teachers than PBL to conduct a TBL module. TBL enables both students and teachers to recognize and confirm the learning results from preparation and reviewing. TBL grows students’ responsibility for themselves and their teams, and likely facilitates learning activities through peer assessment.
In Japan, a pharmacy or drug store license is required for selling pharmaceutical products. However, civilians without a pharmacy or drug store license are displaying pharmaceutical products for sale on a flea market application, which is illegal dealing. This study discussed the modality for implementing countermeasures for the illicit selling of pharmaceutical products. We extracted pharmaceutical products displayed for sale on three flea market applications (Mercari, Rakuma, Fril) on one day. One hundred and eighty-one pharmaceutical products were displayed (49 on Mercari, 86 on Rakuma, and 46 on Fril). There were 6.1% (11/181) domestically prescribed drugs, 69.1% (125/181) domestic over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, 23.8% (43/181) foreign-made prescribed drugs, and 1.1% (2/181) foreign-made OTC drugs. The seller could display the product for sale without confirming whether it is prohibited. We alerted the service providers of this illicit selling at flea markets at three different instances. The pharmaceutical product displays were deleted by the service providers at a rate of 55.1% (27/49) for Mercari and 51.2% (44/86) for Rakuma. The average number of drugs that were displayed for sale by each seller was 1.4 and the average number of total products that were displayed for sale by each seller was 100. The seller could have unintentionally displayed the pharmaceutical products for sale, without the knowledge that it is illegal. The service providers of flea market applications should create mechanisms to alert the sellers that displaying pharmaceutical products for sale is an illicit act and regulate these violations.
The adsorption of active pharmaceutical ingredients on the surface of medical devices such as polyvinl chloride, ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer and glass often prevent the acuurate dose of drug. At dispensing of pharmaceuticals, mètre glass (MG) has been widely used for dispensing syrup. When measuring the viscous syrup, it often takes long time to dispense the accurate volume due to their adhesiveness on the glass surface. In this study, we investigate the adhesion of various syrups to MG made with uncoated glass or glass with a strongly hydrophobic silicone or fluorinated coating in terms of the following formulation parameters: viscosity, surface tension, contact angle, and surface free energy. The contact angles for syrups on the coated glass surfaces were significantly higher than those on the uncoated glass surface. In addition, the relationship between surface tension and contact angle was examined. We found that the contact angle was independent of surface tension for the uncoated glass, while it increased with increasing surface tension for the coated glasses. These results can be explained as follows: the silicone or fluorinated coatings inhibit the hydrogen bonding that usually takes place between water and silanol and siloxane groups at glass surfaces. The coatings reduced the surface free energy and increased the hydrophobicity of the glass, reduced its wettability by the syrups, and thus reduced the adhesion loss for the syrups. It was considered that as for the hydrophobic action, properties of matter of sample influence the coated device by coating in order that it is reinforced.
In January 2017, counterfeits of the hepatitis C drug 'HARVONI® Combination Tablets' (HARVONI®) were found at a pharmacy chain through unlicensed suppliers in Japan. A total of five lots of counterfeit HARVONI® (samples 1-5) bottles were found, and the ingredients of the bottles were all in tablet form. Among them, two differently shaped tablets were present in two of the bottles (categorized as samples 2A, 2B, 4A, and 4B). We analyzed the total of seven samples by high-resolution LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR. In samples 2A, 3 and 4B, sofosbuvir, the active component of another hepatitis C drug, SOVARDI® Tablets 400 mg (SOVARDI®), was detected. In sample 4A, sofosbuvir and ledipasvir, the active components of HARVONI®, were found. A direct comparison of the four samples and genuine products showed that three samples (2A, 3, 4B) are apparently SOVARDI® and that sample 2A is HARVONI®. In samples 1 and 5, several vitamins but none of the active compounds usually found in HARVONI® (i.e., sofosbuvir and ledipasvir) were detected. Our additional investigation indicates that these two samples are likely to be a commercial vitamin supplement distributed in Japan. Sample 2B, looked entirely different from HARVONI® and contained several herbal constitutents (such as ephedrine and glycyrrhizin) that are used in Japanese Kampo formulations. A further analysis indicated that sample 2B is likely to be a Kampo extract tablet of Shoseiryuto which is distributed in Japan. Considering this case, it is important to be vigilant to prevent a recurrence of distribution of counterfeit drugs.
August 28, 2017 There had been a service stop from Aug 28‚ 2017‚ 1:50 to Aug 28‚ 2017‚ 10:08(JST) (Aug 27‚ 2017‚ 16:50 to Aug 28‚ 2017‚ 1:08(UTC)) . The service has been back to normal.We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.
July 31, 2017 Due to the end of the Yahoo!JAPAN OpenID service, My J-STAGE will end the support of the following sign-in services with OpenID on August 26, 2017: -Sign-in with Yahoo!JAPAN ID -Sign-in with livedoor ID * After that, please sign-in with My J-STAGE ID.
July 03, 2017 There had been a service stop from Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 8:06 to Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 19:12(JST) (Jul 1‚ 2017‚ 23:06 to Jul 2‚ 2017‚ 10:12(UTC)) . The service has been back to normal.We apologize for any inconvenience this may cause you.
May 18, 2016 We have released “J-STAGE BETA site”.
May 01, 2015 Please note the "spoofing mail" that pretends to be J-STAGE.