Diphenhydramine(DP), an antihistaminic agent, may become colored and daker or more fluorescent during storage. Herein, we spectroscopically examined the causes of this phenomenon under various DP storage conditions and durations. The infrared vibration-rotation spectrum shows multiple Gauche (G )-type conformers with different intramolecular n→π* interaction strengths. The splitting pattern of the dimethylamino group protons in the 1H-NMR spectrum indicates that DP is mainly in the G-type with a small portion in the Trans(T)-type. The correlation between the red-shifted peak intensity in the UV·VIS absorbance spectrum and the coloring progression indicates a decreased intramolecular n→π* interaction of the G-type under elevated temperature during storage. Enhanced fluorescence detected in the Excitation·Fluorescence spectrum demonstrates G-type(quenching) to T-type(fluorescent) conformation conversion, which is due to activated internal rotation of the dimethylamino group under elevated storage temperature and electronic excitation in the phenyl groups under light irradiation during storage. A signal detected in the ESR spectrum corresponds to the G-type charge transfer (CT) structure wherein part of the nonbonding electron pair on the N atom is intramolecularly redistributed to the phenyl groups. The CT structure presents the G-type quenching characteristics, whereas weak CT bonding corresponds to coloring. The results indicate that the quenching G-type is converted to T-type by heat or light to become color faded and bright with enhanced fluorescence and that T-type is reverted to G-type after storage under cool and dark conditions or by vacuum distillation to lose fluorescence.
The scope of pharmaceutical education in Japan has been expanding, and with it an awareness of the importance of team medical care. However, pharmaceutical education still gives little attention to the psychosocial aspects of care, instead focusing on the structures and functions of drugs. In contrast, nursing education emphasizes the fact that medical care involves patients' family and significant others as much as the patients themselves, and thus nursing students are taught the basic needs and developmental stages of those people requiring care alongside their practical nursing skills. In this study, we examined the effect of incorporating certain aspects of introductory nursing education into pharmaceutical education on the self-efficacy of pharmaceutical students. We thus ran an introduction to nursing education course for fourth-year pharmaceutical students (n=86). After the course had finished, we surveyed students about the course. Approximately 94.2% of the students became more interested in team medical care and nearly all (98.8%) thought that what they had learned in the course would be useful in their career. The results indicated that the introduction to nursing education course offered students an opportunity to acquire different viewpoints on clinical situations because the lectures were given by a pharmacist with a nurse license and they were based on his clinical experiences. We therefore propose that more facets of introductory nursing education be incorporated into pharmaceutical education to help students develop their ability to consider patients' psychosocial backgrounds.