Background Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, a proinflammatory cytokine, is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid-derived metabolites resolvin (Rv) D1, RvE1, and maresin-1 (MaR1) have been reported as anti-inflammatory lipid mediators and are known as specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). In this study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of SPMs on TNF-α-induced responses in synovial fibroblasts.
Methods We investigated the effects of SPMs on gene expression and/or production of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), interleukin (IL)-6, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, which are involved in TNF-α-induced synovitis in RA or OA synovial fibroblasts, by quantitative real-time PCR. We also investigated the effects of SPMs on the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway by western blotting. Anti-inflammatory effects of SPMs were evaluated by applying SPMs to cultured synovial fibroblasts, followed by TNF-α stimulation.
Results The induction of COX-2, mPGES-1, IL-6, and MMP-3 by TNF-α in synovial fibroblasts was not suppressed by omega 3-derived SPMs regardless of their origin such as RA or OA. SPMs had no effect on lipid mediator receptor gene expression induce by TNF-α and did not inhibit the TNF-α-activated MAPK signaling pathway. The production of COX-2 and IL-6 protein was significantly decreased by p38 inhibitor.
Conclusion Despite reports on the anti-inflammatory effect of omega 3-derived SPMs, its anti-inflammatory effect on TNF-α-induced responses was not observed in synovial fibroblasts. The reason may be that SPMs have no suppressive effect on p38 activation, which plays an important role in the production of inflammatory cytokines in synovial fibroblasts.
Background The aim of this study is to compare the results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty and robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction.
Methods Between March 2008 and May 2019, the patients who underwent retroperitoneal laparoscopic or robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty in our institution were retrospectively reviewed.
Results Thirteen patients underwent laparoscopically, and 12 patients underwent robotic surgery. The significant difference was found in median operative time between laparoscopic group (296 minutes) and robotic group (199 minutes) (P = 0.001). The median time for drain removal in laparoscopic group was longer than robotic group (3 vs. 2 days, respectively, P = 0.029).
Conclusion Laparoscopic and robot-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty is safe and excellent success rates in patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. However, our experience study suggested that robotic surgery improves a total operative time, decreases drain removal time and less intraoperative blood loss than laparoscopic approach.
Background Epidemiological surveys in recent years have shown that the incidence of female lung adenocarcinomas has multiplied in both smoking and non-smoking populations. The cause of lung adenocarcinomas is still not clear. Protein post-translational modification is one of the causes of the development of cancer cells.
Methods Lung adenocarcinoma and paracancerous tissue samples were collected from female patients with no history of smoking. The differences in protein acetylation and succinylation of cancerous tissues and paracancerous tissues were analysed by LC-MS/MS with a TMT labelling method. We distinguished the differentially modified proteins and annotated these proteins in terms of Go annotation, protein domains, protein complex analysis and KEGG pathway analysis.
Results 972 acetylation sites on 556 proteins were identified, among which 875 Kac sites on 507 proteins were quantified, 2373 succinylation sites on 1205 proteins were identified, and 2205 Ksu sites on 1131 proteins were quantified. The acetylation levels of proteins, which contribute to DNA binding and gene expression regulation, were up-regulated. The proteins for which the succinylation levels were up-regulated were mainly involved in mitochondria carboxylic acid metabolism. We also identified simultaneously up-regulated or down-regulated acetylated and succinylated proteins and depicted their interaction network.
Conclusion This study provides insight into lung adenocarcinomas acetylation and succinylation profile alterations in carcinoma pathogenesis and provides a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinomas.
Background Burnout, due to extreme mental and physical fatigue, and emotional exhaustion, leads to decreased nursing quality and turnover. However, not all nurses are observed as burnouts in the same work environment, and resilience and related factors may have effects on the development of burnouts. Therefore, we conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the effects of resilience and related factors on the burnout in clinical nurses, Kagoshima, Japan.
Methods Data for this cross-sectional study involving nurses (n = 98) was collected using the following questionnaire surveys: the Bidimensional Resilience Scale, The Workplace Social Support Scale, and the Japanese version of the Pine’s Burnout Scale. Using burnout as a dependent variable, analyses were conducted using one-way analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis after adjusted for related factors.
Results The prevalence of burnouts was 19.6% on the mainland and 36.1% on remote island. Innate resilience, acquired resilience, workplace social support, and burnout showed no significant difference between nurses on the mainland and remote island. In the mainland participants, innate resilience (β = –0.492, P < 0.001) and acquired resilience (β = –0.325, P = 0.007) showed a negative association with burnout, and similar associations were observed innate resilience (β = –0.520, P = 0.004) and acquired resilience (β = –0.336, P = 0.057) in the remote island participants. For all participants, innate resilience (β = –0.443, P = 0.001) and workplace social support (β = –0.204, P = 0.031) showed a negative association with burnout, and turnover intention was positively associated (β = 0.025, P = 0.021).
Conclusion A negative association between burnout and innate resilience factors was observed in the mainland and remote island. Further evaluation of innate resilience is necessary for burnout prevention in clinical nurses.
Chronic active Epstein–Barr virus (CAEBV) infection is a rare disease, mainly affecting children, typically characterized by persistent infectious mononucleosis (IM)-like symptoms. We describe an adult case of CAEBV without IM-like symptoms, which was indistinguishable from autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). A 60-year-old woman with liver damage was diagnosed with AIH (International Diagnostic Score: 16 points). She had been treated with prednisolone for three years; however, her transaminases had never normalized. She was admitted for another liver biopsy due to repeated high fevers and worsening of her liver damage over two months. Her EBV-DNA copy number was 2.9 × 104 copies/μg DNA, and EBV-encoded small RNA1-positive lymphocytic infiltration was observed in both the present and previously collected (three years ago) liver tissue samples. This case implies that hepatic involvement in a CAEBV without IM-like symptoms is difficult to distinguish from AIH and may be misdiagnosed. In some steroid resistant AIH cases, evaluating for CAEBV may be valuable.
This report describes a rare case of brachial artery dissection associated with closed elbow dislocation caused by a snowboarding injury. After peripheral ischaemic findings in the right upper extremity were confirmed, urgent duplex-sonography was performed to diagnose the brachial artery injury. Urgent revascularisation surgery was promptly performed, and arterial dissection was diagnosed by intraoperative findings, in which the adventitia of the brachial artery was intact and the intima was disrupted. In this case, because there was no golden time window before undertaking urgent revascularisation surgery, duplex-sonography was very useful for making an emergency diagnosis. To diagnose arterial dissection, because the adventitia of the brachial artery is intact, it is necessary to perform arteriotomy to identify intimal disruption in the brachial artery. When diagnosing traumatic elbow dislocation, it is important to suspect arterial dissection.
Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a relatively rare disease that accounts for 5% to 10% of all urothelial carcinomas (UCs). Radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) with a bladder cuff is the current gold standard for the management of UTUC; however, endoscopic ablation is also an option for low-risk UTUC to preserve kidney function. Herein, we present two cases of solitary kidney with a right lower ureteral tumor. Both patients underwent left RNU in the past. An 82-year-old man with a right ureteral tumor whose histopathological examination revealed low-grade UC. Laser ablation was performed with ureteroscopy, and there was no recurrence for 7 years after treatment. A 67-year-old woman with a right lower ureteral tumor whose histopathological examination also revealed low-grade UC. Laser ablation was performed, and there was no recurrence for 5 years after the treatment. We closely followed-up our two patients after RNU. This allowed for early detection of tumor recurrence, after which we could perform laser ablation therapy.
Minimally invasive adrenalectomy is the preferred technique for managing adrenal tumors. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy is widely performed and covered by insurance in Japan, but robot-assisted adrenalectomy is not. To investigate the best forceps combinations for performing robot-assisted adrenalectomy safely, we performed robot-assisted adrenalectomy for two left and two right adrenal adenomas using different robotic forceps combinations (bipolar forceps, monopolar curved scissors, Vessel Sealer Extend, and SynchroSeal) for each case. Although we evaluated a small number of RAs, lower blood loss was observed in patients where the vessel sealing devices were used. The extent of dissection is small for adrenalectomy, and robotic bipolar vessel sealing tools may not be necessary, especially for the small adrenal tumors. However, considering the risk benefits, the combination of forceps with Vessel Sealer Extend (by the left arm) and monopolar curved scissors (by the right arm) will become one of the best forceps combinations for performing robot-assisted adrenalectomy safely.
As cadaver donor nephrectomy in kidney transplantation is performed in only a limited number of cases, few physicians are skilled in the surgical technique. We performed two cadaver donor nephrectomy sessions during cadaver surgical training. The first session was performed by a lecturer who was skilled in the technique, with physicians and nurses participating in order to learn the methodology. The second session was conducted only for physicians. The procedures undertaken were as follows: cannulation of the femoral artery and vein, skin incision and bowel ligation, cross-clamping of the aorta, diaphragmatic incision and inferior vena cava incision, dissection of the aorta and inferior vena cava, and nephrectomy. Although there were some differences from that normally observed in actual patient surgery, such as no bleeding and formalin fixation, some of the procedures were very useful in helping to better understand cadaver donor nephrectomy.