In total, 11 asymptomatic carriers who underwent nasal or oropharyngeal swab tests for SARS-CoV-2 after being in close contact with patients who developed symptomatic 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) were enrolled in this study. The chest multidetector computed tomography (CT) images of the enrolled patients were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The findings of the first chest CT were normal in 3 (27.3%) patients, 2 of whom were aged below 15 years. The lesions of 2 (18.2%) patients involved 1 lobe with unifocal presence. Subpleural lesions were observed in 7 (63.6%) patients. Ground glass opacity (GGO) was the most common sign observed in 7 (63.6%) patients. Crazy-paving pattern and consolidation were detected in 2 (18.2%) and 4 (36.4%) patients, respectively. Based on deep learning and quantitative analysis, the mean volume of intrapulmonary lesions in the first CT image was 85.73 ± 84.46 cm3. In patients with positive findings on CT images, the average interval between positive real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay and peak volume on CT images was 5.1 ± 3.1 days. In conclusion, typical CT findings can be detected in over 70% of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers. The initial presentation is typically GGO along the subpleural regions and bronchi, which absorbs in approximately 5 days.
Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) is one of the most prevalent zoonoses in Iran, especially in central and northeastern Iran. This research aimed to examine whether there were spatiotemporal clusters of ZCL cases, and if so, whether there were differences in clustering according to age, sex, area of residence, and occupation. Spatial analysis, including global and local spatial autocorrelations, inverse distance weighting, and space-time scan statistics, were used to determine potential clusters in the villages of Golestan from 2011–2016. Several spatially significant (p < 0.05) clusters were observed in the north and northeastern regions, and most persisted until the last year of the study period. Children (0–10 years) living in rural settings were more likely to have an infection than those living in other areas. Although the disease was centered in the northern regions, housekeepers, females, and patients aged 21–30 and 41–50 years were found to be the high-risk groups in the southern areas. The seasonal pattern indicated that the outbreak mainly began in late summer, peaked in October, and diminished in December. By exploring spatiotemporal variations of ZCL by sociodemographic information, this study was able to identify priority areas for decision-makers in healthcare and resource allocation.
Dengue virus (DENV) infection remains to be a serious health problem in Indonesia. Community-based dengue studies to determine circulating DENV serotypes based on the geography and season are limited owing to the expensive cost and significant effort required. Many patients with DENV infection are not hospitalized and many visit the hospital in the later phase of the disease. In this study, we performed active DENV surveillance in a community in Jakarta to study the circulating dengue serotypes; adult febrile patients with fever less than 48 hours were recruited. Disease severity was defined using the World Health Organization (WHO) 1997 guidelines. Rapid NS1 dengue antigen detection was used to screen patients with DENV in the community. Viral culture using the C6/36 cell line, an increased antibody titer on hemagglutination inhibition test and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, or detection of the viral genome on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm DENV infection. Of the 102 patients, 68 (66.7%) were confirmed to have DENV infection, with DENV-2 being the most dominant serotype, followed by DENV-3, DENV-1, and DENV-4, in concordance with several reports of mixed DENV infection. Interestingly, in terms of disease severity, although DENV-3 infection was not the predominant circulating serotype, infection with it tended to cause a more severe disease than infection with DENV-2.
Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are the most common diseases globally among children. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology of admission-requiring pediatric RTI cases and evaluate the effect of the pathogen type on the length of hospital stay (LOS) using the FilmArray® respiratory panel, a multiplex PCR test. The age-specific distribution and seasonality of viruses were investigated between March 26, 2018 and April 12, 2019. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of pathogen type and coinfection on LOS. Among 153 hospitalized RTI patients, respiratory syncytial virus was the leading cause of hospitalization in infants < 12 months of age (27.7%). Human metapneumovirus and parainfluenza virus were also major causes of hospitalization in patients aged 2–3 years (22.6% and 22.6%, respectively). In the multivariable linear regression model excluding rhinovirus/enterovirus, there was a significant association between viral coinfection and longer LOS (p = 0.012), while single viral infection of any type was not positively correlated with LOS. This study revealed the epidemiology of admission-requiring pediatric RTIs.
The disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, has rapidly spread worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 is usually detected via real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). However, the increase in specimen load in institutions/hospitals necessitates a simpler detection system. Here, we present an ultra-rapid, real-time RT-PCR assay for SARS-CoV-2 detection using PCR1100 device. Although PCR1100 tests only one specimen at a time, the amplification period is less than 20 min and the sensitivity and specificity match those of conventional real-time RT-PCR performed on large instruments. The method is potentially helpful when daily multiple SARS-CoV-2 testing is needed, for example to confirm virus-free status prior to patient discharge.
There was an epidemiological correlation in time and space between gonorrhea and genital chlamydia as well as between condyloma and genital herpes. There was, however, no correlation in other combinations, such as, gonorrhea and condyloma, genital herpes and chlamydia, etc. The annual incidence of gonorrhea and that of genital chlamydia were mono-phasic with a peak in 2005–2006. The annual incidence of condyloma and that of genital herpes were biphasic with the first distinct peak in 2004–2006 borne by the younger generation and the second broad peak by the older generation that experienced the first wave. The epidemiology of syphilis was entirely different from the above infections: the incidences of early, late, and asymptomatic syphilis started increasing around 2010, which was associated with a shift of patients’ peak age towards the younger generation.
Recent studies have indicated an association between gut microbiome composition and various disorders, including infectious diseases. The composition of the microbiome differs among ethnicities and countries, possibly resulting in diversified interactions between host immunity and the gut microbiome. Characterization of baseline microbiome composition in healthy people is an essential step for better understanding of the biological interactions associated with individual populations. However, data on the gut/fecal microbiome have not been accumulated for individuals in West Africa. In the present study, we examined the fecal microbiome composition in healthy adults in Ghana. Toward this, 16S rRNA gene libraries were prepared using bacterial fractions derived from 55 Ghanaian adults, which were then subjected to next-generation sequencing. The fecal microbiome of the Ghanaian adults was dominated by Firmicutes (Faecalibacterium, Subdoligranulum, and Ruminococcaceae UCG-014), Proteobacteria (Escherichia-Shigella and Klebsiella), and Bacteroidetes (Prevotella 9 and Bacteroides), consistent with previous observations in African cohorts. Further, our analysis revealed differences in microbiome composition and a lower diversity of the fecal microbiome in the Ghanaian cohort compared with those reported in non-African countries. This is the first study to describe substantial fecal microbiome data obtained using high-throughput metagenomic tools on samples derived from a cohort in Ghana. The data may provide a valuable basis for determining the association between the fecal microbiome and progression of various diseases in West African populations.
JC polyomavirus (JCPyV) causes progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system affecting immunocompromised patients. The study of PML-type JCPyV in vitro has been limited owing to the inefficient propagation of the virus in cultured cells. In this study, we carried out long-term culture of COS-7 cells (designated as COS-IMRb cells) transfected with PML-type M1-IMRb, an adapted viral DNA with a rearranged non-coding control region (NCCR). The JCPyV derived from COS-IMRb cells were characterized by analyzing the viral replication, amount of virus by hemagglutination (HA), production of viral protein 1 (VP1), and structure of the NCCR. HA assays indicated the presence of high amounts of PML-type JCPyV in COS-IMRb cells. Immunostaining showed only a small population of JCPyV carrying COS-IMRb cells to be VP1-positive. Sequencing analysis of the NCCR of JCPyV after long-term culture revealed that the NCCR of M1-IMRb was conserved in COS-IMRb cells without any point mutation. The JCPyV genomic DNA derived from a clone of COS-IMRb-3 cells was detected, via Southern blotting, as a single band of approximately 5.1 kbp without deletion. These findings suggest the potential of using COS-IMRb-3 cells as a useful tool for screening anti-JCPyV drugs.
This study aimed to analyze the clinical characteristics and potential predictors of disease severity in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data from 64 (37 male and 27 female) patients with COVID-19. Their mean age was 47.8 years; 43 (67.2%) cases were non-severe, 21 (32.8%) were severe, and 2 patients (3.1%) died. Age and serum ferritin levels were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity. There were no significant differences in the duration of severe illness or the number of days on high-level respiratory support between the low-dose and high-dose methylprednisolone groups. The mean number of days in hospital in the high-dose group was higher than that in the low-dose group. Repeated monitoring of ferritin, interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, lactic acid dehydrogenase, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during COVID-19 treatment may assist in the prediction of disease severity and evaluation of treatment effects.
Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic in China, elderly and multimorbid subjects showed a higher mortality rate. However, other factors could influence the mortality and spread of contagion, such as population density. Archival research based on the Italian data stratified by region was performed to quantify the association between population density, aging index, number of positive cases, number of deaths, case-fatality rate, and medical equipment (gloves, masks, and ventilators). Results showed a significant positive linear correlation between population density and cases, deaths, and case-fatality rate. No correlation with the aging index was observed. Furthermore, we found a significant positive correlation between the number of medical supplies and population density, cases, and deaths. However, the medical supplies did not show any correlation with the case-fatality rate. Thus, these findings suggest that the population density and the lack of medical equipment are key factors explaining the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in Italy.
Our report highlights a case of intracranial tuberculoma in an elderly woman with chronic discharging sinus. A 77-year-old woman had a mass lesion extending to the scalp through a chronic discharging sinus for 2 years with an intermittent, non-radiating, dull, low-grade headache. Based on our survey of central nervous system tuberculosis, this case is a rare event of documented intracranial tuberculoma with concomitant discharge of the scalp sinus similar to the periodic geyser eruptions in developing countries.
High-risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV) plays an important role in cervical cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of HPV genotypes in the region and to correlate it with liquid-based-cytology (LBC) and colposcopic biopsy results. Furthermore, the potential relationship between HPV infections and bacterial vaginosis (BV) was investigated. HPV genotypes were determined using real-time PCR. LBC, biopsies, and BV examinations were performed by the Pathology and Cytology.Consecutive cervical specimens of 409 women who underwent both cytology and HPV-DNA tests were included in the study. A total of 172 (42.1%) patients were positive for HPV-DNA; of these, 107 (26.2%) had hrHPV. The most common HPV genotypes were HPV 59, 16, 33, 52, and 51, at 16.6%, 15.9%, 13.4%, 13.4%, and 8.9%, respectively. Epithelial cell abnormality was detected in 11.5% of LBC test results. The genotypes of HPV 33, 56, 66, and 68 were found at a higher rate in patients with epithelial cell abnormalities than in those with no detected abnormalities. Bacterial vaginosis was found in 24 patients (5.9%). HPV-DNA positivity was observed to be statistically higher in patients with BV than in those without BV.
We analyzed the trends of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Tokyo and Osaka from January 25 to May 6, 2020. To analyze the trends and identify significant changes in them, we performed a joinpoint regression analysis. From the last week of March, the number of COVID-19 cases soared in Tokyo (β = 103.51) and Osaka (β = 28.07). During the 2nd and 3rd weeks of April, both Tokyo (β = 157.53) and Osaka (β = 60.96) experienced peak growth in COVID-19 cases. Since almost 14 days after the state of emergency declaration, the number of cases showed a containment trend in Osaka, but continued to increase at a concerning rate in Tokyo (β = 90.66).
We report on a hospitalized patient with 2019 novel coronavirus disease whose fecal samples tested negative 22 days after respiratory samples tested negative, highlighting that the duration of viral shedding is longer than that previously expected. Current clinical examinations for treatment and discharge standards are limited to respiratory samples. However, we believe that nucleic acid testing of both respiratory and fecal samples is necessary for discharging patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the potential of fecal-oral transmission or fecal-respiratory transmission via aerosols.
Five novel strains of Serratia fonticola that produce FONA, a minor extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), were isolated during routine surveillance of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae in imported chicken meat in Japan in 2017 and 2018. These strains exhibited a clear ESBL phenotype in susceptibility tests carried out in the presence of clavulanic acid; however, all strains tested negative in a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay used to detect TEM, SHV, and CTX-M β-lactamase genes. After identification of the bacterial species as S. fonticola, full length blaFONA genes were amplified and the DNA sequences were determined. The blaFONA genes from all 5 strains were different from those previously reported (blaFONA-1 to blaFONA-6); they clustered close to one another but were distinct from previously reported blaFONA genes in a phylogenic analysis based on amino acid sequences.
In the last decade, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been identified in livestock animals, such as swine, poultry, and veal calves, and has been termed livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA). LA-MRSA sequence type (ST) 398 strains can effectively infect and colonize humans, with subsequent human-to-human transmission in both community and hospital settings. Unlike other countries, LA-MRSA had not been reported in Japanese patients until 2019. However, we recently reported a case of intractable arthritis caused by an LA-MRSA CC398 (ST1232) clone, which is a single-locus variant of ST398, in a patient in Tokyo, Japan, with no animal contact (Nakaminami H, et al. Emerg Infect Dis. 2020; 26: 795-7.). Uniquely, the strain was positive for Panton-Valentine leukocidin. Here, we report the second such case in Japan. To prevent the dissemination of LA-MRSA in the Japanese community, the prevalence of the CC398 MRSA clone should be closely monitored in the future.