Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
Online ISSN : 1884-2836
Print ISSN : 1344-6304
ISSN-L : 1344-6304
早期公開論文
早期公開論文の78件中1~50を表示しています
  • Gabriela de Almeida Oliveira Evangelista, Rejane Hughes Carvalho, Gabr ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1000
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Etiology of viral meningoencephalitis is frequently unidentified. Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) have been known to affect the central nervous system, and should, therefore, be considered for diagnosis of meningoencephalitis since its outcome may be influenced by the etiologic agent, age and immunological condition of the patient. In this study we aimed to determine if CHIKV and ZIKV were the etiological agent of viral encephalitis in meningoencephalitis patients admitted to the main hospital of infectious disease in the city of Salvador, Brazil. From 1049 patients with neurological symptoms who were admitted to the hospital during the time of this study, 149 were enrolled and 20 (13.34%) tested positive for ZIKV (12%) or CHIKV (1.34%). No specific clinical manifestations were observed to be associated to the ZIKV or CHIKV infection. Determination of the etiology of meningitis’ and encephalitis’ causing agent is important for patient management and correct treatment.

  • Shoko Kawai, Kazuaki Fukushima, Makiko Yomota, Akito Fukuda, Sho Fujiw ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1009
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and influenza may infect a person simultaneously; hence, adequate measures must be prepared for the next winter in Japan. In preparation for the future, this study aimed to clarify the rate of influenza coinfection in patients with COVID-19 in previous winter. We conducted a retrospective study of the medical records of 193 patients diagnosed as having COVID-19 between January 31, 2020, and April 23, 2020, in a single hospital. We measured the rate of coinfection with COVID-19 and influenza. We found no patient was coinfected with influenza using rapid diagnostic testing. The occurrence of coinfection with influenza and COVID-19 seems to be rare in the past winter in Japan.

  • Katsuo Koshi, Makiko Noda, Yukiko Kadokura, Yoshihiko Kameyama
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1060
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To investigate the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains collected in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, 483 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates were used for Japan Anti-Tuberculosis Association (JATA) 18-variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis during 20152019. To estimate the lineages of M. tuberculosis strains, JATA18-VNTR profiles were applied to a maximum a posteriori method. The results revealed that the ancient Beijing subfamily, accounting for 57.3% (277/483) was the most prevalent M. tuberculosis strain. Furthermore, 18 clusters (GC-1–GC-18) were found by minimum spanning tree analysis. The proportion of clustering strains was 9.9% (48/483), and epidemiological links to these clusters were unclear without GC-6 and GC-18. Meanwhile, interestingly, VNTR profiles of GC-7–GC-9 and GC-14 were indistinguishable from the regional epidemic strains of Nagoya City, which has a strong socioeconomic relationship with Gifu Prefecture, but did not match the nationwide epidemic strains. This study suggests that coordinated analyses within prefectures with strong socioeconomic relationships are important.

  • Elok Puspita Rini, Michihito Sasaki, Dwi Astuti, Vetnizah Juniantito, ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.769
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii) is a bacterial agent causing Q fever which is widespread all over the world. Livestock such as cattle, goat, and sheep are the main sources of infection for this disease. Infection of C. burnetii causes abortion of livestock, resulting in economic damage. Q fever is zoonotic disease and potential public health hazard. To date, little is known about the infection of C. burnetii in livestock in Indonesia. The objective of this research is to screen the genome of C. burnetii bacteria in beef cattle in West Java, Indonesia. Organ tissue samples were collected from cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses, West Java. C. burnetii genome was detected from cattle samples in all three samplings area by nested PCR (nPCR) targeting com1 gene of C. burnetii. Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA gene revealed the amplicons showed 99.9% nucleotide identity to C. burnetii strains Heizberg, 1843, 2574, 701CbB1, and 14160-001. Our results indicate that the infection of C. burnetii occurs in Indonesian beef cattles and highlight the risk of exposure to C. burnetii infection in human.

  • Ruizhao Cai, Miao Zhen, Zhiguang Guan, Menghe Li, Qiangyun Liao, Xing ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.843
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Vibrio vulnificus (V. vulnificus) infection is rare but potentially fatal. This study explored the new atypical manifestations and prognostic factors of V. vulnificus-infected patients throughout hospitalization. we retrospectively reviewed 33 patients diagnosed as having V. vulnificus infection in Guangdong Province, China between 2010 and 2020. Medical records were analyzed. Multiple logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were performed. New atypical manifestations were found, including cholangitis, urinary tract infection, and suppurative otitis media. Eleven of thirty-three (33.3%) V. vulnificus-infected patients died eventually. By univariate analysis, patients with cardio-cerebro-vascular diseases, lower platelet counts, higher levels of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin (PCT) had a statistically higher mortality. However, multivariate analysis showed that only PCT (P = 0.036) reached statistical significance. Also, the area under the ROC value estimate for PCT was 0.8816 (95% CI, 0.759-1.000; P = 0.0009). More than half of patients with V. vulnificus infection would die when PCT >20 ng/ml, while no patient dies when PCT ≤ 20 ng/ml. This study found new atypical manifestations of V. vulnificus infection. Also, PCT is an effective and independent predictor of mortality of V. vulnificus infection, and is suitable for clinicians to make early risk stratification and best therapeutic strategies.

  • Yumani Kuba, Ayako Shingaki, Minoru Nidaira, Tetsuya Kakita, Noriyuki ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.943
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    From February 14 to May 31, 2020, the Okinawa prefecture confirmed 142 cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Among them, 78 were the first cases of a household, with 174 household contacts. Of the 174 contacts, 21 contracted infection, indicating a secondary attack rate of 12.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 7.6–17.9%). No significant differences were observed in the demographics and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) test results between first cases who became the source of infection to the household members or not. The secondary attack rates per various characteristics of the household members were significantly different: aged > 69 years (40.9% [95% CI 20.7–63.6%]) and those with underlying diseases (36.0% [95% CI 18.0–57.5%]). When the period from the onset to the isolation of the first household case was within 3 days, the secondary attack rate was low (4.5% [95% CI 0.1–22.8%]). Among the 21 secondary cases, 11 (52.4%) developed within 5 days from symptom onset in the first case within the same household. This indicates that secondary infection within the household occurred immediately after symptom onset in the first case. Thus, isolation of a suspected patient is a solution to reduce secondary household infections.

  • Ferhan Kerget, Buğra Kerget
    論文ID: JJID.2021.046
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) has infected over 100 million people since it appeared in Wuhan, China just 1 year ago. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between interleukin-6 (IL-6)gene polymorphisms -174G/C and -597G/A and COVID-19 course. The study included a total of 70 patients aged 18–45 years who were hospitalized in our hospital and diagnosed with COVID-19 in Turkey between March and November 2020. Of these, 40 patients required intensive care admission due to macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and 30 patients did not develop MAS or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The frequency of IL-6-174G/C -and 597G/A polymorphisms was determined. There were statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of -174G/C allele and genotype frequency and comparison with Hardy-Weinberg distribution (χ2=10.029, df=1, p=0.002 and χ2=9.998, df=1, p=0.002, respectively). The frequency of the GG genotype was significantly higher in the MAS group compared to the non-MAS group (p=0.002). The G allele was also significantly more frequent in the MAS group compared to the non-MAS group (p=0.032). Analysis of the -174G/C polymorphism in patients with MAS showed that the G allele may be a risk factor for increased serum IL-6 levels and progression to MAS.

  • Shunji Suzuki, Shin-ichi Hoshi, Akihiko Sekizawa, Yoko Sagara, Katsuyu ...
    論文ID: JJID.2021.097
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The current study was conducted to examine the number of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carrier and how horizontal transmission affects the prevalence of HTLV-1 carrier in pregnant Japanese women in 2019. We requested 2,214 obstetrical facilities to provide information of HTLV-1 tests in pregnant women who delivered in 2019. The estimated number of HTLV-1 carrier in pregnant Japanese women was 952. At least 10% or more of the HTLV-1 carriers were those due to horizontal transmission.

  • Wenjing Zhang, Michiyo Kataoka, Hai Yen Doan, Fang-Tzy Wu, Naokazu Tak ...
    論文ID: JJID.2021.100
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    A human hepatocarcinoma cell line, PLC/PRF/5, is susceptible to hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection and is used for isolating this virus. It is difficult to use this cell line for the isolation of HEV directly from fecal specimens of swine or wild boar contaminated with porcine sapelovirus (PSV), because PSV infection results in rapid and extensive cytopathic effects in PLC/PRF/5 cells, interrupting the growth of HEV. Herein, we used a PSV infection-resistant cell line, N1380 derived from PLC/PRF/5 cells, and we successfully isolated an HEV-4b strain from a PSV-positive swine fecal specimen. Our results indicate that N1380 cells are a useful tool for the isolation of HEV from swine or wild boar fecal specimens, even when they are co-infected with PSV.

  • Mitsuo Uchida
    論文ID: JJID.2021.122
    発行日: 2021/04/30
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The “Go To Travel” campaign in Japan, which encouraged people to travel throughout the country, was started in July 2020 to revitalize economic activity that was sluggish due to COVID-19. Although risks of infection spread have been reported for tourists crossing prefectural borders, the spread of infection among residents living in sightseeing resort areas is unclear. This study evaluated the number of COVID-19 cases in residents of sightseeing resort areas in Gunma Prefecture using the descriptive epidemiological method. Data about infected individuals were obtained from open data on the prefectural official homepage. Evaluation of epidemic curves showed that the number of infected cases increased slightly after the start of the campaign, with numbers affected by the occurrence of clusters. Toward the end of 2020, the number of affected cases increased in both resort areas and non-resort areas, with the increase being smaller in resort areas. Thus, the increased occurrence of infection during the campaign suggested a need to take additional preventive measures more so for tourists than for resort area residents.

  • Takanori Hirayama, Ram Sharan Gopali, Bijay Maharjan, Kenichi Shibasak ...
    論文ID: JJID.2019.375
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This descriptive cross-sectional study collected data of the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) among tuberculosis (TB) at the Urban DOTS (Directly observed treatment, short-course) Centers in the Kathmandu, Bhaktapur, and Lalitpur districts of Nepal. The prevalence of DM was assessed in 67 previously treated TB cases (PTTB) and 214 new TB cases. DM was diagnosed in 8 PTTB and 20 new TB patients. Clinical interviews identified 14 cases of DM, the rapid blood glucose test diagnosed 4 cases, and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) diagnosed 4 cases. Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycemia were found in 8 and 5 cases, respectively. The 18-24 age group had the largest number of new TB cases (82; 38.3%). However, the comorbidity of DM and TB was higher in the 35 years and older age group and was found in 24.2% of PTTB and in 23.1% of new TB cases. To provide the evidence of impacts of DM screening for TB cases, larger number of samples should be analyzed. The DM screening for TB patients is expected to start in developing countries. It should be initiated by clinical interview about DM and glucose tests by rapid kits.

  • Kazuki Matsuura, Yuki Terasaka, Dai Miyazaki, Yumiko Shimizu, Yoshitsu ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1019
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To understand the clinical course of human adenoviral (HAdV) conjunctivitis for establishing a better treatment regimen, thirty-eight eyes of 19 patients with HAdV-54 conjunctivitis for less than one week from onset were evaluated for clinical signs and symptoms and DNA copy numbers. It is observed that a viral load of 104–105 is required to develop symptoms of HAdV conjunctivitis, as symptoms were present in all the eyes whose viral load was ≥104 at least once during the course. Next, it is observed that asymptomatic infections in contralateral eyes are common as the virus was detected in most eyes that did not develop conjunctivitis. Furthermore, there was no rapid decrease of the viral load in healed eyes, on the contrary, the viral load in healed eyes on day 15 was significantly higher than in unhealed eyes. This was likely due to corticosteroid instillation that rapidly alleviated symptoms but prolonged the duration of viral shedding. Recently, combination treatment with iodine and corticosteroids has been recommended for HAdV conjunctivitis. Assessing changes in viral load as well as clinical symptoms would be helpful to better understand the clinical course of this disease.

  • Junji Seto, Yoko Aoki, Kenichi Komabayashi, Yoko Ikeda, Mika Sampei, N ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1073
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Public health interventions have served an important role in controlling coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a rapidly spreading infectious disease. To contribute to future COVID-19 countermeasures, we aimed at verifying the results of countermeasures achieved by public health centers (PHCs) against the first wave of COVID-19 in Yamagata Prefecture, Japan. During January–May 2020, 1,253 patients suspected of SARS-CoV-2 infection were invited for testing. Simultaneously, based on retrospective contact tracings, PHCs investigated the infection sources and transmission routes of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases and tested 928 contacts. Consequently, 69 cases were confirmed during March 31 – May 4, 58 (84.1%; 95% confidence interval 75.5–92.7) of whom were found from contacts. The spread of infection was triggered by cases harboring epidemiological links outside of Yamagata. Then, the number of cases increased rapidly. However, PHCs identified epidemiological links in 61 (88.4%; 95% confidence interval 80.8–96.0) of the 69 cases and transmission chains up to the fifth generation. Finally, the spread of infection ended after approximately one month. Our results indicate that the identification of infection sources and active case finding from contacts based on retrospective contact tracing was likely to be an effective strategy to end the first wave of COVID-19 in Yamagata.

  • Yuichiro Yahata, Hajime Kamiya, Matthew M Griffith, Yuuki Tsuchihashi, ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.489
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Neonatal pertussis has the potential for severe complications, even death. Mothers have been identified as the most frequent source of neonatal pertussis. Almost a dozen countries have implemented pertussis vaccination programs for pregnant women to protect neonates, but Japan has not yet done so. The aim of this questionnaire-based study was to ascertain the willingness of women to be vaccinated during pregnancy and the factors associated with willingness. Subjects were 977 pregnant women who visited either of two selected hospitals for maternity health checks. Most of the women were in their first pregnancy (96%) and about half considered a physician to be the most reliable source of information about vaccination (481/977, 49%). “Willingness to receive pertussis vaccination” was significantly associated with the factors “no fear of receiving vaccination” (odds ratio [OR]=3.10, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.21–4.34), “necessary to prevent pertussis” (OR=8.70, 95% CI: 6.17–12.28), “effective in pregnancy”(OR=5.46, 95% CI: 3.94–7.56), and “no concern about side effects after vaccination”(OR=3.03, 95% CI: 1.66–5.55). Pregnant women are likely to consider vaccination if they have a good understanding of the disease and its outcomes. Physicians are well positioned to improve knowledge and attitudes toward pertussis vaccination during pregnancy.

  • Kazuya Tone, Takashi Tamura, Shigehiro Hagiwara, Kazuyoshi Kuwano, Koi ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.652
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
  • Miyuki Fujioka, Sho Yoshioka, Masahiko Ito, Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan
    論文ID: JJID.2020.858
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
  • Bhagwan Maharjan, Jeewan Thapa, Dhirendra Kumar Shah, Bhabana Shrestha ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.921
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Sputum microscopy and Xpert MTB/RIF are the primary rapid diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in Nepal. Disagreements among Xpert, microscopy, and culture, for example, cases with Xpert positive and microscopy negative, were frequently observed in Nepal including in our reference laboratory. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of Xpert with culture and microscopy for TB diagnosis in Nepal. A total of 125 TB suspected sputum samples were processed for Xpert, microscopy, and culture. The Xpert results when compared with culture showed 100% sensitivity and 97.4% specificity with an excellent agreement (kappa = 0.96), whereas microscopy showed the sensitivity and specificity of 43.2% and 98.7%, respectively, with a moderate agreement (kappa = 0.4). The sensitivity and specificity of microscopy, when compared with Xpert, were 43.5% and 100%, respectively. The majority of Xpert positive samples of a medium MTB detection and all samples of low and very low MTB detection were missed by microscopy. Our study showed that Xpert MTB/RIF is a reliable tool for the diagnosis and management of TB in Nepal. Because of its high cost and sustainability, alternative simple and rapid diagnostic methods with a similar efficiency would be helpful for TB control in Nepal.

  • Ryuji Kawahara, Masanori Watahiki, Yuko Matsumoto, Kaoru Uchida, Makik ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.926
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Genes conferring carbapenem resistance have spread worldwide among gram-negative bacteria. Subtyping of these genes has epidemiological value due to the global cross-border movement of people. Subtyping of blaIMP genes that frequently detected in Japan appears to be important in public health settings; however, there are few useful tools for this purpose. We developed a subtyping screening tool based on PCR direct sequencing, which targets the internal sequences of almost all blaIMP genes. The tool used bipartite multiplex primers with M13 universal sequences at the 5’-end. According to in silico analysis, among the 78 known IMP-type genes, except for blaIMP-81, 77 detected genes were estimated to be differentiated. In vitro evaluation indicated that sequences of amplicons of IMP-1, IMP-6, IMP-7, and IMP-20 templates were identical to their respective subtypes. Even if the amplicons were small or undetectable through the first PCR, sufficient amplicons for DNA sequencing were obtained through a second PCR using the M13 universal primers. In conclusion, our tool can be possibly used for subtype screening of blaIMP, which is useful for the surveillance of bacteria with blaIMP in clinical and public health settings or environmental fields.

  • Jeonghyun Chang, Heungsup Sung, Kyung-Wook Jo, Tae Sun Shim, Mi-Na Kim
    論文ID: JJID.2020.978
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aimed at evaluating performance of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) regarding detection of pulmonary tuberculosis compared to acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture, and concordance of rifampin resistance with drug susceptibility test. Specimens simultaneously referred for AFB smear, culture, and Xpert during April 2015 to March 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Sensitivity, specificity, and mean cycle-threshold (Ct) values of Xpert and rifampin resistance results were analyzed. Results of Xpert for pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated by AFB smear grade. Among the total of 3,840 specimens, 491 were positive in Xpert and 626 were positive in culture. Sensitivity and specificity of Xpert was 75.6% and 99.4%, respectively. Sensitivity of Xpert in smear-positive/culture-positive specimens was 98.6% and those of smear-negative and trace/culture-positive was 63.1%. Positivity of Xpert in culture-positive specimens were 89.9%/98.6%/95.7%/100.0%/100.0% in smear grade trace/1+/2+/3+/4+. Ct values of 491 specimens significantly lowered as AFB smear grade increased (p<0.0001). Ct of smear-positive/smear-trace/smear-negative specimens were 21.7 ± 4.2/26.5 ± 3.9/27.4 ± 3.6, respectively. Rifampin resistance tested by Xpert and culture was 98.3% concordant. Region covered by probe E was the most frequently mutated (50.0%). Xpert showed reliable performance in detecting pulmonary tuberculosis in smear-positive/culture-positive specimens and further improvements are needed for smear negative/culture positive specimens.

  • Shigeki Ochiai, Yuichi Kama, Kota Hirai, Hidetoshi Yano, Ayumi Tada, C ...
    論文ID: JJID.2021.019
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in children characteristically has a milder clinical presentation, with milder inflammatory biomarkers and radiological findings. Accumulating evidence indicates a difference in chest computed tomography (CT) features and duration of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) shedding between children and adults. Here, we report a family case of COVID-19 pneumonia in which two brothers (age 14 years and 2 years) had different findings. On admission, the 2-year-old had few symptoms with no sign of pneumonia, whereas the older brother had presented with pneumonia on admission. Both were positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection on polymerase chain reaction. They both had obvious characteristic signs of COVID-19 pneumonia on chest CT. However, CT findings in the younger brother were non-specific and similar to other pneumonias. The older brother required longer treatment because of a longer shedding period of SARS-CoV-2 detected in nasopharyngeal samples. Both boys were discharged without complications. This family case suggests that the clinical features of COVID-19 pneumonia might differ between younger and older children.

  • Sumeyye Kazancioglu, Fatma Meric Yilmaz, Aliye Bastug, Bahadir Orkun O ...
    論文ID: JJID.2021.020
    発行日: 2021/03/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    It is important to determine the inflammatory biomarkers in the severity of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) with the emergence of the pandemic. Galectins and prostaglandins play important roles in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Galectin-1 (Gal-1), Galectin-3 (Gal-3), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels in patients with COVID-19. Gal-1, Gal-3, and PGE2 serum concentrations were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA) on 84 COVID-19 patients (severe=29 and nonsevere=55) and 56 healthy controls. In this study, the increased levels of Gal-1 (median, 9.86, 6.35, 3.67 ng/ml), Gal-3 (median, 415.31, 326.33, 243.13 pg/ml)and PGE2 (median, 193.17, 192.58, 124.62 pg/ml) levels were found in patients with COVID-19 than healthy controls (p<0.001 for all). In the severe group, Gal-3 levels were higher while there were no differences in Gal-1 and PGE2 levels (p=0.011, p=0.263, p=0.921, respectively). There was a positive correlation between serum Gal-1 and Gal-3 levels (ρ=0.871, p<0.001). Gal-3, C-reactive protein, lymphocyte count, and age were found as independent predictors of the disease severity (p=0.002, p=0.001, p=0.007, and p=0.003, respectively). With the emergence of effective drug needs in the COVID-19 pandemic, differentiation of severe disease is important. Gal-3 could be a potential prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.

  • Serkan Surme, Ahmet Buyukyazgan, Osman Faruk Bayramlar, Ayse Kurt Cina ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1065
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We aimed to determine the predictors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death in patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. This retrospective and single-center study includes patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia (laboratory and radiologically confirmed) between March 9 and April 8, 2020. Our composite endpoint was ICU admission or in-hospital death. To evaluate the factors in the composite endpoint, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. A total of 336 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were recorded. The median age was 54 years [interquartile range (IQR): 21] and 187 (55.7%) were male. Fifty-one (15.2%) patients were admitted to the ICU. In-hospital death occurred in 33 (9.8%) patients. In univariate analysis, 17 parameters were associated with the composite endpoint and procalcitonin had the highest ODDs ratio (OR=36.568 CI=5.145-259.915). Our results revealed that body temperature (OR=1.489 CI=1.023-2.167, p=0.037), peripheral capillary oxygen saturation (SpO2) (OR=0.835 CI=0.773-0.901, p<0.001), and consolidation (>25%) in chest computed tomography (OR=3.170 CI=1.218-8.252, p=0.018) at admission were independent predictors. As a result, increased body temperature, decreased SpO2, a high level of procalcitonin, and degree of consolidation in chest computed tomography may predict a poor prognosis and have utility in the management of patients.

  • Kazuya Shirato, Yuriko Tomita, Hiroshi Katoh, Souichi Yamada, Shuetsu ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.1079
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Soon after the December 2019 outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 in Wuhan, China, a protocol for real-time RT-PCR assay detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was established by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in Japan. The protocol used Charité’s nucleocapsid (Sarbeco-N) and NIID’s nucleocapsid (NIID-N2) assays. During the following months, SARS-CoV-2 spread causing a global pandemic, and a variety of SARS-CoV-2 sequences were registered to public databases, such as the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID). In this study, we evaluated the newly developed S2 assay (NIID-S2) to replace the Sarbeco-N assay and the performance of NIID-N2 and NIID-S2 assays, referring mismatches in the primer/probe targeted region. We found the analytical sensitivity and specificity of the NIID-S2 set were comparable to the NIID-N2 assay, and the detection rate for clinical specimens was identical to that of the NIID-N2 assay. Furthermore, among available sequences (approximately 192,000), the NIID-N2 and NIID-S2 sets had 2.6% and 1.2% mismatched sequences, respectively, although most of these mismatches did not affect the amplification efficiency, with the exception of the 3′ end of the NIID-N2 forward primer. These findings indicate that the previously developed NIID-N2 assay remains suitable for the detection SARS-CoV-2 with support of the newly developed NIID-S2 set.

  • Hiraku Sasaki, Tomoko Fukunaga, Ai Asano, Mayu Tsumita, Yoshio Suzuki, ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.542
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In Japan, several rubella outbreaks in adults have erupted due to insufficient immunity against rubella virus (RUBV). Although selective immunization is being promoted in addition to a routine rubella vaccine program as a rubella eradication strategy, serosurveillance against RUBV needs to be implemented in the generations corresponding to the transition period of vaccination. In this study, a survey of anti-rubella immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody titers was conducted among young adults involved in the transitional periods of the routine rubella vaccine program. Serosurveillance was performed in 370 healthy young adults aged 18–20 years, and their serum samples were analyzed using an enzyme immunoassay to determine rubella-specific IgG antibody titers. Although multiple regression analysis revealed significant differences only in medical history, more than 90% of participants exhibited seropositivity, excluding those who received single-dose vaccine alone. Based on elapsed periods after the last vaccination, rubella-specific IgG antibody titers in less than a 6-year period were higher compared to that in the more than 10-year period. Although almost all study participants in the transitional period had seropositivity, the results may indicate that the persistence of seropositivity is related to past rubella outbreaks.

  • Choon-Mee Kim, Geon Park, Young Jin Ko, Seong-Ho Kang, Sook Jin Jang
    論文ID: JJID.2020.765
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Various mechanisms underlying antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii have been reported. There exists controversy regarding the relationships between efflux pump activity, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance in A. baumannii. In this study, we investigated the relative expression of RND efflux pump genes, H33342 efflux activity, and biofilm-forming activity in 120 A. baumannii clinical isolates, examined their potential relationships with one another, and then statistically analyzed their effects on antibiotic resistance. High adeB expression and high H33342 efflux activity were correlated with low biofilm-forming activity. High adeB expression was significantly correlated with resistance to tigecycline and cefotaxime, but not with the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Importantly, only high adeJ expression was significantly correlated with the MDR phenotype, and was observed to be correlated with resistance to various antibiotics. However, we found no significant correlation between adeJ expression and biofilm-forming activity. Further, adeG expression was found to not be correlated with antibiotic resistance and biofilm-forming activity. The results of multivariate analysis showed that adeB overexpression and high H33342 efflux activity are related to biofilm-forming activity, and only adeJ overexpression is significantly associated with the MDR phenotype, highlighting the importance of adeJ overexpression.

  • Tadashi Maeda, Katsuhito Kashiwagi, Sadako Yoshizawa, Takahiro Sato, K ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.799
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Most COVID-19 patients are mild or asymptomatic; a substantial minority of patients develop severe or critical disease. There are many reports on potential risk factors for severe disease, but few reports have reported a relationship between antibody titer and severity in Japan. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is one such factor theorized to affect the worsening of disease. We have been evaluating IgG responses in COVID-19 patients at our tertiary hospital. A measure of interest is the IgG index, we assigned 1.4 as the cutoff value for a positive result according to the manufacturer indication and observed that patients could be categorised into two distinct groups: early elevation of IgG and late elevation of IgG (IgG elevated in the first 7 days ± 2 days or more than 10 days after symptom onset). We defined the former as early-IgG responders (N=7) and the latter as late-IgG responders (N=14) and compared them. C-reactive protein and D-dimer levels were significantly higher on admission (HD 0) and the respiratory rate was higher, lymphocytes were lower significantly on day 7 of hospitalization (HD 7) in the early-IgG responders. These results might implicate that early production of anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 IgG may be associated with clinical indicator for severity.

  • Satoshi Ide, Kayoko Hayakawa, Kei Yamamoto, Shinya Tsuzuki, Junko Tanu ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.813
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Despite the increase in COVID-19 cases worldwide, the number of cases in Japan has been relatively low, and an explosive surge in the prevalence has not occurred. Since March 2020, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) in Japan recommended original criteria for considering polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, although there was a lack of clear evidence for appropriate targets for COVID-19 testing. This study aimed to evaluate COVID-19 positive ratio and pre-screening criteria in Tokyo immediately after insurance-covered SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing became available in Japan. We tested 277 individuals (positive: 9.0%) from March 9–29, 2020. In total, 277 patients with mild symptoms in metropolitan Tokyo underwent SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing. The results revealed that 25 (9.0%) patients were PCR positive. The sensitivity and specificity of the MHLW criteria were 100% and 10.7%, respectively. When the criteria excluded nonspecific symptoms, fatigue, and dyspnea, sensitivity slightly decreased to 92%, and specificity increased to 22.2%. Specificity was highest when the fever criterion was ≥37.5°C for ≥4 days, and exposure/travel history, including age and underlying comorbidities, was considered. Our findings suggest that MHLW criteria, including symptoms and exposure/travel history, could support COVID-19 pre-screening.

  • Junji Seto, Junko Amemura-Maekawa, Mika Sampei, Kyoko Araki, Misao End ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.815
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
  • Tomohiro Oishi, Tetsuro Muratani, Takaaki Tanaka, Masahisa Sato, Urara ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.824
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To improve our current understanding of normal flora in children, we investigated bacterial isolates from pharynx and nasopharynx of 173 and 233 healthy children, respectively. The bacterial isolation rates were compared among three age groups: infants (<1 year), toddlers (1–5 years), and school-age children (6–15 years). Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were the predominant bacteria in the pharynx (Streptococcus mitis/oralis, 87.3%; Streptococcus salivarius, 54.3%; Rothia mucilaginosa, 41.6%; Staphylococcus aureus, 39.3%). Among infants, Streptococcus salivarius and Neisseria subflava, which are related to the development of teeth, were significantly lower than in the other age groups (p<0.0001, S. salivarius; p<0.01, N. subflava). Gram-negative rods (GNR) predominated the nasopharynx (Moraxella catarrhalis, 32.1%; and Moraxella nonliquefaciens, 28.3%) except for Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum (44.2%) of gram-positive rods. Among toddlers, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, which are the most common pathogens in acute otitis media, were significantly higher than in the infant group (p<0.05 for both). Among bacterial species implicated in pediatric respiratory infection, Streptococcus pyogenes was isolated in 3.5% of pharyngeal samples. S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae were isolated in 22.3% and 17.2% of nasopharyngeal samples, respectively. In conclusion, normal flora of the respiratory tract differs not only by sampling site but also by age group.

  • Mya Myat Ngwe Tun, Rohitha Muthugala, Lakmali Rajamanthri, Takeshi Nab ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.854
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    During the 2017 outbreak of severe dengue in Sri Lanka, dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 2, 3 and 4 were co-circulating. Based on our previous study on the 295 patients from the National Hospital Kandy in Sri Lanka between March 2017-January 2018, the dominant infecting serotype was DENV-2. Here, we aimed to characterize the DENV-3 strains from non-severe and severe dengue patients from our previous study population. Patients’ clinical records and previous laboratory tests including dengue-specific nonstructural protein 1 antigen rapid test, IgM-capture and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, were analyzed together with the present results of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing of DENV-3. Based on complete genome analysis, DENV-3 isolates belonged to two different clades of genotype I and were genetically close to the strains from Indonesia, China, Singapore, Malaysia and Australia. There were sixteen amino acid changes among DENV-3 isolates, and the greater number of changes was found in nonstructural than structural proteins. The emergence of DENV-3 genotype I was noted for the first time in Sri Lanka. Continuous monitoring of this newly emerged genotype and other DENV serotypes/genotypes are needed to determine their effects on future outbreaks and to understand the molecular epidemiology of dengue.

  • Masahiro Miyoshi, Rika Komagome, Hiroki Yamaguchi, Shima Yoshizumi, Se ...
    論文ID: JJID.2021.021
    発行日: 2021/02/26
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/02/26
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
  • Yumiko Nakagawa, Yasuyuki Shimada, Yohei Kawasaki, Haruhito Honda, Tak ...
    論文ID: JJID.2019.273
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    To assess the rate and risk factors of postoperative complications following tooth extraction in HIV-infected patients by CD4 count. The study subjects were 231 HIV-infected patients who underwent tooth extraction at our institution between January 2007 and December 2011. Results of blood test, underlying diseases, surgical site, extraction method, and postoperative complications were obtained from the medical records. The risk factors potentially involved in postoperative complications were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Patients were divided into two groups, 61 (26%) patients with CD4 count of <200 /μL, and 170 (74%) patients with ≥200 /μL. Of the 231 patients, 12 (5.2%) developed postoperative complications (alveolar osteitis, n=10; surgical site infection, n=2). The rate of complications was not different between the CD4<200 /μL group (1.6%), and the CD4≥200 /μL group (6.5%) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 9.328, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.470, 185.229), p=0.1431). Surgical extraction method with bone excavation, but not CD4 count, were identified as risk factors for post-extraction complications (aOR: 22.037, 95%CI: (1.519, 319.617), p=0.0234). A low CD4 count is not a risk factor for post-extraction complications in HIV-infected patients. We advise that tooth extraction should be performed based on dental/oral condition, rather than delayed until improvement of CD4 count.

  • Toshinori Sasaki, Tomohide Adachi, Kazuto Itoh, Mayumi Kubota, Takuya ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.505
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Several outbreaks of trench fever caused by Bartonella quintana, occurred in soldiers during World Wars I and II. Although the number of trench fever cases has been decreasing worldwide, the disease has been reported among the homeless population in both developing and developed countries. The current prevalence of B. quintana infection in Japan is unclear. We collected blood and body louse (Pediculus humanus humanus) samples from homeless inpatients who had body lice at the time of emergency hospitalization in Tokyo from January 2013 to March 2015. Patients were tested for B. quintana infections using culture method, polymerase chain reaction, and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Among the 29 patients tested, the presence of Bartonella spp. was confirmed by genomic sequencing of DNA extracted from the samples from 2 patients (blood culture performed for 13 out of 15 patients), and from body louse samples of 20 patients (69%). Immunoglobulin G against B. quintana was detected in 10 patients (34.5%) at a cut-off titer of 1:256 in IFA. B. quintana infection was detected in samples obtained between 2013 and 2015 in Tokyo and needs to be on the list of differential diagnoses performed for febrile homeless individuals.

  • Yuuka Yamaguchi, Taito Kitano, Tomoko Onishi, Masahiro Takeyama, Yuki ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.621
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Soft-tissue infection with Mycobacterium mageritense is uncommon. We present the case of a 5-year-old girl who developed soft-tissue infection with M. mageritense in a subcutaneous abscess in her right ankle. She had a history of acute encephalopathy and adrenal insufficiency and was hospitalized for acute pancreatitis. During hospitalization, she developed fever and tachycardia. A blood culture was positive for gram-positive bacilli. Initially, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reported a different organism, but a repeat test identified M. mageritense. One month after the positive blood culture, redness and swelling appeared in her right ankle. Drainage from the subcutaneous abscess again grew M. mageritense, which was also confirmed by sequencing of housekeeping genes. Based on a sensitivity test, she was treated with tosufloxacin and linezolid. After starting treatment, local inflammatory findings gradually improved. Antibiotic treatment was completed in 6 months, and she has experienced no relapse in the 8 months since the completion of therapy. This first case report of pediatric M. mageritense infection highlights an important potential pitfall of MALDI-TOF MS. We also report that the choice of antimicrobials for treatment of M. mageritense may be more limited in children than that for adults.

  • Masaki Machida, Itaru Nakamura, Reiko Saito, Tomoki Nakaya, Tomoya Han ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.631
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, in conjunction with the total frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an Internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20–79 years, 51.0% men, response rate: 89.5%), selected during June 23-28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place; after using the toilet; after touching something outside; before eating food; and after blowing your nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, participants responded regarding the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed in all 5 moments was clarified using ROC analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% practiced in all moments. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. The criterion of hand hygiene: ≥11 times/day may be useful in education and evaluation.

  • Shinya Harada, Hayato Kawada, Shotaro Maehana, Hidehito Matsui, Makoto ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.657
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Necrotizing pneumonia caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL)-positive community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) has high mortality, and is currently a serious clinical issue. PVL is a two-component toxin consisting of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. PVL was shown to cause necrosis in target cells by forming pores consisting of an octamer comprised of LukS-PV and LukF-PV. However, because of the specificity of PVL toward several target cells and species, the detailed action of PVL remains controversial. Therefore, we focused on necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL-positive Staphylococcus aureus and clarified the effects of PVL on alveolar macrophages, which play a central role in innate immunity in the alveolar space. We constructed recombinant PVL (rPVL) components and stimulated alveolar macrophages isolated from rabbits, and then evaluated the cytotoxicity and pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Recombinant LukS-PV (rLukS-PV), but not recombinant LukF-PV (rLukF-PV), induced pro-inflammatory cytokine release. Especially, TNF-α release was mediated via the C5a receptor (C5aR) expressed in rabbit alveolar macrophages and rPVL, consisting of rLukS-PV and rLukF-PV, was highly toxic to rabbit alveolar macrophages via the same receptor. Our results, which reveal the action of PVL via C5aR on alveolar macrophages, may be useful for understanding the mechanism of necrotizing pneumonia caused by PVL.

  • Suman Ganguly, Debjit Chakraborty, Dipendra Narayan Goswami, Subrata B ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.811
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection in pregnancy may result in adverse obstetric outcomes such as still birth. The present study aimed at comparing Stillbirth Rate (SBR) for HIV-infected pregnancy with that in general population, observing year-wise trends of HIV exposed SBR and identifying possible associated exposures. A retrospective cohort study was conducted through analysis of secondary data from 314 Integrated Counselling and Testing Centres across the state of West Bengal, India from 2012 to 2020. 3478 HIV-infected pregnancies were followed up and year wise SBR was compared with that among all pregnancies of the state as per latest available Sample Registration System report in India. Year wise trend of SBR through linear regression was performed. t Test for two means and Relative Risk (RR with 95% Confidence interval) were measured to identify association between different exposures and stillbirth. SBR was significantly higher (26.7/1000) in HIV-infected pregnancies than in all pregnancies (5/1000) and it was reduced significantly following Anti Retroviral Treatment (ART) initiation (RR=0.09:0.05 -0.16). The spouse testing for HIV (surrogate marker for familial involvement) (RR =0.35:0.20- 0.61) and maternal literacy (RR =0.62:0.40 -0.97) were also found significantly protective for stillbirth.

  • Weerawat Manosuthi, Somlerk Jeungsmarn, Pilailuk Okada, Pawita Suwanva ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.827
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    We retrospectively studied nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized between 13 January and 1 April 2020. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR were conducted with primers and probes targeting the ORF1ab and N genes. All patients were classified as Group 1: Received favipiravir + chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days, Group 2: Received chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine + lopinavir/ritonavir or darunavir/ritonavir for 5-10 days and Group 3: no anti-viral medication. Of 115 patients, 38 (33%), 54 (47%), and 23 (20%) patients were in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Median (IQR) baseline viral loads at days 0 of Group 1, 2, and 3 were 7.2 (6.0-8.1), 6.9 (5.8-7.8), and 6.9 (5.8-7.6) log10 copies/mL, respectively. The reductions of mean viral loads at day 3 from baseline were 2.41, 1.38,and 2.19 log10 copies/mL in the corresponding groups (P <0.05). There were no differences in reductions of mean viral loads from baseline among three groups at days 5 and 10 (P >0.05). By multiple logistic regression analysis, receiving favipiravir was associated with nasopharyngeal viral load reduction at three days (P=0.001). Significant nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load reduction was achieved in the COVID-19 patients who received favipiravir-containing regimen.

  • Sonoko Minato, Michiko Yoshida, Kensuke Shoji, Nobuyuki Yotani, Kenich ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.841
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The pneumococcal conjugate vaccines successfully decreased the incidence of invasive pneumococcal diseases and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance. However, it has also led to serotype replacement. According to the report from the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (NIID) in 2017, 96% of pneumococcal isolates obtained from IPD children aged <5 years were non-PCV13-serotype. Here, we report a Japanese immunocompetent and vaccinated child who developed refractory meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, nonvaccine serotype 10A. PCR revealed genotypic penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (gPRSP) with triple mutations (pbp1a + 2b + 2x). Multilocus sequence typing identified the strain as sequence type (ST) 11189. ST11189 strain has not been reported in Japan, but has recently been reported as a cause of invasive infections in Korea. The clinical course was complicated by development of brain and subdural abscesses that necessitated prolonged antibiotic treatment and multiple burr hole drainages. Unfortunately, neurological sequelae remained. Continued molecular surveillance is needed to monitor emerging virulent clinical strains.

  • Shinya Hidano, Kazuhiro Mizukami, Takaaki Yahiro, Kohei Shirakami, Hid ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.859
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Anisakidosis is developed by ingesting Anisakis in marine fish including the chub mackerel, Scomber japonicus without proper pre-treatment such as cooking or freezing. Two sibling species of Anisakis are found in S. japonicus from Japanese waters and the prevalence and species of Anisakis in the fish depend on sea area. For example, Anisakis simplex sensu stricto is found in the Pacific stock of S. japonicus, while Anisakis pegreffii is found in the Tsushima Warm Current stock. S. japonicus caught in the Bungo Channel, off the coast of Saganoseki in Oita Prefecture, which is branded as Sekisaba, inhabits a very limited area; however, the infection states of Anisakis found in Sekisaba remain unclear. In this study, we compared the infection states of Anisakis in Sekisaba with those in S. japonicus caught in South Oita area and Nagasaki Prefecture. All of Anisakis from Nagasaki Prefecture were A. pegreffii, while most of them found in Sekisaba and fish from South Oita area were A. simplex s.s.. Interestingly, the prevalence of Anisakis in Sekisaba was significantly lower than those of two other areas. This may be reflected that Sekisaba might belong to a distinct stock of S. japonicus varying from other stocks.

  • Heather Platt, Shinji Tochihara, Yoshiaki Oda, Kohji Ueda
    論文ID: JJID.2020.876
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In Japan, domestic combined measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines were withdrawn in 1993 due to serious aseptic meningitis attributed to the mumps component. KM-248 is an MMR vaccine (M-M-R® II), manufactured by Merck & Co., Inc. (Kenilworth, NJ, USA), registered and approved in 74 countries, but not approved in Japan. In this multicenter, randomized, single-blind study, the primary endpoints were; noninferiority of KM-248 measles component immunogenicity compared to control measles vaccine already approved in Japan and seroconversion rates for these three viruses by KM-248. Vaccination with KM-248 in children 12 - 90 months of age (n = 178) induced robust immune responses to measles, mumps and rubella viruses. It was confirmed that the seroconversion rate for measles virus by the measles vaccine component of KM-248 (n = 172) was non-inferior to that of the control measles vaccine (n = 85). No serious adverse reactions such as aseptic meningitis and anaphylaxis were observed. Fever is one of the most common adverse reactions associated with vaccination and was observed in approximately half of the participants. KM-248 administered to healthy Japanese children aged between 12 and 90 months demonstrated general comparability with respect to safety and immunogenicity compared to the control vaccine.

  • Atsuhiro Kanayama, Teppei Sasahara, Hideyuki Takahashi, Hajime Kamiya, ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.890
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    In Japan, several meningococcal disease outbreaks have recently been reported among adolescent dormitory residents of schools. However, little is known about meningococcal carriage dynamics among healthy individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the carriage rate over time and characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains among dormitory students. The survey was conducted twice between November 2018 and January 2019 for first to third year students (N=376) in a medical school dormitory. The two surveys yielded carriage rates of 0.4% (one positive among 257 students) and 2.1% (two positive among 97 students, including 90 re-participants), respectively. No transmission or persistence of a specific strain was found during the two months. A limited number of students had a history of potential risk behaviors for carriage, such as smoking (3.0%, six among 202 aged ≥ 20 years; 5.2%, four among 77 aged ≥ 20 years) and attending parties more than once a week (4.3% [11/257], 2.1% [2/97]). Two isolates were unencapsulated, consistent with the participants being asymptomatic.

  • Hidekazu Nishimura, Michiko Okamoto, Isolde Dapat, Masanori Katumi, Hi ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.902
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Green tea extracts effectively inactivated SARS-CoV-2 in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. Serially 10-fold diluted solutions of catechin mixture reagent from green tea were mixed with the viral culture fluid at a volume ratio of nine to one, respectively, and kept at room temperature for 5 min. The solution of 10 mg/mL catechin reagent reduced the viral titer by 4.2 log and 1.0 mg/mL solution reduced only by one log. Pre-infection treatment of the cells with the reagent alone did not affect the viral growth. In addition, cells treated with only the reagent was assayed for host-cell viability using the WST-8 system and almost no host-cell damage by the treatment was observed. These findings suggested that the direct treatment of virus with the reagent before inoculation decreased the viral activity and that catechins might have a potential to suppress the SARS-CoV-2 infection.

  • Mugen Ujiie, Shinya Tsuzuki, Michiyo Suzuki, Masayuki Ota, Tetsuya Suz ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.947
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine is generally used for booster vaccination in Europe and the United States to avoid increased reactogenicity after diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccination in infants. However, Japan has extended the use of additional DTaP vaccination without reducing the antigen dose for diphtheria and pertussis to adolescents and adults despite limited reports on its safety in adults. This prospective observational questionnaire-based study investigated the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) following DTaP vaccination between June 2018 and June 2019 in participants aged 10 years or older. Of 250 eligible participants, 235 (94%) responded regarding AEs. Of these 235 participants, 133 (56.6%) reported AEs, with 39 reporting systemic AEs (16.6%) and 120 reporting local AEs (51.1%) attributed to DTaP vaccination. The incidence of local AEs was much higher with DTaP than with non-DTaP vaccinations (51.1% vs. 10.2%), and the AEs appeared later (p<0.01) and lasted longer (p<0.01) with DTaP vaccination. However, more than 75% of these AEs resolved within 7 days. DTaP vaccination was not associated with any serious AEs. These results indicate that the DTaP vaccine can be widely used as a booster in adults as an alternative to the Tdap vaccine.

  • Zichao Wang, Tao Liu, Jiameng Li, Qing Gu
    論文ID: JJID.2020.983
    発行日: 2021/01/29
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2021/01/29
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) infected with Coxsackievirus A6 (CV-A6) have demonstrated an increasing trend in China. Our study aimed to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infected with CV-A6 in children under 6 years of age in Tianjin, China. A non-matching case-control study was conducted in Tianjin, China. Cases were HFMD patients infected with CV-A6 while controls were HFMD patients infected with other enteroviruses. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the risk factors of HFMD cases infected with CV-A6. A total of 1,264 eligible cases were included in our study, including 589 cases and 675 controls. Our study indicates that the CV-A6 caused HFMD patients were more likely to present with fever and rash on limbs, and home-care children and children having a history of contacting HFMD patient had a high risk of infection with CV-A6, while toy sterilization regularly at home and parents’ hand-washing habits after toilet use were the protecting factors for children against CV-A6 infection.

  • Meichun Chiang, Chintien Wang
    論文ID: JJID.2020.286
    発行日: 2020/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    The dimeric form of HIV-1 protease (PR) is required for full proteolytic activity. The stability of the dimer primarily depends on the termini interface, with N-terminal residues 1–4 of one monomer encountering C-terminal residues 96–99 of another. We made an alanine substitution for valine 3(V3) or leucine 97(L97) at the termini dimer interface, and tested the proteolytic activity in each. The results showed that an alanine substitution for L97 (PRL97A) completely inhibited the proteolytic activity of protease. However, an alanine substitution for V3 (PRV3A) partially impaired proteolytic activity. We then introduced two forced-dimerization systems involving NC replacement or addition of 1–2 leucine zippers to determine whether proteolytic activity of dimer-defective PRs could be restored. We found that two forced-dimerization systems compensated for the defect in PRV3A but not PRL97A. This implies that PRV3A and PRL97A potentially impair PR via different mechanisms or different extent of defect in PR activity. These novel findings will likely serve as a foundation for developing new PR inhibitors for treating drug-resistant HIV-1 infections in the future.

  • Lu He, Yuyang Zeng, Cheng Zeng, Yunyun Zhou, Ying Li, Xiaojie Xie, Wei ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.691
    発行日: 2020/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study aimed to evaluate infection rates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among different populations in Wuhan, China. This cross-sectional, survey-based study examined the results of SARS-CoV-2-specific serological tests and RT-PCR testing from 4454 community residents and 4614 healthcare workers from May 15 to May 29, 2020. Healthcare workers were classified as either administrative and logistical staff (n=1378), non-first-line healthcare workers (n=2630), or first-line healthcare workers (n=606) according to their frequency of contact with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) patients. The positive rates of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, and RNA were 2.9%, 0.4%, and 0.1% in community residents, and 3.3%, 0.6%, and 0.2% in healthcare workers, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups. Spearman's correlation analyses showed that the frequency of contact with COVID-19 patients negatively correlated with the positive rates of RT-PCR (rs=-0.036, P=0.016), but did not significantly correlate with the positive rates of IgM (rs=-0.006, p=0.698) or IgG (rs=0.017, p=0.239). There was no statistically significant difference of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG, IgM, or RNA positive rates between community residents and healthcare workers. The positive rate of SARS-CoV-2 RNA was lower in first-line healthcare workers than that in non-first-line healthcare workers and administrative and logistical staff.

  • Takayuki Konno, Shiho Takahashi, Sumie Suzuki, Hiroko Kashio, Yuho Ito ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.731
    発行日: 2020/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開
  • Takahiro Maeda, Yoshiko Takayama, Tomohiro Fujita, Daisuke Taniyama, Y ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.761
    発行日: 2020/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    This study assessed whether invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) isolates were similar to non-invasive isolates from adult patients. Invasive and non-invasive GBS isolates were collected from three hospitals and two laboratory centers from January 2015 to October 2019. The isolates were identified through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and amplification of GBS-specific dltS. The virulence gene profile, capsular genotype, sequence type (ST)/clonal complex (CC), and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotype/genotype were determined, and the 72 invasive isolates and 50 non-invasive isolates were comparatively analyzed. We observed a significantly decreased rate of rib detection in the invasive isolates compared to that in the non-invasive isolates (77.8% vs. 92.0%, p < 0.05). Additionally, we found significant differences in the prevalence of CC1 (23.6% vs. 46.0%, p < 0.05) and CC26 (12.5% vs. 2.0%, p < 0.05) between the invasive and non-invasive populations. However, there were no significant differences in the comparative data of the virulence gene profiles, capsular genotypes, other STs/CCs, and AMR phenotypes/genotypes between the two populations. These findings suggest that the invasive and non-invasive isolates shared similar features in terms of virulence gene profile, capsular genotype, ST/CC, and AMR genotype/phenotype (except for the rates of rib detection and CC1/CC26 prevalence).

  • Akiko Iwata, Kentaro Kurasawa, Kazumi Kubota, Yoshinobu Sugo, Mizuha O ...
    論文ID: JJID.2020.762
    発行日: 2020/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー 早期公開

    Following the 2018 rubella outbreak in Japan, this study aimed to assess rubella prevention measures based on the vaccination and immunization status of pregnant women in Japan. Our cohort study involved 3 local core hospitals in Yokohama City, and a total of 666 pregnant women were recruited between June 2018 and September 2019 to answer an online questionnaire. In total, 67.5% pregnant women had received rubella vaccination. The rate of rubella vaccination among pregnant women in the present survey was lower than that among age-matched female participants in a nationwide survey conducted in 2018. Overall, the study results showed that women in their 20s had a higher vaccination rate than those in their 40s, women who were nonsmokers before pregnancy had a higher vaccination rate than those who were smokers, and women who were aware that rubella may affect fetuses had a higher vaccination rate than those who were unaware of this. This survey elucidated multiple predictive factors for rubella vaccination among pregnant women in Japan. Our results confirm the recommendation that women considering pregnancy should be vaccinated for rubella.

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