Since the discovery of “Bact. coll. mutabile” by Massini, there have been numerous reports on the secondary colony formation of bacteria caused by carbohydrate. On the other hand, in Japan R. Kobayashi and his coworkers found that there is a peculiar type of variation which occurs in the same manner among the bacilli of colon-typhoid-dysentery group when grown in plain broth and causes these variants to form secondary colonies on the media containing either galactose, lactose or raffinose (i.e. carbohydrates composed of galactose molecule) . They named this variation as “variation of mutabile type” considering it as an independent variation, and have investigated it systematically. This variation was called at first as “variation of mutabile type” because of its seeming resemblance to the variation of Massini's “Bact. coll. mutabile”, although recent investigations have indicated the essential differences between these two types of variation. Considering these aspects, Ushiba advocated that, to avoid confusion, this variation might be called as “variation of mutabile type (MURASE) ” referring to the name of its discoverer or “galactose variation” to distinguish it from the variation of Massini's “Bact. coll. mutabile”. The present report is dealing with the occurrence of this variation originated from rough phase of bacteria and its systematic studies. (It seemed likely that Ohno and Ito et al. have obtained the mutabile variant from bacteria of R phase, but there are no detailed and precise descriptions on it.)
The author has investigated the relationship existing between nitrogen requirements and growth factors of bacteria. In the preceeding reports the author took the dynamic aspects of evolutional steps linking ammonia nitrogen requiring bacteria in amino nitrogen's bacterial group, mainly relating to nicotinic acid. It is the purpose of this paper to report the nitrogen regirements of bacteria in the group requiring amino nitrogen+growth factor, especially about the significance of essential amino acids. It was shown that the essential amino acids depend partly on the kinds of carbon sources added in the medium. The experiments reported in this paper were designed to determine whether amino acids in the medium of Staphylococci mutually effect each other and also to examine the influence of the growth factor on these essential amino acids. Strains examined were Staphylococcus aureus (Terashima, 209-P and Heatley) . As a starting medium to be examined the author selected one as similar as possible to that devised by Fildes et al. (Table 1 M-1) Each amino acid was omitted in turn from a mixture containing 11 amino acids and the effect on the growth was observed. Thus, the minimum nitrogen requirements and the mutual effect of those amino acids were investigated. Terashima, out of those three strains, was found most exacting, since the minimum requirements were found to depend on whether pyridoxine was present or absent. In view of the fact that Terashima requires pyridoxine depending on conditions and, therefore, has some relationship with transamination, the author isolated several free amino acids within the bacterial cell by paper chromatography.
Prior to the appearance of chloromycetin as a specific agent for the treatment of typhoid fever, one had centred hope on streptomycine to conquer the disease, because of its wide bacillary spectrum and, especially of the powerful activity on the growth of Eberthella typhosa in vitro. The results of the most reliable record by Keefer and others on 51 cases of typhoid fever were however disappointing, in which cases were treated with a large does of streptomycin. Since then, workers in this field seem to have abandoned to repeat similar experiment. But could streptomycin be really ineffective for the treatment of typhoid fever? Cases, dealt with by the above and other authors1, 2, 3) were relatively advanced in the course of disease, therefore, we believe that the question still remains open to discussions. Argument naturally may exist that streptomycin is no more useful since the appearance of chloromycetin, while even the latter is not omnipotent in every case of typhoid fever as an established fact. It is our duty, we believe, to evaluate the effect of an agent precisely as it is to provide the knowledge in time of need. The author has had the opportunity from the beginning of 1950, in the year which chloromycetin was not yet available for the general use in our hospital, to treat the patients of typhoid and paratyphoid fever chiefly with streptomycin and has obtained a different results from that by Keefer and others, the record of which is reported in the present paper.