The purpose of this paper is to illuminate a few aspects of the CIE's design for early childhood education in postwar Japan. The analysis here particularly focuses on the CIE's attitude towards and role in the "Compilation Committee of Course of Study for Kindergarten", an in-house committee of the Ministry of Education formulated in May, 1951. For this purpose, the essay examines various CIE documents, which are part of the GHQ/SCAP Records. In preparation for the committee's formation. Ambrose and Ewerz at CIE demanded that the prospective course of study be based on both observation and study conducted in the field. They also insisted that the prospective committee members include those who took classes on study of children offered at IFEL. Upon the committee's commencement, these two individuals - as committee members - met several times with officials at the Ministry of Education who also served as committee members and reiterated the significance of fieldwork, with instructions on how such study should be conducted. When the Japanese committee members drafted a framework for a Course of Study, Ambrose and Ewerz proposed amendments and made specific suggestions on the framework, but the actual content and the wording was subsequently left to the discretion of the Japanese committee members. Thus, this paper argues that Ambrose and Ewerz were motivated by their belief in the need to construct a framework within which Japanese people would independently develop an early childhood education concept that would accommodate their unique situations, while also refer to examples of the American equivalent. In other words, the CIE's attitude toward the committee reflected CIE's policies at the time, which was to assist the Japanese in the independent management and development of early childhood education after the U. S. occupation.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify activities of the Nursery School Association after the experimental stage by analyzing among others, it's annual reports, pamphlets, and the nursery school conference of 1930. As a result we found the following. The Nursery School Association was founded in 1923 with the intention of effectively securing the implementation of the 1918 Education Act. In addition to lobbying legislators and offering strategic guidance to the LEAs, NSA since its establishment intended to arouse public opinion by distributing many pamphlets stressing the value of nursery schools. In 1929, the labour government sent out a joint circular to local authorities strongly encouraging them to open nursery schools. On 21st November 1930. NSA held a conference on nursery schools to dicuss their administration and to secure support for the circular, encouraging expansion. The morning discussion centered on the essentials of nursery school education, particularly on an adequate supply of specially-trained teachers and an arrangement of material environments. The conference resolved to expand not nursery classes, but nursery schools. In the mid-1930s, nursery schools were felt by many to be essential for every child irrespective of social class. NSA advocated "nursery schools for all" from the viewpoint of democracy and equality for healthy development and happy life. Grace Owen said that all children needed a nursery school education, and indicated four indispensable features of nursery school education: companionship of other children, provision of ample space for free and open-air activities, provision for the development of interests of young children and their healthy emotional development and skilled guidance and supervision.
The objective of this paper is to clarify both Minoru Wada's theories on kidergarten teachers, and kindergarten teacher education, and his actual training of kindergarten teachers. Wada is known historically as someone who directed public opinion towards a theory of childcare that advocated spontaneous play by children. He felt that kindergarten teachers shold have the following qualities in order to realize the Inducement Childcare: 1) an honorable personality and be able to exercise positive influence on the children, 2) adequate knowledge and ability to be able to induce the children and 3) a research agenda. Wada opened a school in order to nurture kindergarten teachers with these abilities. Wada's philosophy and practice in training kindergarten teachers had the following significance. Firstly, he proposed an original model of an ideal kindergarten teacher based on contents and methods particular to childcare, which was to induce play. Secondly, he realized a teacher-training course that connected practice with knowledge and skills. Thirdly, he constantly strived to elevate the position and expertise of kindergarten teachers. Fourth, he considered not only early childhood education but also elementary school education, and proposed inducement as an education method necessary for both kindergarten teachers and elementary school teachers. Wada's approach to childcare education was truly innovative in that he envisioned and implemented a training course that connected childcare internships and theoretical lectures, where participants learned inductively from the internships and the experiences of the children. Furthermore, it is also meaningful that he saw childcare in the continuum of elementary school education, and thus tried to correctly position kindergarten teachers in the continuum of elementary school teachers, elevate the position of kindergarten teachers, and attract talented individuals to the childcare sector.