This study examines the significance of introducing story picture books into early childhood education and care (ECEC) in the 1960s. It was not until the 1950s that today's common story picture books were published in Japan, and they became commonplace by the mid to late 1960s. This study focuses on two private research societies: Tokyo Society for Research on Early Childcare and Education Issues known as Tokyohomonken, (in which the group bungakubukai inquires literature education) and the Association for Science of Literature Education known as Bungeiken. Both found that story picture books played an important role for young children. Both societies shared the core ideal of the use of picture books in ECEC. They regarded picture books as 1) sophisticated literature for young children and as 2) auditory media similar to storytelling. In addition, both organized and further encouraged the use of picture books. On the other hand, their positions conflicted in some aspects. They both developed unique ideas and methods for the use of picture books. First, bungakubukai considered it difficult to incorporate both the childhood development and literature education in the practical application of picture book, while Bungeiken assumed the two goals compatible. Second, bungakubukai gave priority to familiarizing children with various viewpoints regarding specific stories, while Bungeiken invented a practical and useful model that provided for the efficient and detailed comprehension of the book's content. Thus, some ideas and methods for the use of story picture books as literature education were born and, blossomed in Japan's 1960s ECEC practices.