The purpose of this paper is to identify the early childhood education practice and significance of Elizabeth Harrison, the leader of the Conservative-Liberal group in the American kindergarten movement. While the significance of Conservative and Liberal ideals is evident, the significance of the Conservative-Liberal group and their leader, Harrison is not as well-known as other groups. Harrison's early childhood education practice was characterized by three things:
The first was the trait of kindergarten education. It was a practice of flexible childcare and the use of new materials, without forcing an adultʼs view on the child.
Second, she made it possible for mothers to feel comfortable with the idea of kindergarten and provided them with a place to communicate with each other. She also guaranteed the same quality of education for mothers as she did for kindergarten teachers. Harrison's consideration for people of diverse backgrounds and values, regardless of their origins and class, was evident.
Third, the characteristic of the training program was that it was longer than the training period for ordinary kindergarten teachers at that time and consisted of a basic education course, as well as an advanced education course, where in-service education was integrated into the training school.
From the late nineteenth to early twentieth centuries in the United States, Harrison was the first to organize Froebelist education into the best practice of their day, by focusing on children, taking into account the various aspects of the United States at that time, and being the first to achieve great success in kindergarten education, mother's education, teacher's training education, and in-service education, all of which, she, as a Conservative-Liberal, considered to be the most important aspects. This is her greatest achievement and significance.
The purpose of this study is to reveal the foundation and characteristics of the Welfare Hall Young Children Group in Koganei city, Tokyo. In particular, focused on relations with actors during the 1960's～1970's.
As a result, Koganei City conducted a survey of the situation and support needs of the city's children with intellectual disabilities in order to determine their standard needs; however, this effort did not result in affecting policy on the establishment of a place of childcare. Several guardians formed a parents' association with the collaboration of the Koganei City social welfare council, showing that the needs of the parents of children with disabilities were an “expressed need.” Consequently, the Koganei Asanaro Association, a young children's issues group was established to address these concerns This concerns of this group were finally taken up by the welfare hall young children group and became a municipal concern. In other words, this establishment of a young children group became the basis for new local childcare for children with disabilities in the 1960's in Koganei City.
As a characteristic, Koganei Cityit realized a new service that is unique to other cities in order to provide comprehensive support for medical care, education, and welfare through the cooperation and collaboration between Koganei City social welfare council and the parents' association in Koganei City. This collaborative effort acts as a safety net that contributes to the security of an “educational right” for children with disabilities prior to entering school.