Masao Morikawa was an important figure in Japan, who was a professor at Nara women's higher normal school and a director at a kindergarten attached to the normal school. He introduced the project method into the Japanese kindergarten in Taisho era. In Japan, there is no intensive exploration about the Japanese historical transformation of the project method. Regarding Morikawa's interpretation, it is believed that he introduced the theory of William H. Kilpatrick into the practices of the attached kindergarten without examining his theoretical achievement. There are a number of publications about the project method in the United States as well as many translations of that in Japan. I explore the traits and contexts of the used materials for his introduction of the project method. Morikawa was influenced by Taigan Matsunami who returned to Japan in 1920 after studying abroad. It is plausible that Morikawa did not read Kilpatrick's paper "The Project Method" (Teachers College Record, 1918, Vol.19, No.4). Morikawa understood that the project method is one of many kinds of teaching methods while Kilpatrick assumed the project method is a prominent theory of instruction. Afterward, Morikawa published some articles about the project methods in his book titled "Yochien no Riron to Jissai" (1924, Toyo-Tosho). I traced his original materials and found that his idea was based on Mendel E. Branom's "Project Method in Education" (Richard G. Badger, 1919) and Matsunami's "Zengakatsudo no Kyoiku"(Kyoiku Kenkyukai, 1922). Morikawa actually interpreted the project method through the listed books by Branom and Matsunami. His interpretation was limited to the overview of the theories in general. I pointed out that Morilawa's theoretical limit as has been stated. I will explore what his theoretical limit affected in the educational practices at the real world.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the process of practical reports in kindergarten in the end of Meiji Era and, from a historical viewpoint, to examine how the meaning of kindergarten teachers' experience in early childhood education and care has been told and constructed. In particular, this paper is to examine what kindergarten teachers expressed as an activity of early childhood education and care and how they depicted it based on their discourses in the journal named "Fujin-to-Kodomo (Women and Child)". In conclusion, the following three points are clarified. 1) When "Fujin-to-Kodomo" was first published in 1901, practical reports written by kindergarten teachers were analogous of reports of child rearing at home. Teachers depicted their experience of work as activity to fix the defects of child rearing at home. Teachers attended to children's character and relationship in classroom rather than their learning result of lessons. 2) "Observation of Children" introduced to early childhood education and care through "Study of Children" marked the start of seeking new narrative form in which early childhood education and care in kindergarten was expressed. "Observation of Children" brought the eyes observing children and the style of writing in which they describe children's and their own activities objectively. In such form, kindergarten teachers obtained words describing activities in lesson and play. 3) Typical pattern of practical reports in kindergarten was formed on "Fujin-to-Kodomo" in early 1910s. To exchange experience and knowledge, the editor asked for submission of articles about experience of early childhood care and education written by kindergarten teachers. Those articles discussed improvement of educational methods or educational policy.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the history of Child's Aid and Protective Campaigns from 1920 to 1922 in Japan. From 1910's to 1920's, the high rate of Infant Mortality had become a serious national problem, and the Ministry of Interior Affairs started the enlightenment activities vigorously to improve the conditions of children's health. The most successful campaign was the Children Hygiene Exhibition in 1920. Through the exhibitions, the Ministry of Interior Affairs introduced the scientific, rational thinking of childbirth, childrearing and cares for children, so that the ordinary people could have the healthy life-style and could prevent the diseases for babies. It also stressed that Kindergarten education and day-nursery were the effective institutions to realize those ideals. On the other hand, The Japan Kindergarten Association which was for the preschool education for upper middle class also joined the Child's Aid and Protective Campaigns. It tried to appeal to lower class the importance of Early Childhood Education, the necessity of the establishment of day-nursery and system of nurse-teacher training. However, without clear strategy, the Campaigns ended with only an advocacy and came to a deadlock in two years. Though the enlightenment activities by the Japan Kindergarten Association could not continue, it would be said that those campaigns have the historical meaning in the sense that Kindergarten education approached the social problems and tried to solve them. For future studies, I will examine how those Child's Aid and Protective Campaigns in 1920s had been developed later, especially whether they have influenced the establishment of the Ordinance Relating Kindergarten in 1926 or the establishment of Children's Day in 1947.