The main purpose of this paper is to clarify the relationship between the educational activities of Emilia Santamaria Formiggini (1877-1971) and national education in her time. Until recently, Santamaria was evaluated only as a person of correct understanding of Frobel education in Italy, but now her life and all of her educational activities have been clarified by Fava (2002) and Padroni (2004). In these studies however, the research of Santamaria has not been examined from the perspective of its impact on national education. For national education in Italy was saddled with the task of the unification of the language, and therefore instruction in the Italian language was a priority of primary education. However, the author thinks that this was not accomplished in primary education, but in reality it was early childhood education (prior to primary education) which positively contributed to the national education effort of unification of language, and its achievement in Italy. Therefore, the author considers Emilia Santamaria's part in the educational activity during this time as it impacted national education. In this study, the author examines whether the educational activities of Santamaria had any involvement with national education based on studies of Fava and Padroni, from three viewpoints; 1)researchi of educational history, 2)juvenile literature, and 3)activities in the recovered area.
The present study will examine Souzou Kurahashi's (1882-1955) motives and intentions in introducing puppet shows into Japanese kindergarten education for the first time. The research also examines the motives and intentions of puppet show introduction from the standpoint of "shinhoiku" reforms of kindergarten education by Kurahashi that were based on new perspectives not found in traditional research. The research shows that puppets had been a part of Kurahashi's environment since his very earliest days. And the motive for the introducing these shows into kindergarten was to take the puppet shows he liked and to transform them into a pattern that would be suitable for children of kindergarten age. As principal of the kindergarten attached to Tokyo Women's Advanced Teacher-Training School and as an overseas as a researcher Kurahashi went to Europe and America to study the reforms for new kindergarten education there. While there, he made an active effort to study puppet shows as much as he could. He wanted to introduce puppets into kindergarten education and one of the purposes of his overseas studies was to find shows that were suitable for kindergarten-age children. During his time abroad the puppet show he thought most suitable for introduction to kindergartens is that known as guignol. Kurahashi brought the easy-to-prepare guignol back with him in his attempt to spread the use of this puppet theater to every school in Japan. Having child-care workers present guignol puppet shows was something totally new for kindergarten education of the time. The shinkyoiku educational reforms that Kurahashi was involved with, such as the introduction of puppet shows, were very important to Japanese kindergarten education.
This paper examines how Futaba Kindergarten built the network that laid the foundation for infant care and education at nursery schools in Tokyo. Noguchi and Morishima were teachers at the kindergarten attached to the Peer's Girls School and they realized the need to educate slum children. In 1900, under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, they opened the Futaba Kindergarten for the lower strata in Kojimachi. In laying the foundation for the nursery school system, the kindergarten proceeded through four stages. 1) The Futaba kindergarten teachers began to set up an appropriate environment in which children could be cared for and educated. 2) The Home Ministry began a selection of the most effective welfare facilities, and to that end established the Central Charity Association was in 1908. Futaba Kindergarten received a grant from the Home Ministry. 3) In 1913, Noguchi and the woman who would be her eventual successor, Tokunaga, inspected the terrible conditions of Tokyo's slums. That experience forced them to conclude that branches had to be opened in the slums. Immediately thereafter, Tokunaga began working for the Central Charity Association. The Futaba Kindergarten then switched its approach from "education" to "relief" and changed its name to Futaba Nursery School. 4) A branch of the nursery school opened in Shinjuku in 1917. The branch became a trustee organization of the Tokyo Charity Association, with Tokunaga as its director. According to arrangements made by that association, several nursery schools took part in summer camps. During those camps, under Tokunaga's initiative, teachers studied each other. They continued these studies through the establishment of sectional meetings within the Association. Tokunaga played a key role in this. On an inspection tour of the Kansai district she was quite concerned at the lack of education in child welfare facilities there. At sectional meetings she and the members devoted themselves to the study of both child-care and education. Many nursery schools participated in these meetings, and that participation eventually led to the development of a network of Tokyo nursery schools. It was in this way that Futaba Nursery School built the foundation on which the network for nursery schools in Tokyo was developed.
This paper examines the historical development of the system in early childhood education, and the curriculum of bilingual education in multi-ethnic country, Singapore. The government has provided their kindergartens nationwide aggressively. The kindergartens have taught the children of variety ethnic groups with bilingual education by the core-curriculum method. The teaching methods are systematically taught to the teacher in the process of teachers' training.