The purpose of this paper is to examine the beginning of childcare practice for infants with disabilities in wartime through analyzing Komizo's mental process as a nursery school teacher as described in her practical reports. The following four issues were examined: (1) her perspective on childhood development and childcare, (2) ethics and morality of nursery school teachers, (3) how to recognize the mentality and situation of childcare through maternal narratives, and how to respond to them, and (4) how to give meaning to the practical issues of childcare and Komizo's practical experiences concerning National Values and Policy issues. Komizo's childcare practices grew out of Reflexive-relations which reflects the framework of childcare in response to infants. Her framework for childcare practices was not modified during wartime. Although, she developed her own identity and searched for the meaning of childcare for exceptional infants, she spontaneously internalized the Emperor ideology and consciousness of war mobilization, recognizing the linkage between childcare practices and nationalism.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify the role played by the Childcare Research Division of the Japanese Educational Kamishibai (paper theater) Association in establishing Youji Kamishibai (kamishibai for preschool children) by analyzing the activities of the Division of Childcare Research, and using related materials such as the bulletin"Kyouiku Kamishibai". This research implies that the Childcare Research Division played a great role in establishing Youji Kamishibai. First, the Division of Childcare Research which specialized in Youji Kamishibai was set up in the Japanese Educational Kamishibai Association, maintaining distance from Kokusaku Kamishibai (war propaganda kamishibai). This division held meetings of the Society for "Childcare and Kamishibai" in order to investigate various themes regarding kamishibai. Second, the members of the Society for Youji Kamishibai of the Division of Childcare Research lived with children and made a lot of Youji Kamishibai in collaboration with individuals on site. Those kamishibai which Daiji Kawasaki mostly wrote were excellent and interested many children. Third, the Japanese Educational Kamishibai Association published a pamphlet "Childcare and Kamishibai" and demonstrated basic kamishibai performance techniques that any storyteller could perform. Fourth, concerning the organic relationship between childcare and kamishibai, Daiji Kawasaki explained the necessity of grounding kamishibai firmly on childcare programs, and illustrated various methods on how to use kamishibai.
The purpose of this research is to explore the characteristics of the Normal Kindergarten Course at a university in Japan through its curriculum and the practices of the graduates, as well as identify the traits and context of the information they used. Elizabeth Patton Milliken (1860-1951), a Presbyterian missionary, founded the Normal Kindergarten Course at Sakurai Women's school in 1884, which pioneered kindergarten training in Japan, graduating 43 students until its closing in 1898. The two characteristics of the mission school program are as follows: 1) Training kindergarten teachers as independent professionals in kindergartens, and establishing the Normal Kindergarten Course as an elective. 2) Emphasizing Froebelian kindergarten ideas based on Christianity. These characteristics influenced the practices of the upper middle class educated female graduates. Because they understood Christianity deeply, they adopted the Froebelian ideal of what a kindergarten should be. In addition, they understood English, so they could directly integrate information from American kindergartens. As a result, these kindergarten teachers were successful in enhancing the professional educational practices in Japan. The Christian kindergarten training school was formerly regarded as a minor position, as compared to the public sector. However, as has been noted, the Normal Kindergarten Course at Sakurai Women's School led the Japanese kindergarten training program in terms of quality and quantity.