The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct Syokichi Tomita's view of childhood, focusing on its relation to debates on the institutionalization of day care centers in interwar Japan. Particular attention is paid to two aspects: 1) examining his view of childhood not just in relation to day care centers and day nurseries, but also in relation to overall social work and social policies (including plans) for child protection, and 2) the fact that Tomita (1878-1943), director of the first day care center in Osaka was personally involved in these debates. The first plans to enact day nurseries were put together in 1926, one by Hiroki Oka (1884-1939), the secretary of the Tokyo Prefecture Social Work Association, and the other by the Home Ministry. Day nurseries had already been discussed in the early 1920s in the context of plans to enact laws on child protection, but the 1926 plans were both influenced by the establishment of the Kindergarten Edict (1926), although they differed in content. After the Great Depression, the movement to enact an edict on day nurseries was developed mainly by people involved in day nurseries in the countryside. Their plan for an edict was similar to that of the Home Ministry, which treated day nurseries as health institutions and regulated the qualifications of nurses and the provisions of financial support. Tomita, on the other hand, supported an edict limited to the improvement of the health and hygiene functions of day nurseries. Furthermore, Tomita's conception of child protection included child rescue work, viewed children aged 3 and up as objects of education, and attempted to address the problems of the urban poor and workers in mining areas through social work and social policies for mothers and children. His view of childhood was an original one that included social aspects.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: to consider the process used by Hoikumondai-kenkyukai (Study Group of Early Childhood Care and Education) to design new curriculums for preschool children, and examine the curriculums in the context of the Pacific War in Japan. Some members of the study group contributed articles to two journals, Hoikumondai-kenkyu and Kokumin-hoiku. Over the past few decades a considerable number of studies have been made on articles printed in the former. However, the latter have never been examined. The aim here is to connect these journals and consider the articles in them synthetically. Furthermore, this paper highlights quality of research the members of Hoikumondai-kenkyukai did on the curriculums in time of war.
John Colet was an early-Tudor humanist and the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral, London. This paper analyses John Colet's views on children by focusing on the educational practice at St Paul's School, which he founded during 1509-1512. Previous studies, based mainly on the educational theory writings of other humanists, do not examine in detail the views their subjects held on children in schools. On the other hand, this study closely examines the articles of admission to St Paul's School, the school statutes, and the textbooks used at the school. The study produced the following observations: 1. Colet saw children as Imago Dei, representing pure divine innocence in contrast to adults, whom he saw as embodiments of worldly sin. This view of children was, for example, reflected in the system of the 'principal child', in which older boys helped to teach younger children. 2. Colet treated children as subjects with free will and dignity. For this reason, the teaching practices at St Paul's were designed to accommodate children's individual volition. 3. Colet regarded children as tender beings that grew and developed naturally. Therefore, textbooks were designed by considering the different stages of child development. 4. Colet's views on children contrasted with those of Erasmus. He thought a child should be brought up as naturally as possible. Therefore, the notion of the 'Perfect Child' was a central educational target for Colet.