The Japanese Journal of the historical studies of early childhood education and care
Online ISSN : 2432-1877
Print ISSN : 1881-5049
Volume 9
Showing 1-22 articles out of 22 articles from the selected issue
  • Yoshiki YONEMURA
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 9 Pages 1-16
    Published: October 31, 2014
    Released: March 27, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify coloring or "nurie" and its instruction at kindergartens in the Showa Pre-War Era (1926-1937) by analyzing coloring books and related articles by Sozo Kurahash and Fumi Oikawa. Coloring books for kindergarten children were published mainly to cultivate muscle coordination, concentration and color distribution by the Japan Kindergarten Association as a result of collaborative investigations of Kurahashi and Oikawa. As the demand for the coloring books increased, multiple revisions of the texts were published, and they eventually spread throughout the nation. According to Kurahashi, coloring afforded two pleasures to young children: a creative pleasure of coloring freely, and an imitative pleasure of coloring objects or models. Teachers in the Kobe kindergarten reported that coloring promoted children's spontaneity and developed color arrangement and technical free drawing skills. Colored pencil were considered to be more suitable than crayons for coloring carefully within the lines. It should be noted that coloring in kindergartens was performed not only independent of handicrafts but also comprehensively as project activities, such as "playing shop". Although coloring was often criticized for stifling children's creativity, Kurahashi argued that the critics confused free drawing with coloring. Teachers in the kindergarten attached to Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School denied any harmful effects of coloring on free drawing.
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  • Hiroko SEKIGUCHI
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 9 Pages 17-31
    Published: October 31, 2014
    Released: March 27, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the second half of 18th century Germany, well-known composers came to create many folksong-like children's songs with simple, approachable, and short melodies. J.A. Hiller's "Lieder fur Kinder" can be called a leading work from the earliest part of that period. In this essay it became clear that Hiller's songs are musically simple compositions in structure, but many of the lyrics are instructive after a detailed analysis of the compositions and lyrics. Some children's songs, beginning with those of Hiller's "Lieder fur Kinder", were used as teaching material in the Philanthropin school etc., and this became an opportunity for worldly songs to be used as teaching material in schools. This can be said to be one beginning for the modernisation of music education.
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  • Tomoe SANO
    Type: Article
    2014 Volume 9 Pages 33-48
    Published: October 31, 2014
    Released: March 27, 2018
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The purpose of this study is to examine the content of the Certificate Examination system for kidergarten teachers after the establishment of the "Imperial Order on Kindergarten" in 1926. In Japan prior to the Second World War, there were two systems to acquire a kindergarten teacher's license: one was a certificate examination system and the other was through assessing the candidate's work history and/or relevant licenses held. This paper clarifies two points in relation to the certificate exam: the number of examinees and successful candidates, and the contents of the examination. Thus, I will show the questions and source materials of this examination which highlight the contents of a kindergarten teacher's special knowledge and teaching technique.
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