The purpose of this paper is to clarify coloring or "nurie" and its instruction at kindergartens in the Showa Pre-War Era (1926-1937) by analyzing coloring books and related articles by Sozo Kurahash and Fumi Oikawa. Coloring books for kindergarten children were published mainly to cultivate muscle coordination, concentration and color distribution by the Japan Kindergarten Association as a result of collaborative investigations of Kurahashi and Oikawa. As the demand for the coloring books increased, multiple revisions of the texts were published, and they eventually spread throughout the nation. According to Kurahashi, coloring afforded two pleasures to young children: a creative pleasure of coloring freely, and an imitative pleasure of coloring objects or models. Teachers in the Kobe kindergarten reported that coloring promoted children's spontaneity and developed color arrangement and technical free drawing skills. Colored pencil were considered to be more suitable than crayons for coloring carefully within the lines. It should be noted that coloring in kindergartens was performed not only independent of handicrafts but also comprehensively as project activities, such as "playing shop". Although coloring was often criticized for stifling children's creativity, Kurahashi argued that the critics confused free drawing with coloring. Teachers in the kindergarten attached to Tokyo Women's Higher Normal School denied any harmful effects of coloring on free drawing.
In the second half of 18th century Germany, well-known composers came to create many folksong-like children's songs with simple, approachable, and short melodies. J.A. Hiller's "Lieder fur Kinder" can be called a leading work from the earliest part of that period. In this essay it became clear that Hiller's songs are musically simple compositions in structure, but many of the lyrics are instructive after a detailed analysis of the compositions and lyrics. Some children's songs, beginning with those of Hiller's "Lieder fur Kinder", were used as teaching material in the Philanthropin school etc., and this became an opportunity for worldly songs to be used as teaching material in schools. This can be said to be one beginning for the modernisation of music education.
The purpose of this study is to examine the content of the Certificate Examination system for kidergarten teachers after the establishment of the "Imperial Order on Kindergarten" in 1926. In Japan prior to the Second World War, there were two systems to acquire a kindergarten teacher's license: one was a certificate examination system and the other was through assessing the candidate's work history and/or relevant licenses held. This paper clarifies two points in relation to the certificate exam: the number of examinees and successful candidates, and the contents of the examination. Thus, I will show the questions and source materials of this examination which highlight the contents of a kindergarten teacher's special knowledge and teaching technique.
This paper is based on the third proposal of the Symposium entitled "The historical examination of Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) reforms in foreign countries," which was held at the 9th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Historical Studies of Early Childhood Education and Care in Japan (30 Nov. 2013, Aoyama Gakuin Women's Junior College). This paper gives an overview of the history of the ECCE system in three Russias from the Mid-19th Century to the Beginning of the 21st Century: the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union, and Russian Federation. The results of the analysis of the ECCE system in the Russian Federation in particular reveal two points. One is three areas of comparison: the introduction of the free ECCE system, the location of the ECCE institutions in the whole school system, and the improvement of the quality of ECCE. These areas are inseparably linked to the ECCE reforms of the Russian Federation. The ECCE system during the Russian Revolution in the early 20th century began to get close to realizing its goal after about a century. The other point is that the social positioning of the ECCE institutions is changing from emphasizing welfare facilities, which aims to "simultaneously guarantee the development of the child and labor rights of working mothers" of the Soviet period to placing emphasis on educational institutions for young children, especially 5-year-old children.