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Asperger's syndrome with unusual cerebral pathology: Case report and literature review
A case of Asperger's syndrome with unusual cerebral pathological changes is reported. A 22-year-old male had been having diagnostic Asperger's syndrome since the age of eight and had epilepsy during the past two years. Radiological studies revealed a focal intra-axial cortical and subcortical cerebral lesion with hyper-intensity and non-enhancing contrast in the left frontal lobe. Histological and immunohistochemical studies demonstrated that the lesion consisted of cortical laminar disorganization, neuronal dysmorphism and increased heterotopic neurons in sub-cortical white matter. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Asperger's syndrome with focal cerebral pathological abnormalities rather than mini-columnar changes and the gyrial malformation reported in the literature.
Inadequate support and neglect of children with developmental disabilities often engenders "secondary symptoms", such as school non-attendance, withdrawal, and criminal acts. Through a questionnaire survey of resource rooms in elementary and lower secondary schools in the Tokyo metropolitan area, the present study assessed the actual conditions that students with developmental disabilities confront, focusing on maladjustment problems of and problems of educational support for students with mild developmental disabilities. The survey results revealed many possible reasons for these students' school maladjustment. Suggestions for improvement were also described. Furthermore, the results revealed that cooperation among guardians, schools, resource rooms, counseling organizations, and medical institutions is extremely insufficient. It is strongly urged that schools and related organizations promote guardians' understanding of their children's disabilities.
Infantile Cerebellar Pilocytic Astrocytoma with Autism Spectrum Disorder
The etiology of autism remains unclear, but relationships to cerebellar factors have been reported. We report 2 cases of infantile cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma in children with autism spectrum disorder. Cerebellar tumors may be related to the pathogenesis of autism.
The present study attempted to identify behavioral and movement characteristics of children with autism or attention deficit/hyperactive disorder (ADHD), using factor analysis. Participants were 30 children with autism (26 boys and 4 girls; 5 years 7 months to 10 years 3 months; mean CA=6:2), and 22 children with ADHD (18 boys and 4 girls; 5 years 3 months to 9 years 11 months; mean CA=6:8). The mean IQ was 76 (range 71-89) for the children with autism, and 74 (range 71-83) for the children with ADHD. A behavior checklist (21 items) and a movement checklist (22 items) were administered. Factor analysis of the behavior checklist revealed 4 factors: "lack of active relating to others" (Factor I), "persistent interest in objects" (Factor II), "psychological tension and suppressed emotional expression" (Factor III), and "lack of sympathy with others" (Factor IV). The following factors were obtained from the movement checklist: "lack of active control of bodily movement" (Factor I), "insufficiency of movement skill and movement coordination" (Factor II), "impulsivity" (Factor III), and "hyperexcitability in mind and body" (Factor IV). For the children with autism, comparison of factor scores from the behavior checklist revealed that Factor I, Factor III, and Factor IV were their dominant characteristics, while comparison of the movement checklist factor scores indicated that Factor I was a salient characteristic for them.
Emotional recognition of children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder
  • Moe Eto, Saeko Sakai, Tomoka Yamamoto, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike
  • 感情心理学研究
  • Vol. 22 (2014) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2014年12月12日
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder have difficulties recognizing emotional information, especially from facial expressions. The present study investigated facial expression recognition ability among 17 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder and 26 typically developing children. Three facial expression tasks were used: the Eyes Task, the Morphed Faces Task, and the Movie Stills Task with and without faces. Children were asked to adapt emotional words for stimuli (eye stimuli and emotional scenes) or rate emotional intensity from facial expressions. Results showed that children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder had difficulties perceiving subtle fear, complex emotions, and using contextual information appropriately in the absence of faces. These findings suggest that difficulty in recognizing emotional information from not only facial expressions but also contextual cues could provide a basis for understanding to social deficits among children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.
NOCOA: A Computer-Based Training Tool for Social and Communication Skills That Exploits Non-verbal Behaviors
The number of people with social skills and communication difficulties is now greater than ever for a variety of reasons. Our objective is to measure these difficulties, and enable people with these difficulties to improve their social and communication skills for use in the real world. This paper examines the relationship between non-verbal communication skills and the autism spectrum quotient among members of the general population. We also propose a training framework for these skills. Pre- and post- learning results were examined to find the effects of the training. The results showed an improvement after a 20-minute learning session, indicating that training could help enhance non-verbal communication skills for members of the general population.
  • 鈴木 勝昭, 尾内 康臣, 中村 和彦, 杉原 玄一, 竹林 淳和, 武井 教使, 森 則夫
  • 脳と精神の医学
  • Vol. 20 (2009) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2011年02月02日
In the present study, people with developmental disabilities (LD, ADHD, Asperger syndrome, high functional autism, intellectual disabilities, and so on; N=79) completed a questionnaire. The aim was to clarify the response and support for problems that they had had in adjusting to school life, human relations, and daily life while they were in school. This had been specifically requested by the respondents. On the basis of an analysis of notes written by people with developmental disabilities and parties in charge, as well as published research, a checklist was developed to measure understanding and support for difficulties and problems in adjustment to school life, human relations, and daily life in the school. Many of the free comments indicated that the support required by the respondents was diverse, and that careful consideration was necessary in relation to individuals' difficulties and needs. To support people who are in charge of those with developmental disabilities, many of the respondents requested a way to relate to them. Heeding comments of the respondents provides clues to the support that they need.
  • Shino OGAWA, Miwa FUKUSHIMA, Ayana TAMURA, Hiroyasu ITO
  • Vol. 52 (2009) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2010年01月26日
Children with developmental disorders are assumed to have a delay in reaching an age at which they can succeed in Theory of Mind tasks compared with their verbal mental age. However, the methods of the Theory of Mind tasks, picture story books or demonstrations for example, are not well suited to those who have difficulties in concentration, selective attention, reading, hearing correctly and understanding. This research used the picture story show as the method for three Theory of Mind tasks and showed that children who were thought to be unable to pass the tasks based on preceding studies could pass the tasks. The form “picture-story show” might be a better way for children with developmental disorders to understand the meaning of tasks. In addition, not the verbal mental age but the ability to understand task contents might be most important for children with developmental disorders to succeed with Theory of Mind tasks.
Editorial for the Special Issue: WHAT IS LEARNING SCIENCE?
  • Nobuo MASATAKA
  • Vol. 52 (2009) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2010年01月26日
Outline of “Learning Science” is briefly overviewed.
  • 森脇 愛子, 伊藤 良子, 藤野 博
  • 特殊教育学研究
  • Vol. 48 (2011) No. 6
  • 公開日: 2017年07月28日
The present study aimed to compare the characteristics of empathy as scaffolding for constructing friendships. Participants were 24 high-functioning children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and, for comparison, 24 typically developing children (TYP). The children were matched on age (7-11 years) and gender (each group included 6 girls). The empathic responses that were analyzed included Parallel Empathy (P-E), which refers to reproduction of another person's feelings, and Reactive Empathy (R-E), which refers to one's emotional reaction to another person's feelings. The children's empathic response to their closest friend was measured with the Affective Situation Test (AST). The children with autism spectrum disorders achieved the same level of Parallel Empathy scores as the typically developing children; however, the Reactive Empathy scores of more than a third of the children with autism spectrum disorders were noticeably lower than those of the typically developing children. This suggests that a weakness in Reactive Empathy in children with autism spectrum disorders may be an important factor in the difficulty that they have in constructing reciprocal relationships with friends.
  • 荻野 竜也, 服部 旬里, 浅野 孝, 安東 節子, 岡 〓次
  • 認知神経科学
  • Vol. 2 (2000) No. Special
  • 公開日: 2011年07月05日
  • Vol. 52 (2009) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2009年12月15日
This study examined perceptual distortion of visual illusions in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing children to determine whether local bias exists in low-level visual processing in ASD as the weak central coherence (WCC) theoretical account predicts. To explore whether higher-level contextual information can be integrated with low-level information in ASD, the perception with and without perspective cues was also examined. The children with ASD succumbed to illusions to a lesser degree than did the comparison group, and the degree of perceptual distortion was negatively correlated with Block Design score, a marker of WCC. The presence of perspective cues did not increase perceptual distortion among both groups to a statistically significant degree. The results support the WCC account suggesting abnormalities in integrating visual information in low-level processing in individuals with ASD when they perceived illusory figures.
Relationship between Empathizing-Systemizing Cognitive Styles and Mind Reading among Japanese Adolescents
  • 順天堂醫事雑誌
  • Vol. 60 (2014) No. 6
  • 公開日: 2015年06月03日
Objective: “Mind reading” is the ability to understand another individual’s mental states. In particular, individuals with developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, have a deficit in mind reading abilities. Similarly, individual differences in mind reading also exist among the healthy population and are often the cause of misunderstandings. Although the Empathizing and Systemizing Theory (E-S theory) has been used to explain individual developmental differences, its applicability to mind reading among Japanese adolescents has not been investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether the E-S theory explains individual differences in mind reading among Japanese adolescents.
Participants: Participants were 240 Japanese university students (M=20.58, SD=0.51).
Methods: We administered questionnaires based on Japanese versions of the Empathy and Systemizing Quotients, and the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test.
Results: Empathizing, but not systemizing, was found to be related to mind reading. Additionally, relative differences in empathizing and systemizing, rather than its combination, were associated with mind reading.
Conclusion: Since relative differences in empathizing and systemizing affect mind reading, we concluded that the E-S theory explains individual differences in mind reading among Japanese adolescents.
自閉症スペクトラム指数 (AQ) 日本語版の標準化
  • 若林 明雄, 東條 吉邦, Simon Baron-Cohen, Sally Wheelwright
  • 心理学研究
  • Vol. 75 (2004) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2010年07月16日
Baron-Cohen, Wheelwright, Skinner, Martin, and Clubley (2001) constructed brief, self-administered instruments named the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), for measuring the degree to which an adult with normal intelligence has the traits associated with the autistic spectrum. In this paper, we report on a Japanese version of this new instrument. Three groups of Japanese subjects were assessed. Group 1 (n=57) consisted of adults with Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA). The other two groups were control groups. Subjects of Group 2 (n=194) were normal adults and those of Group 3 (n=1050) were students selected from five Universities in Tokyo and Chiba. The adults with AS/HFA had a mean AQ score of 37.9 (SD=5.31), which was significantly higher than the two control groups (Group 2: X=18.5, SD=6.21, and Group 3: X=20.7, SD=6.388). While eighty-eight percent of the adults with AS/HFA scored more than 33 points, only 3% of subjects in the two control groups indicated those points. Among the controls, males scored slightly but significantly higher than females. The reliability of the AQ in both test-retest and inter-rater measures were significantly high.
Visual perception of unstructured figures in patients with autism spectrum disorder : a preliminary study
  • Tomoko Muramatsu, Hideo Nakatani, Mitsuru Kikuchi, Toshio Munesue
  • 脳科学誌
  • Vol. 40 (2013)
  • 公開日: 2017年06月01日
Ambiguous figures, such as the reversible figure of the girl/old women (Boring, 1930), have inspired an enormous amount of research into the domain of visual perception. However, visual perception of unstructured figures, such as stains on walls, which contain no meanings themselves, has not been a main topic of research in healthy subjects or in subjects with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The aims of this study were to obtain inkblot responses characteristic of subjects with ASD (n=36), to compare these response to those of healthy subjects (n=50), and to assess whether these responses had any relevance to ASD traits, as evaluated using standard questionnaires, such as the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) and the Empathy Quotient (EQ). All of the responses of each subject were scored using the Exner Comprehensive Scoring System, which is the standard method for evaluating responses to the Rorschach test. The scores of total responses were not different between the subjects with ASD and healthy subjects. Only the scores for the variable designated FM were significantly lower in ASD subjects compared to healthy subjects, indicating that the subjects perceived animals in motion in their visual perceptions of unstructured figures in inkblots. Furthermore, the FM scores demonstrated a significantly inverse correlation with the AQ scores and were significantly correlated with the EQ scores. Each variable of M indicated a response of humans in motion, with m indicating a response of inanimate in motion, Human indicating total responses concerning humans, and Animal indicating total responses concerning animals; these measurements were not different between the two groups and were not correlated with the scores on the AQ or the EQ. Based on this preliminary study, representations of animals in motion in visual perception may be a subject that could shed light on the biological relevance between unstructured figures and autism traits.
広汎性発達障害(pervasive developmental disorders ; PDD)における社会的相互関係の障害を代表するものとして,顔認識や表情処理の障害があげられる。 我々のグループでは,これまでに健常者を対象に,感情価の異なる表情刺激を呈示した際の前頭前野活動性を近赤外線スペクトロスコピー(near-infrared spectroscopy ; NIRS)を用いて調べ,恐怖表情では喜びの表情と比べ酸素化ヘモグロビン変化量の増加が大きいことを示した。また,恐怖表情における血流量変化と自閉症傾向を示す自閉症スペクトラム指数との間で有意な負の相関が認めることを見いだした。 ついで我々は PDD 14名と年齢,性別の一致した健常対照群14名を対象とし,恐怖表情処理過程における前頭前野活動性を検討し,酸素化ヘモグロビン変化量は健常対照群と比べPDD群で有意に小さいことを示した。 NIRSは非侵襲性と簡便性を併せもち,心理的および身体的負担が少ないことから,発達障害の病態研究において有用なツールになりうると考えられる。
Detection of Antibodies against Borna Disease Virus Proteins in an Autistic Child and Her Mother
  • Tomoyuki Honda, Kozue Sofuku, Hidenori Matsunaga, Masaya Tachibana, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike, Keizo Tomonaga
  • Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
  • Vol. 70 (2017) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2017年03月24日
    早期公開日: 2016年10月31日
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS) exhibit contrasting forms of emotion comprehension; however, few studies have directly compared the two. In this study, we directly compared six children with ASD, chronological age 3–7, with six children with WS, chronological ages ranging 4–11, but were matched with the ASD children in terms of developmental age. The children’s development of emotion comprehension was assessed by intramodal (visual stimulus–visual stimulus) and cross-modal (auditory stimulus–visual stimulus) matching. Facial expressions were used as visual stimuli, and affective prosodies were used as auditory stimuli. Children with ASD were less accurate than those with WS on cross-modal matching, but equally accurate on intramodal matching. The results suggest that deficits in emotion comprehension among children with ASD may be related to difficulties in understanding the relationship between auditory and visual stimuli and the deficits may be greater at younger ages.
  • 荻野 竜也, 服部 旬里, 浅野 孝, 安東 節子, 岡 〓次
  • 認知神経科学
  • Vol. 2 (2000) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2011年07月05日
  • 栗原 まな, 中江 陽一郎, 小萩沢 利孝, 衛藤 義勝
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 34 (2002) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2011年08月10日
Pickwick症候群を呈したAsperger症候群の13歳女児について報告した.入院時主訴は睡眠時無呼吸発作で, 夜間1~3時頃になると腹臥位で頸部を周期性に挙上する呼吸パターンがみられた.入院時肥満度は64%であった.終夜睡眠ポリグラフでは軽睡眠時とREM睡眠時に, 下顎の緊張が低下し, 脈拍の上昇・SpO2の低下が出現し, また睡眠構造では深睡眠・REM睡眠の割合が減少していた.これらの所見は成人のPickwick症候群で報告されている所見と同様であった.またAsperger症候群であるため, 入院中の体重減少も容易ではなかったが, 退院後は体重コントロールに難渋している.
Empathizing-Systemizing モデルによる性差の検討
  • 若林 明雄, バロン-コーエン サイモン, ウィールライト サリー
  • 心理学研究
  • Vol. 77 (2006) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2010年07月16日
Empathizing is a drive to identify another person's emotions and thoughts and respond to them appropriately. Systemizing is a drive to analyze systems or construct systems. The Empathizing-Systemizing (E-S) model suggests that these are major dimensions in which individuals differ from each other, and women being superior in empathizing and men in systemizing. In this study, we examined new questionnaires, the Empathy Quotient (EQ) and the Systemizing Quotient (SQ). Participants were 1 250 students, 616 men and 634 women, from eight universities, who completed both the EQ and SQ. Results showed that women scored higher than men on the EQ, and the result was reversed on the SQ. Results also showed that humanities majors scored higher than sciences majors on the EQ, and again the result was reversed on the SQ. The results were discussed in relation to the E-S theory of gender differences.
  • 油井 邦雄, Declan Murphy, 濱川 浩
  • 脳と精神の医学
  • Vol. 20 (2009) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2010年06月25日
Application of NIRS as a non-invasive and supportive tool for Autism spectrum disorders
  • Naoko Narita
  • 生体医工学
  • Vol. 53 (2015) No. Supplement
  • 公開日: 2016年06月18日
We have previously proved prefrontal hemodynamic change in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) subjects according to switching task using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) lacks synchronizing evoke of oxygenated hemoglobin, although the task performance rates were almost equivalent to the controls. Therefore, next we have applied the neurofeedback (NFB) system using NIRS for ASD subjects to establish their task-related PFC activity control. The NFB system using wireless NIRS was preliminarily applied to 4 ASD individuals with a session consists of 7 consecutive trials. They partially showed improvement in PFC blood oxygenation response to the self-stimulation of neurofeedback by plotting oxy-Hb and d(oxy-Hb)dt and detect barycentric points appearance. Additionally, the average data of working memory and non-working memory switching task, stroop test, anxiety test, self-evaluation test, and mood test, were all improved during the NFB training , as well as follow-up check. These results suggests us that it might be possible to apply NIRS as a non-invasive sub diagnostic tool as well as active supporting tool for ASD subjects.
広汎性発達障害(PDD)に関する認知科学的・精神生理学的研究について展望した。精神生理学的研究に関しては,覚醒や注意について事象関連電位や自律神経活動の指標を用いて PDD 群に何らかの所見を見出した報告が多い。対人的注意については行動学的検査をもとに共同注意の低下を示す所見が得られている。脳機能画像を用いた研究からは,顔・表情や感情などの対人的処理と関連する領域を中心に所見が得られている。例えば,表情に対する扁桃体の低活動,顔に対する紡錘状回や上側頭回の賦活減少などが報告されている。さらに,対人的刺激に対し,ミラーニューロンにあたる下前頭回弁蓋部や眼窩部前頭前野の賦活減少もしばしば見出されている。聴覚刺激を用いた研究でも,主に対人的刺激に対する非定型的反応が報告されている。以上のように,PDD に関して非高次機能および対人的認知機能を中心に所見が集まりつつあると言える。
パーキンソン病(PD)の認知機能障害というと,手続き記憶障害,遂行機能障害,視空間認知障害,嗅覚障害,それに加えて病的賭博などの社会行動障害などが記載されてきた.われわれは,PDにおけるこれらの認知機能に加えて社会的認知機能(Social cognitive function)に着目し,とくに病初期症例で検討した.社会的認知機能には,表情認知機能,意思決定機能,さらに,自閉症で詳しく検討され,機能の大脳責任部位が明らかにされつつある他者心理推測機能などがふくまれる.その結果,PDでは,表情認知・意思決定・他者心理の推測機能のいずれにおいても異常がみられ,脳波のダイポール課題の結果などから,それらの障害がとくに扁桃体機能障害と関連することを明らかにした.PDは運動障害のいわゆる4徴候以外に,早期から各種認知機能障害がみられ,PDは今,新しい角度から捉えなおさなければならない疾患であると思われる.
  • 山本 淳一, 楠本 千枝子
  • 認知科学
  • Vol. 14 (2007) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2009年04月24日
Children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) are diagnosed by deficits in social interaction and linguistic skills, and restricted interests and stereotypic pattern of behavior. They have difficulties in motor, perceptual, cognitive, linguistic functions. In the present article, we proposed the comprehensive view point for understanding children with ASD; Relationships between various psychological functions, interaction between individual and environment, developmental mechanisms and developmental change by the appropriate intervention. We first described the profiles of ASD, prevalence, diagnostic criteria and resent assessment measures with the possibilities for very earlier screening in one year. Recent advancement of early intervention studies and the guideline for the application showed that early intensive treatment, pivotal behavior treatment, structured environment and parent-support program were effective for promoting the development of children with ASD. The developmental mechanism and treatment curriculum were analyzed in positive social interaction, joint attention, imitation, auditory comprehension, vocal production, verbal behavior and conversation. Children with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome have deficits in understanding ambiguous context, higher-ordered linguistic rules, social interaction and other's “mind”. We reviewed the treatment studies for these difficulties and found that the effective treatment included the “visualized” procedures, because children with ASD have “strength” in visual thinking. Video modeling and in-vivo role playing were effective for generalizing the acquired social skills to everyday life situation. We, as scientist ⁄ practitioner, discussed the future direction of evidence-based studies for developing children with ASD.
自閉性障害,アスペルガー障害および特定不能の広汎性発達障害における記憶機能の異同を,標準化された記憶機能検査(Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised以下,WMS-R)を用いて検討した。その結果,「言語性記憶」「一般的記憶」「遅延再生」において有意な主効果が認められ,自閉性障害では3指標とも他の2群に比して有意に劣っていた。さらに,広汎性発達障害に特異的に認められる記憶想起現象であるtime slip現象について,記憶機能との関係を検討した。time slip現象の出現率は3群間で有意差は認められなかった。さらに記憶指標とtime slip現象の関係を検討したところ,「遅延再生」が高いほどtime slip現象が起こりやすく,また「言語性記憶」が高いほどtime slip現象は抑制されやすいという結果を得た。
NOCOA+: Multimodal Computer-Based Training for Social and Communication Skills
Non-verbal communication incorporating visual, audio, and contextual information is important to make sense of and navigate the social world. Individuals who have trouble with social situations often have difficulty recognizing these sorts of non-verbal social signals. In this article, we propose a training tool NOCOA+ (Non-verbal COmmuniation for Autism plus) that uses utterances in visual and audio modalities in non-verbal communication training. We describe the design of NOCOA+, and further perform an experimental evaluation in which we examine its potential as a tool for computer-based training of non-verbal communication skills for people with social and communication difficulties. In a series of four experiments, we investigated 1) the effect of temporal context on the ability to recognize social signals in testing context, 2) the effect of modality of presentation of social stimulus on ability to recognize non-verbal information, 3) the correlation between autistic traits as measured by the autism spectrum quotient (AQ) and non-verbal behavior recognition skills measured by NOCOA+, 4) the effectiveness of computer-based training in improving social skills. We found that context information was helpful for recognizing non-verbal behaviors, and the effect of modality was different. The results also showed a significant relationship between the AQ communication and socialization scores and non-verbal communication skills, and that social skills were significantly improved through computer-based training.
The present study examined effects of a function-based intervention on a student's participation in his class and on his teachers' implementation of the intervention. A 12-year-old boy with Asperger's syndrome participated, along with staff at his school. Functional assessment of the student's behavior suggested that his problem behavior might be maintained by the consequences of escape and attention. In Intervention I, setting events and extinction were introduced. In Intervention II, based on a functional assessment of the teachers' behavior, the procedure was modified to add permission cards, which were visual cues for implementation of the intervention. It was hypothesized that the cards would function as an alternative to the problem behavior. The results showed that the function-based intervention with the permission cards was effective for reducing the student's problem behavior and for facilitating implementation by the school staff. The results were discussed in terms of the function of the permission cards and the importance of assessment of the teachers' behavior.
Children with pervasive developmental disorders frequently use stereotyped and repetitive language known as echolalia. In previous studies, these utterances have been defined as unconventional verbal behavior that could be classified into 4 types: immediate echolalia, delayed echolalia, incessant questioning, and repetitive language. It has been suggested that these 4 types of utterances differing functions, such as self-regulation, turn-taking, and protesting. In the present study, we examined the development of unconventional verbal behavior by focusing on these functions. When we interviewed the participants, who were the parents of 16 children with pervasive developmental disorders, we asked them: (1) the time when each function occurred, and (2) whether each function had disappeared or not. The results showed that in the children's developmental process, the self-stimulatory function of delayed echolalia had occurred before incessant questioning appeared. Moreover, some functions tended either to disappear or to continue during development. Finally, the developmental features of unconventional verbal behavior based on the various functions are discussed.
  • Hiroyasu ITO, Namiko KUBO-KAWAI, Miwa FUKUSHIMA, Reiko SAWADA, Nobuo MASATAKA
  • Vol. 51 (2008) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2009年04月01日
`Learning science' has become an independent area of empirical research, which enables us to develop evidenced-based educational programs for children with developmental disorders. Here we argue the perspective of such science as being an interdisciplinary one between cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy. We suggest the possibility that the science would serve as the basis to identify the cause of learning difficulties, to develop educational support methods to facilitate learning, and to implement these methods at schools, homes, rehabilitation centers, and other educational venues.
Differences of salivary cortisol levels between long-term and short-term wearers of dento-maxillary prosthesis due to head and neck cancer resection
  • Moe Kosaka, Yuka I. Sumita, Takafumi Otomaru, Hisashi Taniguchi
  • Journal of Prosthodontic Research
  • Journal of Prosthodontic Research Vol. 58 (2014) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2014年03月04日
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to use cortisol awakening response (CAR) to investigate the differences in daily life stress experienced by individuals wearing either a long-term (LT) or a short-term (ST) dento-maxillary prosthesis following head and neck cancer (HNC) resection. Also we used the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) version 4 questionnaire to evaluate the differences in quality of life (QOL) scores between ST and LT wearers of a dento-maxillary prosthesis.
Methods: Salivary samples were collected from 11 LT and 10 ST prosthesis wearers on two consecutive days at two time points, immediately after waking up (T0) and 30 min later (T30), by passive drool collection. Cortisol levels were measured using a high sensitivity salivary cortisol enzyme immunoassay kit (Salimetrics, LLC, State College, PA, USA) and CAR (the differences between the cortisol levels at T0 and T30) was compared between LT and ST prosthesis wearers. In addition, both the groups completed the UW-QOL questionnaire and the scores were compared.
Results: A significant difference was observed in CAR between the two groups. CAR of the ST prosthesis wearers was significantly lower compared with that of the LT prosthesis wearers; moreover, the ST prosthesis wearers revealed significantly lower total UW-QOL scores and there were significant differences in appearance, activity, recreation, speech, and anxiety.
Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, the findings suggest that individuals wearing ST dento-maxillary prostheses following HNC resection experience some sort of daily life stress and complicated socio-demographic factors may influence their QOL.
The effect of different imitation models on theaccuracy and speed of imitation of movement
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy, speed and subjective ease of imitation of movement using three different imitation models. [Subjects] Thirty-four right-handed healthy males participated in this study. [Methods] The imitation task chosen for this study was an asymmetric combined motion of the upper and lower limbs. Three kinds of imitation models were displayed on a screen as follows: a) third person perspective mirror imitation (3PM), b) third person perspective anatomical imitation (3PA), and c) first person perspective ipsilateral imitation (1PI). Subjects were instructed to imitate the movement shown on a screen as quickly and as accurately as possible. They executed four sets of the movement with each set consisting of one trial of each of the three imitation models. [Results] 3PM was the most accurate, and 1PI was the fastest in speed and subjective ease of imitation, compared with the other two imitation models. [Conclusion] These results suggest that 1PI and 3PM, which do not require mental rotation of the movement task as required by 3PA, should be considered more suitable imitation models for teaching healthy subjects how to move.
  • 宮崎 健祐, 武井 明, 和彦 目良, 佐藤 譲, 原岡 陽一, 鈴木 太郎, 平間 千絵
  • 総合病院精神医学
  • Vol. 22 (2010) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2012年02月14日
  • 川崎 聡大, 杉下 周平, 福島 邦博, 片岡 祐子, 長安 吏江, 市川 智継, 西崎 和則
  • 小児耳鼻咽喉科
  • Vol. 26 (2005) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2012年09月24日
Learning disability is the single most frequent complication of hearing impairment, occurring in up to 15% of all school-aged deaf children. Neuropsychological evaluations of these cases may contribute to further diagnosis of the additional handicaps and the identification of a suitable procedure for better intervention. A nine-year-old boy with mild hearing impairment was referred to our hospital because of his poor language development. His average pure tone audiometry was 35dBnHL in the right ear and 65 dBnHL in the left ear and audiological interventions with a hearing aid had already been started before the referral to our clinic. Although mild mental retardation was suggested by WISC-III, as FIQ65 (VIQ 65, VIQ71, and PIQ65), non-verbal intelligence examined by RCPM corresponded to the normal range. Verbal and non-verbal semantic disorder was considered by the results from ScTaw and SLTA. He was later diagnosed as having Asperger syndrome and his semantic problem concomitant with Asperger syndrome could be another cause of his additional language delay.
Correlation between Morphologic Changes and Autism Spectrum Tendency in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
  • Tomoko KOBAYASHI, Yoshiyuki HIRANO, Kiyotaka NEMOTO, Chihiro SUTOH, Kazuhiro ISHIKAWA, Haruko MIYATA, Junko MATSUMOTO, Koji MATSUMOTO, Yoshitada MASUDA, Michiko NAKAZATO, Eiji SHIMIZU, Akiko NAKAGAWA
  • Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences
  • Vol. 14 (2015) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2015年11月13日
    早期公開日: 2015年06月23日
Objectives: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders, with some speculating that a reason for difficulty in its treatment might be its coexistence with autism spectrum. We investigated the tendency for autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) in patients with OCD from a neuroimaging point of view using voxel-based morphometry.
Methods: We acquired T1-weighted images from 20 patients with OCD and 30 healthy controls and investigated the difference in regional volume between the groups as well as the correlation between Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) scores and regional cerebral volumes of patients with OCD.
Results: Volumes in the bilateral middle frontal gyri were significantly decreased in patients with OCD compared to controls. Correlational analysis showed significant positive correlations between AQ scores and regional gray matter (GM) volumes in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and left amygdala. Furthermore, GM volumes of these regions were positively correlated with each other.
Conclusions: The positive correlation of ASD traits in patients with OCD with regional GM volumes in the left DLPFC and amygdala could reflect the heterogeneity of patient symptoms. Our results suggest that differences in GM volume might allow classification of patients with OCD for appropriate therapy based on their particular traits.
今から 1 世紀前に規定されたわが国の刑法 39 条には,「心神喪失者の行為は罰しない,心神耗弱者の行為はその刑を減刑する」との規定があり,精神障害者による犯罪行為については,刑罰を負わせず,刑を免除して,医療につなげる人道的配慮がなされている。また,1931 年に,大審院で下された判決が,わが国の責任能力判定の根拠として今日でも用いられている。一方,最近の脳機能画像検査や神経心理学的検査の進歩により,人の前頭葉の機能に関して比較的容易に豊富な情報が得られるようになった。これらの検査手法は未だ発展途上にあるとは言え,責任能力判定に求められる,被疑者や被告人の精神状態,弁識能力,制御能力に関しても,無視することのできない有力な情報を提供してくれる。このような発展をみる現代の精神医学にあって,責任能力判定だけが旧態然としたやり方に留まっていなければならない理由はないと思われる。本稿では 2 つの事例を用いて考察する。
  • 末田 慶太朗, 山崎 透
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 47 (2015) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2015年11月20日
 【目的】学童期の高機能広汎性発達障害 (PDD) の社会適応に関係する要因を検索するため, 幼少期の言葉の遅れの有無, PDD家族歴の有無, 知的能力, PDD特性, 現在の年齢, PDD診断をうけた年齢と, 現在の社会適応度の関連について検討した. 【方法】対象はPDD圏と診断された, intelligence quotient85以上の小中学生58人. 後方視的に診療録を調査, PDD特性は広汎性発達障害日本自閉症協会評定尺度で, 知的能力はWechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Editionで, 現在の社会適応度は診療録を参考にchildren's global assessment scaleで評価した. 【結果】PDD診断時年齢と社会適応度が負の相関を示し, 社会適応度の良い群の診断年齢が有意に低かった. 【結論】早期診断されたPDDの学童期における社会適応度が高い.
  • 小西 行彦, 日下 隆, 西田 智子, 磯部 健一, 伊藤 進
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 46 (2014) No. 5
  • 公開日: 2014年12月25日
 【目的】早産児は発達障害を高率に発症するといわれている. 発達障害児では顔認知機能に障害を持つことが多いといわれていることから, 今回, 早産児の乳児期早期における顔認知機能を検討する. 【方法】視線追跡装置 (Tobii T60 (Tobii Technologics, Sweden) ) を用いて, 修正4カ月の早産児を対象に顔認知課題における視覚的行動の測定・分析を行い正期産児との比較を行った. 【結果】早産児においても正期産児と同様に正常顔に対する選好性を認めたが, 顔上部への選好は早産児では認めなかった. 【結論】早産児の顔認知機能の発達は正常と異なる可能性が示唆された.
  • 藤澤 智子, 西村 一樹, 小野 くみ子, 関 和俊, 吉岡 哲, 石田 恭生, 高原 皓全, 小宮山 真世, 白 優覧, 小野寺 昇
  • 水泳水中運動科学
  • Vol. 10 (2007) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2008年05月24日
We have been promoting the hydrotherapy consisting of the assumption that the water exercise would help to develop the empowerment not only the sociability but also the exercise ability of the children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the activity of individual support and the establishment of order to the tasks. Subjects were 13 children with ASD. We obtained informed consent with parent of participating members. We examined a five-points estimation during one year. Grade evaluation was in two stages ; can do and cannot do. The order of achivement of children with ASD was nearly consisted with the order of a healthy person both a beginner’s class and a middle class. These results suggest that the activity of individual support and the establishment of order of the tasks is practical method as the hydrotherapy.
自閉症スペクトラム指数 (AQ) 児童用・日本語版の標準化
  • 若林 明雄, 内山 登起夫, 東條 吉邦, 吉田 友子, 黒田 美保, バロン-コーエン サイモン, ウィールライト サリー
  • 心理学研究
  • Vol. 77 (2007) No. 6
  • 公開日: 2010年07月16日
The Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) children's version has confirmed reliability and validity in the UK. In the current study, the children's AQ was administered in Japan to investigate whether the UK results are found in a very different culture. Two groups of children from primary and secondary schools were assessed: Group 1 (n=81) children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, including Asperger Syndrome and high-functioning autism); Group 2 (n=372) randomly selected controls, age-matched with Group 1. The children with ASD had a mean AQ score of 31.9 (SD=6.69), which was significantly higher than controls (mean AQ=11.7, SD=5.94). Males scored significantly higher than females in the control group, but not in the ASD group. The pattern of difference between the Japanese clinical group and the control group was remarkably similar to the findings in the UK.
  • 田中 美郷, 芦野 聡子, 小山 由美, 吉田 有子, 針谷 しげ子
  • 音声言語医学
  • Vol. 52 (2011) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2011年10月06日
B-6 健常大学生における自閉圏尺度の個人差(1) : 気質・認知機能・性差との関連
Intersubjectivity is an approach to the study of social interaction viewed from a perspective which rejects the view that reducing any such analysis to study at the level of the individual is adequate to address the issues of social functioning. It also stresses the view that social processes cannot be reduced to cognitive ones - most of the important questions in the study of developmental psychopathology deal with issues which have commonality with many other species and are patent well before the ontological emergence of ‘cognitive’ abilities. In this paper we review the evidence in this area, and discuss a range of issues relevant to autistic spectrum disorders. We focus in particular on social interaction; the role of the Intrinsic Motive Formation and recent work on mirror neurons in autism; genetic and teratogenic factors in the genesis of autism; and the role of a number of biological factors in pathogenesis - tryptophan; vitamin B12; sterol metabolism; glutamate and GABA; and the Fragile-X expansion.
  • 島谷 康司, 関矢 寛史, 田中 美吏, 長谷川 正哉, 沖 貞明
  • 理学療法科学
  • Vol. 26 (2011) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2011年03月31日
〔目的〕本研究の目的は,発達障害児の障害物回避の見積もり能力を明らかにすることであった。〔方法〕対象は5~6歳の発達障害児と健常児,各9名とした。視覚弁別課題として,7.0 m離れた位置から異なる高さの2本のバーの高低を比較させた。また,接触回避を見積もる課題として,異なる高さのバーを1本ずつ呈示し,かがみ込むことなしに,身体を接触させずに通り抜けることができるかどうかを回答させた。〔結果〕視覚弁別課題では発達障害児の正答数は9.22±.63回,健常児は9.78±.42回であり,有意な差は見られなかった。見積もり課題では,発達障害児の正答数は7.78±.67回,健常児は8.56±.73回であり,発達障害児の正答数が有意に少なかった。〔結語〕発達障害児は身長とバーとの相互関係からバーへの接触回避を見積もる能力が劣っていたために,障害物に接触する頻度が高いのではないかと考えられた。
The present study was intended to identify difficulties and needs in the overall educational experience (e.g., learning, friendship, and future course) in upper secondary schools as reported by students with mild developmental disabilities, including mild intellectual disabilities. Of 171 questionnaires distributed to students in upper secondary schools and as well as graduates of upper secondary schools, all of whom had mild developmental disabilities, responses were received from 55 students (response rate 32.2%). The results indicated that the students had a high need for learning support in subjects in which they had difficulty. Nonetheless, such supports were available in upper secondary schools only rarely. In their overall educational experience, students had great difficulty with friendships and human relations. In particular, many students reported that they had been bullied. Regarding the students' future, reality did not meet the situations and needs of the students with mild developmental disabilities. Although a considerable percentage of them had advanced to the next level of schooling, even when they advanced to college, they faced many difficulties there and in the search for work.
  • 西村 美緒, 橋本 俊顕, 宮崎 雅仁, 森 健治, 黒田 泰弘
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 37 (2005) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2011年12月12日
高機能広汎性発達障害患児50名を対象に症状に関するチェックリストを用いたアンケート調査を行い, 併存症に関する検討を行った. 72%が注意欠陥/多動性障害の診断基準に合致した. 特に知能指数89以下の患児に高頻度に出現していた. また, 注意欠陥/多動性以外にも, 学習の問題, 協調運動障害, 感覚異常, 不安性障害などが認められた. 高機能広汎性発達障害患児の臨床症状は, 多彩であり, その一部は他の疾患として観察されている可能性があると考えられた.
アスぺルガー症候群の青年の自己意識 : 文章完成法を中心に
  • 岸本 直子, 根來 秀樹, 澤田 将幸, 紀本 創兵, 太田 豊作, 定松 美幸, 飯田 順三, 岸本 年史
  • 青年心理学研究
  • Vol. 24 (2012) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2017年05月22日
In general, it is difficult for others to understand the peculiar manifestations of Asperger's syndrome(AS) in social and school situations, so AS patients are often met with misunderstanding and negative assessments. As a result, AS patients face difficulties in developing a positively organized concept of self. In the present study, we recruited seven adolescent patients with AS and conducted a sentence completion test (SCT) in addition to a semi-structured interview focused on the following four problems: 1) Difficulty with personal relationships, 2) Differences between oneself and others, 3) Experiences of being bullied, 4) Current status of medical therapy or counseling. The results indicated that all of the patients had insufficient awareness that their "experiences of being bullied" and the "differences between oneself and others" were caused by their own disorder. They also did not understand that this insufficient awareness might contribute to their negative concept of self. However, some of them had developed a more positive concept of self and self-awareness, skillfully adapting to their social environment with professional psychosocial support and familial (especially maternal) support, and having participated in social activities such as school attendance and employment. This emphasizes the importance of promoting the formation of positive self concept and self-awareness for AS patients.
自閉症を対象とした脳の形態学的画像研究と機能的画像研究について概説した。脳の形態・容量に関しては,小脳や大脳の形態学的な異常に加えて,大脳容積の増加と発達早期における脳の過形成(hyperplasia),また脳内ネットワークの異常について紹介した。脳機能に関する所見については,“心の理論(theory of mind)”,“表情認知タスク”,“感情処理タスク”を基にした研究結果を紹介しながら,彼らの認知の障害と脳内の機能障害の領域などとの関係について述べた。脳の機能的ネットワ ークの減少は自閉症者の共通な特徴であることが証明されつつあり,さらなる機能の解明が期待されている点について述べた。
本研究の目的は,自閉症スペクトラム傾向の高い大学生が低い者に比べてソーシャル・サポートを受ける可能性(知覚サポート)を低く認知しているかどうかを調べること,および自閉症スペクトラム傾向,知覚サポート,被害念慮と抑うつの関係を調べることであった。302名の大学生を対象に調査を行い,Autism-spectrum Quotientを用いて自閉症スペクトラム傾向を測定した。分散分析の結果,自閉症スペクトラム傾向の高い群は低い群に比べて知覚サポートが低かった。また,自閉症スペクトラム傾向の低い群では,知覚サポートが高いと抑うつが弱かったのに対し,自閉症スペクトラム傾向の高い群では抑うつに対する知覚サポートの効果がみられなかった。一方,自閉症スペクトラム傾向が高い群において,知覚サポートが高い場合には,被害念慮の程度によって抑うつ得点に違いがみられ,被害念慮が低ければ抑うつが弱かった。これらの結果は,自閉症スペクトラム傾向の高い大学生に対して,知覚サポートを高めることによって抑うつの減弱をねらうためには,被害念慮をアセスメントと介入の対象にすべきであることを示している。
  • 幾瀬 大介, 谷 将之, 山田 浩樹, 太田 晴久, 田村 利之, 池田 あゆみ, 森田 哲平, 新井 豪佑, 佐賀 信之, 徳増 卓宏, 岩波 明
  • 昭和学士会雑誌
  • Vol. 76 (2016) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2016年11月26日
信頼は個人にとって社会的生活を円滑に行うための重要な心理的要素である.他者への信頼を測る方法の一つとして最後通牒ゲームがある.これは人の利他的行動を検討する課題で,申し出人(被験者)が第三者から与えられた金額のうち好きな金額(X円)を申し受け人に分配することを提案し,申し受け人は被験者の提案を受諾するか否かを選択するものである.申し受け人が受諾すると申し出人の利得は初期値-X円,申し受け人の利得はX円となるが,申し受け人が拒否した場合,利得はともに0円となる.本研究では,最後通牒ゲームに第三者の視線を関与させた課題を施行し,健康成人において,その課題成績に与える影響について検討した.同時に,自閉症スペクトラム指数(Autism spectrum Quotient:AQ)および山岸らが作成した信頼性尺度を用いて,自閉症的傾向や他者への信頼の度合いがゲームの成績に与える影響について評価した.26歳から48歳までの自発的な同意を示した健康成人26名(男性16名,女性10名)を対象とした.当研究は,昭和大学医学部医の倫理委員会の承認を得て行われた.パソコンを用いて各被験者に“無背景”,“視線”,“花”の3条件を背景とした最後通牒ゲームを計30回施行し,各条件下で,金額を選択するまでの時間(反応時間)と,提示金額を比較した.また,AQおよび信頼性尺度と,反応時間および提示金額との関連を解析した.反応時間は3条件間において統計的な有意差を認めなかった.提示金額は,“視線”の条件下において,“無背景”,“花”と比べて統計的に有意に多く他者に分配した.また,AQと反応時間および提示金額との間には正の相関が認められた.一方,信頼性尺度の合計点と反応時間との間には負の相関が認められたが,提示金額との間には有意な相関は認めなかった.本研究では,健康成人において,他者の視線を感じると,より多くの金額を他者に与えるという利他的行動をとる傾向があることが示された.また,自閉症的傾向が強いほど,選択に時間を要し,多くの金額を提示して,申し受け人からの拒否を回避する傾向を認めた.しかし,他者を信頼する度合いは利他的行動に影響を与えなかった.

  顔認知の障害を示す発達障害として, 先天性相貌失認がある。先天性相貌失認では, 視覚障害や知的機能障害, 脳の器質的損傷がないにもかかわらず, 顔という視覚刺激から人物を特定することが困難である。この顔認知の障害はholistic processing の障害であると考えられている。「人の顔を覚えられない」という顔認知の障害は自閉スペクトラム障害でも認めることがある。先天性相貌失認の2 症例を紹介し, 顔再認課題の成績と課題中の視線パターンを自閉スペクトラム障害症例の結果と比較した。その結果, 先天性相貌失認と自閉スペクトラム障害では顔認知障害のメカニズムは異なる可能性が推察された。

パーキンソン病 (Parkinson's Disease : PD) は運動症状を主体とする疾患であるが, 近年ではさまざまな非運動症状をきたすことが報告され, 注目を集めている。本稿では, 多岐に渡る PD の非運動症状の中でも認知機能障害に焦点を当て, とくに社会的認知機能について詳しく述べる。社会的認知とは, 他者の情動表出や内的な心理状態などのコミュニケーションに重要な情報処理を担う, よりよい人間関係を築くために必要な機能である。これまでの研究により, PD 患者では他者の表情を見て情動を読み取る表情認知や, 損得の情報を学習し適切な行動を選択する意思決定過程において, 健常者とは異なるパターンが観察されている。また最近では, 社会的認知の重要な基盤のひとつである「心の理論」機能の障害の有無が検討されている。これらの認知機能障害は PD 患者の日常生活や社会活動に影響を及ぼす可能性があり, 慎重に評価する必要があると思われる。
  • 岡島 純子, 加藤 典子, 吉富 裕子, 金谷 梨恵, 作田 亮一
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 49 (2017) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2017年04月22日

 【目的】本研究の目的は, 自閉スペクトラム症 (autism spectrum disorder ; ASD) を有する臨床群と健常群のソーシャル・スキルの違いを検討することである. 【方法】健常群 : 公立中学校1~3年299名, 臨床群 : ASDの診断のある中学生24名を対象とした. 【結果】自己評定にて, ソーシャル・スキル, ストレス反応, 学校不適応感を査定した結果, ASD群は, 健常群と比較して, ストレス反応, 学校不適応感が高く, ソーシャル・スキルが乏しいことが明らかとなった. ソーシャル・スキルパターンを検討するために, クラスター分析を行ったところ, 「低スキル型」, 「関係継続低スキル型」, 「良好型」, 「消極型」 が抽出され, 「低スキル」 「消極型」 はASD群が有意に多いことがわかった. 【結論】ASDを有する中学生は, 健常群と比較して, 特に関係開始が苦手であるといった消極的型のソーシャル・スキルの特徴を有している.

  • 湯澤 美紀, 湯澤 正通
  • 保育学研究
  • ―特集 子どもの体験と成長・発達― Vol. 48 (2010) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2017年08月04日
  • 岡本 百合, 三宅 典恵, 永澤 一恵
  • 心身医学
  • Vol. 57 (2017) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2017年01月01日

精神科・心療内科の臨床場面では, 背景に自閉症スペクトラム (ASD) をもつ成人例が多いといわれている. 特に知的障害のない高機能ASD者は, 診断が遅れ, それまでにさまざまな傷つきを経て不適応に至っている例が多いと思われる. われわれは, ASD特性をもつ思春期青年期の若者の臨床像と支援について論じた. 受診した42例について, 過去の心身症症状について検討したところ, 幼少期に心身症症状を呈し, 思春期青年期に気分障害, 不安障害, 摂食障害などに変化していく例が多かった. また, 青年期の適応良好例に前思春期・思春期前期に治療を受けていた者が多かった. 心身症症状として表れる幼少期または前思春期・思春期前期に何らかの治療や支援があると, その後の適応が良好となる可能性が示唆された. また, 摂食障害とASDは共通点も多い. 症例の紹介とともに, 関連性について論じた.

  • 堤 明純
  • 総合健診
  • Vol. 43 (2016) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2016年05月01日
  • 吉井 鮎美, 岡崎 慎治, 平野 晋吾, 寺田 信一
  • 生理心理学と精神生理学
  • Vol. 33 (2015) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2017年03月08日
    早期公開日: 2015年12月29日

本研究では,自閉症スペクトラム障害 (ASD) 児における意味処理過程について,文の黙読課題遂行中の事象関連電位 (ERP),並びに文末語の書き換えを求めた記述テストの正誤判断を指標として検討を行った。文末語に対するERPの分析を行ったところ,ASD群9名ではN400振幅が定型発達 (TD) 群6名と比較して有意に小さかった。しかし,記述テストでは両群の正答率に差が認められなかった。以上の結果から,ASD児は,行動指標上はTD児と同様に正誤の判断を行うことができるが,N400に反映される意味的逸脱に関する脳処理に特異性があることが推察される。

【要旨】自己の情動の同定・表象困難であるアレキシサイミア群(ALEX:n=16)とコントロール群(NALEX:n=14)を対象に、他者理解に関わる課題(心の理論、痛みに対する共感、ミラーニューロン)を用いて脳機能画像研究を行った。心の理論に関わる課題においては、アニメーションの三角形の意図のくみ取りのスコアがALEX群の方が有意に低く、内側前頭前野の賦活低下がみられた。さらにこの部位の脳活動は視点取得能力と正の関係を認めた。ミラーニューロン課題においては、前運動野、あるいは頭頂葉をはじめとする領域が、ALEXではむしろより賦活しており、その脳活動は視点取得能力とは負の相関を示していた。他者の痛み画像に対する認知的評価の課題に関しては、ALEXは、痛みを低く評価しており、pain matrixの中でも、前帯状回、背外側前頭前野などのより認知的で実行的な情動処理の領域における機能低下が認められた。自己/他者の心を表象することは、自分とは一端離れた視点を持つ必要がある点は共通しており、ALEXにおける自己の客体化(メタ認知)の障害が示唆された。さらに、認知的な、とりわけ実行機能・感情の制御など、神経学的にも種々の他者の認知障害の関与が示唆された。このことは、自己・他者の理解の障害は相互に密接に関係していることを示しており、その共通項は心身症や精神障害にも重要な意味を持っていると考えられた。
  • Ayana TAMURA
  • Vol. 52 (2009) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2010年01月26日
This research investigated the developmental changes in strategies for regulating emotional expression in childhood, using hypothetical stories. Participants were first, third and fifth grade children (N = 646). Four hypothetical stories were presented and children were asked what they would feel (internal emotion) and which face they would display (facial expression) for each story. They could select from one of four facial pictures (happiness, anger, sadness, and neutral) for each question. Their answers regarding internal emotion in each story and the facial expressions in each internal emotion were analyzed. The strategies that children used were different among the different grade levels, with substitution strategy increasingly more frequent at higher grade levels. The strategies for regulating emotional expression increased in facility during childhood.
  • 平石 博敏, 橋本 俊顕, 森 健治, 伊藤 弘道, 原田 雅史
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 39 (2007) No. 5
  • 公開日: 2011年12月12日
自閉症は社会的なルールの把握, 獲得が困難であるとされており, さらに, 顔の表情から社会的な状況を読みとることが難しいことがこれまでの研究で報告されている.しかし, 自閉症を対象として, 呈示画像内の状況に対して倫理・道徳的判断を行わせた研究は今までされていない.そこで, 本研究では高機能自閉症児2名を対象として機能的磁気共鳴画像 (fMRI) による画像課題を用いた倫理・道徳的判断時の脳賦活部位を調べた.その結果, 自閉性障害においては前頭葉眼窩野領域 (BA11) の活性が共通してみられなかったことから, この部位がモラル判断に関与し, 自閉症では障害されている可能性が示唆された.
自閉症の一次障害 : 社会性障害と言語障害
Current theories concerning psychological deficits in children with autism were reviewed. The author argues that, to the extent that there is a single area of primary impairment, it must lie in the domain of social attachment, including the impetus to communicate. Some recent data support this position. The findings from research with animals and humans suggest that the amygdala might be crucially implicated in the social deficits in autism. Human communication represents the merging of two evolutionary lines of development, that of mammalian communication systems and that of the primate capacity for internal representation. Such a view has direct implications for the nature of the communication deficit in autism.
比喩・皮肉文テスト (MSST) を用いた注意欠陥/多動性障害 (AD/HD), Asperger障害, 高機能自閉症の状況認知に関する研究
  • 安立 多恵子, 平林 伸一, 汐田 まどか, 鈴木 周平, 若宮 英司, 北山 真次, 河野 政樹, 前岡 幸憲, 小枝 達也
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 38 (2006) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2011年12月15日
注意欠陥/多動性障害 (AD/HD), Asperger障害 (AS), 高機能自閉症 (HFA) の状況認知能力に関する特徴を検討するために, 比喩文と皮肉文から構成されている比喩・皮肉文テスト (MSST) を開発した. 今回はAS群66名, HFA群20名, AD/HD群37名を対象とし, MSSTの得点プロフィールを比較した. その結果, AS群では皮肉文の得点が特異的に低かったが, HFA群とAD/HD群では比喩文と皮肉文の得点に差がなかった. 以上より, AS群の特徴は言語能力が良好であるにもかかわらず, 皮肉という状況の理解困難であろうと考えられた.
  • 橋本 俊顕, 西村 美緒, 森 健治, 宮崎 雅仁, 津田 芳見, 伊藤 弘道
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 37 (2005) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2011年12月12日
自閉症は社会性の障害, コミュニケーションの障害, 想像性の障害からなる症候群であり, その治療に関しては治療教育が第1選択である.自閉症がいつ頃から発症するのか, 診断可能な時期はいつかということが, 介入時期と絡んで興味がもたれている.質問紙やホームビデオによる後方視的自閉症の研究では18カ月頃までには社会的相互関係の障害, ジョイントアテンションの異常, コミュニケーションの異常などの早期徴候が現れていたと報告されている.一部, 相容れない意見もあるが, 早期の介入は自閉症児の症状を軽減し, 知的レベルの向上も促すことが報告されている.以上, 自閉症の早期診断, 早期介入について述べた.
  近年の罹病率研究では,発達障害は子どもの 1 割を越えるという驚くべき頻度が示される。これだけ一般的な問題は,多因子モデルが適合することが知られている。多因子モデルによって示される,より広範な素因を有するグループを筆者は発達凸凹と呼んできた。2013年に発表された新しい診断基準 DSM–5 では,多元診断がうたわれており,これは多因子モデルを前提としており,発達凸凹というとらえ方にも合致する。
  • 小早川 睦貴, 鶴谷 奈津子, 河村 満
  • 基礎心理学研究
  • Vol. 33 (2014) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2014年11月26日
Emotional and social cognitive function have been reported to be impaired in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent studies have revealed that social cognition tasks, such as facial expression recognition, mind-reading, and decision-making, are impaired in PD. PD patients show deficits in recognizing negative facial emotions, such as fear and disgust. Theory of mind ability measured by the “reading mind in the eyes” test is impaired in PD patients, and that this finding was is attributable to the visual processing of faces or the verbal comprehension of emotional adjectives. They also show disadvantageous decision-making, which is related to decreased emotional responses, as measured by skin conductance responses. Caution should be exercised because the social cognitive dysfunction is mainly non-verbal and seems to affect at a level beneath patient's awareness.
Is high job control a risk factor for poor quality of life in workers with high autism spectrum tendencies? A cross-sectional survey at a factory in Japan
  • Norika Hayakawa, Takashi Okada, Kenji Nomura, Tsukimi Tsukada, Mieko Nakamura
  • Journal of Occupational Health
  • Vol. 57 (2015) No. 5
  • 公開日: 2015年10月31日
    早期公開日: 2015年06月25日
Objectives: To examine the effect of autism spectrum (AS) tendencies and psychosocial job characteristics on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among factory workers. Methods: A questionnaire survey was administered to 376 Japanese factory employees from the same company (response rate: 83.6%) in 2010. Psychosocial job characteristics, including job demand, job control, and social support, were evaluated using the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). AS tendencies was assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ), and HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form General Health Survey (SF-8). Associations were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for confounders. Results: In the multivariate analysis, AQ was positively (odds ratio [OR]: 3.94; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.70–9.73) and social support in the workplace was inversely (OR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.10–0.57) associated with poor mental HRQOL. No significant interaction was observed between AQ and JCQ subitems. Only social support was inversely associated with poor physical HRQOL (OR and 95% CI for medium social support: 0.45 and 0.21–0.94), and a significant interaction between AQ and job control was observed (p=0.02), suggesting that high job control was associated with poor physical HRQOL among workers with high AQ, whereas low job control tended to be associated with poor physical HRQOL among others. Conclusions: Our results suggest that AS tendencies have a negative effect on workers' HRQOL and social support is a primary factor in maintaining HRQOL. Moreover, a structured work environment can maintain physical HRQOL in workers with high AS tendencies since higher job control will be stressful.(J Occup Health 2015; 57: 419–426)
Comparative gait analysis between children with autism and age-matched controls: analysis with temporal-spatial and foot pressure variables
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the gait pattern of children with autism by using a gait analysis system. [Subjects] Thirty children were selected for this study: 15 with autism (age, 11.2 ± 2.8 years; weight, 48.1 ± 14.1 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.11 m) and 15 healthy age-matched controls (age, 11.0 ± 2.9 years; weight, 43.6 ± 10 kg; height, 1.51 ± 0.011 m). [Methods] All participants walked three times on the GAITRite® system while their plantar pressure was being recorded. [Results] The results showed a reduction in cadence, gait velocity, and step length, and an increase in step width in children with autism. Plantar pressure variables highlight the differences between the active pressure areas, especially in the hindfoot of children with autism. [Conclusion] The results suggest that children with autism have an abnormal gait compared with that of age-matched controls, and thus they need extra attention to correct these abnormal gait patterns.
Oxytocin は下垂体後葉から血中に分泌されるだけでなく,主に樹状突起から脳内にも分泌される。この際に CD38 が重要な役割を担っており,CD38 knockout マウスでは oxytocin の十分な分泌がなされない。CD38 の DNA 解析により,exon 部分のある single nucleotide polymorphism(SNP)を有する自閉症スペクトラム障害(autism spectrum disorder : ASD)者の血中 oxytocin 濃度は SNPを有さない ASD 者に比べ有意に低かったが,この SNP と ASD との関連性を十分に示すことはできなかった。鼻腔投与された oxytocin は血液循環を経ずに直接に脳内に移行すると考えられる。また脳内では半減期が長く,広く拡散することが可能であり,かつ受容体に結合するとその神経細胞は oxy-tocin をさらに分泌する。Oxytocin が ASD の症状の一部を改善する臨床研究がいくつかある。 Oxytocin nasal spray による ASD 者を対象とした長期間の臨床試験が望まれる。
The study aimed to develop the Inclusive Education Support Assessment Tool(IE-SAT) in order to verify the effects of the dispatch of special needs education supporters, which has been carried out by the Government of Japan. The results of the verification of the content validity for the composition and features of this tool and the formation of its domains and items will be introduced in this article.
This study tried to verify effectiveness of treatments for children who received Early Intervention Service (EIS) for children with problem behaviour. The research evaluated the validity of treatment service in improvement of problem behaviour in the areas of internalizing, externalizing, attention and sociality, and verified differences of effectiveness between methods of treatment. One hundred and ninety seven children participated in this study. They received the treatment services from 5 different branches of H Center, specialized center for emotional and psychological treatment, which was providing EIS on problem behaviour. According to the analysis of pre-post test on problem behaviours, the treatment which EIS centre provided had positive influence on behaviours change of object children, especially Play Therapy and Art Therapy made greater improvement of children’s behaviours. These results suggest the need of continuous study and development in intervention programs related to Play Therapy and Art Therapy.
Characteristics and Alterations of Food Intake in Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Nakako OGAWA, Shouji HIRONAKA, Yoshiharu MUKAI
  • Dental Medicine Research
  • Vol. 32 (2012) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2013年03月12日
Studies on feeding behaviors of children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) have focused mainly on problematic behaviors such as food selectivity and how to deal with them. Few studies have addressed the motor aspects of feeding behavior. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of feeding behavior of children with PDD using a spoon. The study participants consisted of 8 children with PDD attending a childrens disability center (6 boys and 2 girls; mean±SD=36.1±4.2 months). Feeding behaviors of the participants at lunch time were videotaped. They were also assessed with the Enjoji Scale of Infant Analytical Development Test on the same day. These 2 assessment procedures were repeated about one year later. The control group consisted of 5 healthy children (2 boys and 3 girls; mean±SD=43.2±7.4 months). The following results were obtained. Comparison between the children with PDD and controls showed significant differences in “motion of lips during food intake" and “neck rotation". Correlations between the feeding assessment and the Enjoji Scale were as follows. On the first assessment, “motion of the lips during food intake" did not correlate significantly with any items of the Enjoji Scale. However, on the second assessment, this item showed significant correlations with all Enjoji Scale items. The characteristics of children with PDD were considered to lesser motion of the lips and neck rotation. We speculate that development of lip motions might be greatly influenced by therapeutic education.
This study had two purposes; first, it aimed to clarify the problems in the definitions of developmental disabilities by analyzing the pertinent laws to them; second, it also aimed to suggest the tasks in the aspects of system and policy by understanding the current state of the field of education. Even the same disabilities are called as different names from whether they are used in the field of education or medicine; the definition of developmental disabilities needs to be unified regardless of the fields. It doesn't have to be unified with the terms that have been used in the field of education, but the definitions and terms related to developmental disabilities must be unified. For the sufficient supports for students with developmental disabilities, it is critical to improve the expertise of teachers. To improve their expertise, the teaching certificate for special needs education needs to be newly created and the curriculum that would be helpful to teach students with developmental disabilities should be prepared.
The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS): A Preliminary Report on Selected Characteristics of Approximately 10 000 Pregnant Women Recruited During the First Year of the Study
  • Takehiro Michikawa, Hiroshi Nitta, Shoji F. Nakayama, Masaji Ono, Junzo Yonemoto, Kenji Tamura, Eiko Suda, Hiroyasu Ito, Ayano Takeuchi, Toshihiro Kawamoto
  • Journal of Epidemiology
  • Vol. 25 (2015) No. 6
  • 公開日: 2015年06月05日
    早期公開日: 2015年04月25日
Background: The Japan Environment and Children’s Study (JECS) is an ongoing nationwide birth cohort study launched in January 2011. In this progress report, we present data collected in the first year to summarize selected maternal and infant characteristics.
Methods: In the 15 Regional Centers located throughout Japan, the expectant mothers were recruited in early pregnancy at obstetric facilities and/or at local government offices issuing pregnancy journals. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to the women during their first trimester and then again during the second or third trimester to obtain information on demographic factors, physical and mental health, lifestyle, occupation, environmental exposure, dwelling conditions, and socioeconomic status. Information was obtained from medical records in the first trimester and after delivery on medical history, including gravidity and related complications, parity, maternal anthropometry, and infant physical examinations.
Results: We collected data on a total of 9819 expectant mothers (mean age = 31.0 years) who gave birth during 2011. There were 9635 live births. The selected infant characteristics (singleton births, gestational age at birth, sex, birth weight) in the JECS population were similar to those in national survey data on the Japanese general population.
Conclusions: Our final birth data will eventually be used to evaluate the national representativeness of the JECS population. We hope the JECS will provide valuable information on the impact of the environment in which our children live on their health and development.
The present paper elucidates characteristics of early detection of Chinese children with autism compared to comparable Japanese children. Data were obtained from questionnaires completed by the children's parents. In addition, the status of early diagnosis and identification of autism in China is reviewed. Differences between the two countries in relation to the early detection of children with autism provided data useful for developing a system for early diagnosis and detection that was adapted to China. The results of the review revealed significant differences between the situation in Japan and China, especially in terms of 14 of the items: delayed speech and other speech problems, clumsiness, delayed overall motor development, delayed control of neck, not good at forming interpersonal relationships, inability to fit in communal life, unusual habits or patterns; abnormal food preferences, pica and/or refusal to eat; bedwetting, enuresis, or encopresis; self-injurious behavior; violence and aggression; and night crying and night terrors. All of these items were significantly higher in China. Even if autism has a biological basis, its course and expression are affected by the care and educational systems relating to the children who have autism, as well as by the national welfare level. As a consequence, it appears that symptoms of Chinese children with autism are more varied and intense than those of Japanese children with autism. Chinese children have, in particular, more social behavior problems and adjustment disabilities.
Inhibition of automatic semantic processing was examined in children who have high functioning-pervasive developmental disorders (HF-PDD) with or without reading difficulty and in typically developing children. In Experiment 1, lexical decision tasks were conducted under three priming conditions: (1) normal character condition, (2) transposed-letter internal nonwords condition, and (3) transposed-letter external nonwords condition. The results indicated that all participants displayed semantic priming under the normal and transposed-letter internal nonwords condition, whereas semantic priming was not observed under the transposed-letter external nonwords condition. In Experiment 2, speed-reading was conducted under normal, transposed-letter internal nonwords, transposed-letter external nonwords condition, and nonword conditions. The results indicated that HF-PDD students with reading difficulty showed low reading scores under the nonword condition. Moreover, their reading score under the transposed-letter internal nonwords condition declined more than that under the nonword condition. The above results indicate that students with HF-PDD and reading difficulty have problems in conducting bottom-up processing while inhibiting top-down processing, when automatically generated semantic processing interferes with the processing conducted through the phonological route.
  • 佐賀 信之, 森田 哲平, 新井 豪佑, 徳増 卓宏, 幾瀬 大介, 石部 穣, 笹森 大貴, 横山 佐知子, 五十嵐 美紀, 横井 英樹, 岩波 明
  • 昭和学士会雑誌
  • Vol. 76 (2016) No. 6
  • 公開日: 2017年06月08日
2014年4月より2015年3月までの1年間に昭和大学附属烏山病院を初診し,DSM-IV-TRの診断基準によってADHD(注意欠如多動性障害)と診断された成人ADHD患者54名(男性30名,女性24名,平均年齢29.4±7.9歳)を対象とした.うつ病など他の精神障害の診断を受けているものは被験者54名中4名であった.被験者らに知的な遅れはなく平均15年の高等教育を受けていた.全被験者に対し,次の評価尺度を施行した.抑うつ症状については,SDS(Self-rating Depression Scale)を,不安症状についてはSTAI(State Trait Anxiety Inventory),ADHD症状の程度については,CAARS-S(The Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales),自閉症スペクトラム障害の症状の程度についてはAQ(Autism-Spectrum Quotient),知的機能についてはJART(Japanese Adult Reading Test-25)で評価を行った.その結果,被験者らの抑うつ症状は日本人の神経症圏における抑うつの度合いと同程度であった.不安症状は,STAIの段階IVに相当する高い不安であった.自閉症的傾向は健常人より有意に高かった.項目間の相関をSpearmanの相関係数を用いて解析を行うと,ADHD症状と抑うつ症状の間には,弱いが有意な正の相関がみられた.ADHD症状と不安症状の間には,中程度の有意な正の相関がみられた.本研究の被験者の多くは気分障害や不安障害の診断を受けていないが,それでも,被験者が有する不安症状や抑うつ症状の程度は,健康人のそれと比して高いものであった.さらに,ADHD症状が強い場合,不安症状や抑うつ症状が強くなる可能性があることが示唆された.
児童青年精神医学用語集改訂委員会活動報告 児童青年精神医学用語集2016年版の刊行について
  • 小越 康宏, 三橋 美典, 小越 咲子, 中井 昭夫, 松浦 慎也, 荒木 睦大
  • 知能と情報
  • Vol. 23 (2011) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2011年07月08日
表情認識の研究は,心理学の分野において古くから行われており,工学分野における表情認識の研究は心理学分野の研究の延長線上にある.代表的な方法に FACS (Facial Action Cording System) を用いたものがあり,これは解剖学的な観点から表情筋がどのように働くかを考慮し,視覚的に認識が可能な表情筋の特徴点を与え,それらの特徴点の動きを解析するものである.このような原理から表情解析は大掛かりとなる.我々は,従来の表情認識の研究ではあまり考慮されていない黒眼領域の変化に着目し,表情認識に非常に有効な情報となると考えた.実験により検証した結果,瞼の表情筋により黒眼領域の形状に独特のパターンが表れることと,瞬き動作を伴うことによって,その形状変化は表情により特有の変化をもつことが分かった.このことを応用し表情認識の可能性を論じる.
In recent years, it is clarified that autism spectrum disorder person have special senses, and differ from normal senses. This study is therefore intended to clarify confusion between autism spectrum disorder and building environment.
The survey was conducted as follows;
1) Analysis of texts written by persons with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.
2) Interview by documents to some persons with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome.
We can be clarified that autism spectrum disorder persons have various type of confusion and barriers against building environment. And the barriers between autism spectrum disorder and living environment are space planning, shapes, color, quality of materials, lighting, acoustic, heating, air-conditioning.
本研究の目的は,わが国における自閉症スペクトラム障害児(autism spectrum disorders: ASD)に対する社会的スキル訓練(social skills training: SST)の現状と課題を明らかにすることであった。そのためにまず,わが国で行われているSSTプログラムを検索したところ,7本の論文が抽出され,レビューされた。次に日本でのASD児へのSSTプログラムを検索したところ,12本の論文が抽出された。わが国における課題は,般化効果,維持効果について検討された研究が少ないこと,エビデンス蓄積のための介入デザインが少なく介入効果が不明瞭なこと,ASD児特有の社会的スキルを測定することが不十分であることが明らかとなった。本研究の結果から,治療効果を高めるために,標的スキルを選定する際に行動分析の手続きを使用すること,親を含めること,学校の文脈に合わせること(セッティングや内容)などが提唱された。
他者の情動を認知する能力は, 正常な社会的相互関係を保つうえで重要である。本研究は,とくに眼の喜び表情認知能力に焦点をあて,加齢との関係を明らかにすることを目的とした。複雑な表情を表出した眼の部分写真を用いた従来の検査法では,高齢者の持つ眼の表情認知能力の特徴を正確にとらえきれていない可能性がある。そこで本研究では,異なる表情間で入れ替え合成処理を施した顔刺激の全体呈示による検査を行った。その結果,眼から喜び表情を認知する高齢者の能力は,若年者と比較し,低下する傾向が認められた。しかし,眼の周囲以外の領域の情報をあわせて用いることで,顔全体として喜び表情を認知することが,ある程度まで可能であった。以上より,眼から喜び表情を認知する能力は加齢とともに低下傾向にあるが,顔の全体呈示が一般的である日常生活では,ほとんど影響を及ぼしていない可能性が示唆された。
Design, development, and clinical validation of therapeutic toys for autistic children

[Purpose] One of the characteristics of autistic children is social interaction difficulties. Although therapeutic toys can promote social interaction, however its related research remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to build a set of cooperative play toys that are suitable for autistic children. [Subjects and Methods] This study used an innovative product design and development approach as the basis for the creation of cooperative play toys. [Results] The present study has successfully developed cooperative play toys. Compared to the traditional game therapy for autism, cooperative play toy therapy can significantly improve the interactions between autistic children and their peers. [Conclusion] The most critical design theme of cooperative play toys focuses on captivating the interest of autistic children. Based on the needs of the individual cases, the design of the therapeutic toy set was specifically tailored, i.e., by reinforcing the sound and light effects to improve the attractiveness of the toys. In the future, different play modes can be combined with this toy set to further enhance the degree of interaction of autistic children and improve their quality of life and social skills.

アスペルガー症候群の青年の自己意識の再考 : 柴橋氏と田中氏のコメントに対するリプライ(意見)
  • 岸本 直子, 根來 秀樹, 澤田 将幸, 紀本 創兵, 太田 豊作, 定松 美幸, 飯田 順三, 岸本 年史
  • 青年心理学研究
  • Vol. 25 (2013) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2017年05月22日
本シンポジウムでは細胞死にかかわるペプタイドに関わるミトコンドリアの障害と精神神経疾患との関連,およびそれらの治療的展開を検討した。ミトコンドリアの膜上に存在する translocator protein(TSPO)はアポトーシスに関わり,そのリガンドは神経疾患の治療や診断に有益である。パーキンソン病はミトコンドリアの機能障害であり,PINK1 酵素がParkin にswitch onしてリン酸を付加することで不良ミトコンドリアへ呼び寄せて発病に至る。正しくスイッチが入るようにして,不良ミトコンドリアを分解に導くことが治療につながる。 MK-801 はミトコンドリア機能保護作用があり,この統合失調症モデルは p70S6K-S6 の回路におけるタンパクの形成の障害によるので,治療的展開に利用し得る。酸化ストレスによる脂質の過酸化過程はミトコンドリアの機能障害を惹起し,また,シグナル伝達機能を損ない,自閉症スぺクトラムの病態要因になるので,antioxidant が治療的に有益である。
自閉症スペクトラム障害(Autism Spectrum Disorder ; ASD)児者には,社会コミュニケーシ ョンの障害,想像性の障害などに加え,運動面や感覚面の問題が見られることが多い。ASD の感覚や運動の問題を引き起こす神経学的メカニズムはまだ解明されておらず,治療法も確立されていない。感覚や運動の問題が生活上の適応困難を引き起こすことがあるため,その神経学的背景の解明,それらの改善に向けた治療や生活支援方法の確立が必要である。本稿では,現在明らかになっているASD児者の感覚処理や運動の問題に関する知見,およびそれらに対するリハビリテーションアプロ ーチや支援について紹介する。
Correlations between the Broad Autism Phenotype and social cognition among mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • Kyoko Hasegawa, Saeko Sakai, Hiroko Okuno, Moe Eto, Kuriko Kagitani-Shimono, Ikuko Mohri, Masako Taniike
  • 感情心理学研究
  • Vol. 21 (2014) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2014年09月11日
The present study examined the relation between Broad Autism Phenotype (BAP) tendencies and social cognition in mothers who had a child with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in Japan. The participants of this study were 51 mothers who had a child with ASD. The survey consisted of a questionnaire (BAPQ-J) and four social cognition tasks. The results indicated a cultural difference in “pragmatic language.” Next, those who scored higher on the total BAPQ-J or on the “rigid” subscale had greater difficulty in reading emotions in situations without happy facial cues or surprised facial cues. Additionally, these individuals had greater difficulty with complex judgments, such as judging trustworthiness, from movements and multiple facial stimuli. In summary, BAP and social cognition have some correlation in mothers who have children with ASD.
Recently, the university students who have Developmental Disorder are increased in Japan. They cannot adjust themselves well to the education program for mechanical engineering. Developmental Disorder is generally classified into three categories, namely, Asperger Syndrome (AS), Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) and Learning Disorder (LD). This classification is depends on the viewpoint of social behavior performances. In present report, Developmental Disorder is treated as the dispersion of the intelligence quotient (IQ) related to behavior functions to understand its nature. Example cases of the support to the Developmental Disorder students in Gunma University are reported.
Animal Models of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A Synaptic-Level Approach to Autistic-Like Behavior in Mice
  • Experimental Animals
  • Vol. 62 (2013) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2013年04月25日
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders and is thought to be closely associated with genetic factors. It is noteworthy that many ASD-associated genes reported by genome-wide association studies encode proteins related to synaptic formation, transmission, and plasticity. Therefore, it is essential to elucidate the relationship between deficiencies in these genes and the relevant ASD-related phenotypes using synaptic and behavioral phenotypic analysis of mice that are genetically modified for genes related to ASD (e.g., knockout or mutant mice). In this review, we focus on the behavioral-, cellular-, and circuit-level phenotypes, including synaptic formation and function, of several knockout mouse models with genetic mutations related to ASD. Moreover, we introduce our recent findings on the possible association of the dense-core vesicle secretion-related gene CAPS2/CADPS2 with ASD by using knockout mice. Finally, we discuss the usefulness and limitations of various mouse models with single gene mutations for understanding ASD.
  • 野中 壽子, 滝村 雅人, 穐丸 武臣, 奥平 俊子
  • 発育発達研究
  • Vol. 2009 (2009) No. 41
  • 公開日: 2012年10月09日
This study was designed to examine the effect of gross motor activity on the social skill acquisition in the children diagnosed as autism, the pervasive developmental disabilities, and the Asperger syndrome. It is especially difficult for children in this study to observe the rules, and to feel surrounding circumstances, and play with others jointly. In gross motor activity, a lot of interpersonal behaviors could be seen, and they came to recognize the rules and cooperate with others. Moreover, to the parent, it was a good chance for recognizing their child's behavior problem objectively. From these results, the gross motor activity is effective for the development of social skills.
This study describes the development and evaluation of the Developmental Disorder Parenting Stressor Index (DDPSI). The DDPSI items were developed from a questionnaire survey of mothers (N = 255) of children with developmental disorders. A factor analysis identified four factors: (a) difficulty understanding the child and coping with the child's needs, (b) anxiety about the child's future and independence, (c) inadequate understanding of the child's disorder, and (d) conflicting emotions with regard to the child's disorder. These factors had high degrees of internal consistency. The concurrent validity of the DDPSI was examined. The DDPSI scores significantly correlated with the Stress Response Scale-18 and the Handicapped Child Parenting Stress Scale. The results of structural equation modeling analysis suggested that social support for the mothers mitigated the stressors' effect and reduced their psychological stress responses. The DDPSI is sufficiently reliable and valid to measure the stressors of parents of children with developmental disorders.
  • 秋元 頼孝, 宮澤 志保
  • 心理学研究
  • Vol. 82 (2011) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2012年02月01日
This research investigated what factors play a role in a listener's feelings evoked by irony. In Experiment 1, participants imagined their best friend or an acquaintance as the speaker, and rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances were made. The effects of the listener's empathy and conversational indirectness were examined. In Experiment 2, participants rated how they felt when apparent ironical utterances or literal utterances were made. The effects of the listeners' self-esteem and attitude toward humor were examined. The results showed that cognitions about joking relationships and the listener's attitude toward humor played an important role in the listener's feelings evoked by irony, whereas the listeners' self-esteem and their interpretation of conversational indirectness affected their perception of irony. Irony evoked positive feelings when the joke or the humor of irony was evaluated as positive politeness by the listener due to the listener's attitude toward humor or a joking relationship with the speaker.
  • 千住 淳, 東條 吉邦, 紺野 道子, 大六 一志, 長谷川 寿一
  • 心理学研究
  • Vol. 73 (2002) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2010年07月16日
Some researchers have claimed that theory of mind or ‘mind reading’ ability, necessary for inferring the mental states of others, depends on language ability. However, previous tests of theory of mind were verbally demanding, and high correlations found might have been an artifact. This paper reports the performance of 22 children with autism, with varying degrees of dysfunction, on a test devised by Baron-Cohen, Jolliffe, Mortimore, and Robertson (1997), based on a relatively nonverbal theory of mind. The test involved inference of mental states from photographs of human eyes. Results indicated that mind reading ability was independent of language ability, general intelligence, or mental age. Test scores were, however, strongly related to the severity of autistic disorder. These results suggest both the independence of mind-reading ability from language ability and general intelligence, and a strong relationship between theory of mind deficit and the autistic disorder.

小児の臨床において,構音の問題は遭遇する頻度が高い.今回は構音器官の形態や機能,聴力,言語発達に問題がなく,特定の原因が明らかでない構音障害である機能性構音障害に焦点を当てる.近年,このような構音障害は英語圏ではspeech sound disorders語音症/語音障害(DSM-5)と呼ばれている.定義,名称に関する歴史的変遷,発現頻度,誤りのタイプ,関連要因(随意運動能力,発話環境:きょうだい),併存障害(自閉症スペクトラム障害,吃音)について文献的考察を中心に検討した.

自閉スペクトラム症 (ASD) の特性理解
  • 傳田 健三
  • 心身医学
  • Vol. 57 (2017) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2017年01月01日

自閉スペクトラム症 (autism spectrum disorder : ASD) は, 社会的コミュニケーションおよび対人相互性反応の障害, 興味の限局と常同的・反復的行動を主徴とし, 乳幼児期に発現する精神発達の障害である. DSM-Ⅳでは広汎性発達障害という上位概念のもとに, 自閉症, アスペルガー障害, 特定不能の広汎性発達障害などの下位分類が存在したが, DSM-5ではASDという概念で統一された. 近年, ASDへの関心と需要が高まっている一方で, 十分な診療が行われているとは言い難いのが現状である. 本稿では, 自閉スペクトラム症について, ①概念の変遷, ②診断と臨床像, ③治療, ④経過と予後, ⑤心身医学におけるASDの特性理解について述べてみたい.

発達障害と気分障害の合併は,患者の全体的な機能(functioning)の低下を引き起こし,発達障害の患者の適応をより低いものにする.従来,発達障害患者の気分障害の合併に関してはさまざまな議論があったが,徐々に発達障害に気分障害が合併すること,また発達障害患者に気分障害の評価・診断を行う際にはさまざまな配慮が必要であることが明らかになってきている.発達障害の中で気分障害に注目することは,問題行動の予防をする点からも重要であると考えられるようになってきている.同時に,治療可能な合併する気分障害の治療を積極的に行うことは,発達障害患者のquality of lifeの向上と機能の至適化に重要である.ここでは,気分障害を合併する発達障害の診断・治療について,現在までの知見を概説するのと同時に,米国における発達障害への教育的なかかわりを通して成人の発達障害への支援について1つのモデルを提案する.
摂食障害(ED)の病態は多様化しており,精神疾患の先行・併存している可能性に留意する必要がある.近年,日本でもアスペルガー障害と神経性無食欲症(AN-R)の併存例が報告されている.しかしED全体の自閉性傾向の調査は報告されていない.今回,自閉性スペクトラム指数日本版(AQ)を用いてED全体の自閉性傾向を検討した.ED患者は健常人よりもAQ値が高い傾向にあった.また,自閉性障害圏を強く疑う33点以上を示した症例は全例排出行為を伴っていた.AN-Rにおいては,AQとBMI(body mass index)に負の相関を認め,AQとEDI(Eating Disorder Inventory)には正の相関を認めた.1年後の追跡調査では,AN-RにおいてBMIの増加はみられるものの,AQ値に変化はなかった.EDの病態評価に自閉性の観点も考慮することは重要と思われる.
Psycho-educational Horseback Riding to Facilitate Communication Ability of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders
  • Hiromi KEINO, Atsushi FUNAHASHI, Hiroomi KEINO, Chihiro MIWA, Masanori HOSOKAWA, Yoshihiro HAYASHI, Kenji KAWAKITA
  • Journal of Equine Science
  • Vol. 20 (2009) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2010年01月19日
In this study, we applied a novel psycho-educational horseback riding (PEHR) program to the treatment of four Japanese children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) in order to facilitate the acquisition of verbal and nonverbal communication skills. The behavioral changes in each child were evaluated using a psychological and behavioral scale. The scale for evaluating the effect of Human-Equips-Interaction on Mental activity (HEIM scale) was designed to assess the behavioral improvement of children based on the following 10 items: Human relationships, Imitation, Emotional expression, Sudden physical movement, Fixative behavior, Adaptation to change, Visual response, Fear or nervousness, and Verbal and nonverbal communication. After taking part in the PEHR program for several months, all subjects showed remarkably improved HEIM scores and marked improvements were observed in eye contact with others (instructors, side walkers, and leaders) in the riding area. A statistical difference was found in items 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 9. However, no statistical difference was found in items 4, 5, and 10. As the program progressed, the children showed enhanced verbal and nonverbal communication skills, and became more expressive in their emotional and empathetic interaction with their parents. These observations suggest that the normal functioning of pleasurable emotions and empathy may facilitate further improvements in joint attention, imitation and empathy, and may result in successful verbal expression by PDD children. Therefore, horseback riding can play a very important role in the psycho-educational support required for the communication ability of PDD children.
目的 本研究の対象者は、思い過ごしによる怒りや不安に悩んでいた。また、確認を過剰に行なう傾向があり、それを気にしていた。本人の精神的苦痛には自尊心の欠如が深く関係すると見られた。そこで、自尊心を高める目的で確認行動の減少のための介入を試みた。ただしこの標的行動には非常に高い不安が伴っていた。
本研究の目的は、本事例を通し、(1) 高不安を伴う行動の修正に効果的な介入、(2) 行動修正と自尊心の関係、を検討することであった。
対象 30代男性。境界知能 (田中ビネー知能検査・IQ72)。アスペルガー症候群。
方法 独立変数は、(1) セルフモニタリング、(2) フィードバック、(3) 励ましの言葉、(4) 数かぞえ、であった。従属変数は、(1) 標的行動頻度、(2) 標的行動に伴う不安程度、(3) 自尊心、であった。
手続きは、介入1: セルフモニタリング+フィードバック+励ましの言葉、介入2: セルフモニタリング+フィードバック+数かぞえの順序で行なった。
結果 標的行動頻度はベースライン (BL) から介入1にかけて減少したが、最終目標値には達しなかった。介入2の間に最終目標値まで達して安定を示し、フォローアップではその値を保った。
結論 (1) 標的行動が高い不安を伴う場合、不安軽減の実現が行動修正を促進する上で重要である。(2) 本人にとって重要度の高い行動の修正が自尊心を高めることが本事例でも支持された。
  • 堀江 真由美, 玉井 ふみ
  • 音声言語医学
  • Vol. 58 (2017) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2017年09月25日


  • 松岡 美樹子, 原島 沙季, 米田 良, 柴山 修, 大谷 真, 堀江 武, 山家 典子, 榧野 真美, 瀧本 禎之, 吉内 一浩
  • 心身医学
  • Vol. 56 (2016) No. 1
  • 公開日: 2016年02月26日
近年, 摂食障害と発達障害との関連が指摘されている. 今回, 発達障害の合併が疑われ, 知能検査の施行が治療方針変更の良いきっかけとなった1例を経験したので報告する. 症例は32歳女性. X−21年に過食を開始し, 過食, 自己誘発性嘔吐や食事制限, 下剤の乱用により, 体重は大きく変動した. X−6年に神経性過食症と診断され, 入退院を繰り返した. X年に2型糖尿病に伴う血糖コントロールの悪化をきっかけに食事量が著明に低下し, 1日数十回の嘔吐を認め, 当科第11回入院となった. 生育歴やこれまでの経過から, 何らかの発達障害の合併が疑われたため, ウェクスラー成人知能検査を施行した. その結果, 動作性IQが言語性IQに比して有意に低値であり, 注意欠陥多動性障害を疑う所見も認められた. 退院後atomoxetineを開始したところ, 過食・嘔吐の頻度が週に1, 2回程度に減少し, その後も安定した状態を維持している.
Influence of unbalanced large head on neurodevelopment in infancy: a longitudinal birth cohort study
  • Ryuichiro Oshima, Kenji J. Tsuchiya, Norio Mori, Nori Takei
  • 脳科学誌
  • Vol. 46 (2016)
  • 公開日: 2017年05月09日
特異的言語発達障害 (specific language impairment: SLI) という診断名は, 幼児期の言語障害に対して用いられることが多い.この名称はICD-10に準拠すれば, 主に表出性言語障害, 受容性言語障害に該当すると思われる.しかし, こうした幼児が学童になったときには, 健常児から軽度精神遅滞, 学習障害, 自閉症と実にさまざまな状態を呈する.
小児の発達状況は常に変化するので, 年齢に応じて合併してくる行動や対人性の問題, あるいは認知能力の歪みをできるだけ正確に把握し, より的確な発達診断を行うことが求められる.また, 幼児期には言語発達にまったく問題がなく, 学齢期に言語の意味理解障害を呈する1例を示し, 学童期にはじめて見い出されるSLIも存在すること, そして見方によっては学習障害という新しい位置づけも必要であることを示した.
  • Yong-Mei LI, Jin JING, Yu JIN, Xiao-Bing ZOU, Kazue IGARASHI, Raymond C. K. CHAN
  • Vol. 54 (2011) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2011年12月20日
The current study investigated the differential attentive, emotional and behavioral responses to facial expressions in toddlers with autism (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 40) using a task capturing visual attention, emotional response and joint attention behavior to facial expression. The findings showed that autistic children’s performances were significantly worse than healthy children. These preliminary findings suggest that children with autism not only show less visual attention to facial expression than healthy children but also have impairments in social attention. A fine-grained analysis showed that children with autism, but not healthy children, showed abnormal emotional responses to the negative facial expressions. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive deficits in facial expression in young children of autism.
自閉症スペクトラム障害(autism spectrum disorder, ASD)の知覚・認知特性の中には、定型発達者よりも優れるものも存在する。特にASDのある人がもつ細部への注意処理、部分処理特性は、対人相互交渉では不利に働く可能性がある一方で、膨大な視覚情報の入力を管理し、調整する適応メカニズムともいえる。本論では、ASDの部分処理特性について、最新の研究動向も踏まえてどのような議論が行われているかを概観し、部分処理特性の代償的側面と療育や支援の方向性について論じた。ASDにみられる部分処理特性は全体処理とは独立したメカニズムであるという近年の知見から、部分処理特性を伸ばすことは社会性を損なうことにはつながらず、むしろ部分処理の適応的側面にも注目すべきであることが示唆された。加えて、部分から全体への切り替えの問題に対処することが支援において重要であり、ひとつの方法として模倣を用いた療育の可能性を示した。
  • Yifang WANG, Yanjie SU
  • Vol. 49 (2006) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2007年04月27日
Theory of mind abilities in old adults did not receive attention until Happé, Winner, and Brownell (1998) found that the theory of mind performance improved with advancing age. However, Maylor, Moulson, Muncer, and Taylor (2002) and Sullivan and Ruffman (2004) reported that the old adults performed worse than the young adults on theory of mind stories. We used “strange stories” (Happé et al., 1998; Maylor et al., 2002) and faux pas stories (Stone Baron-Cohen, Calder, Keane, & Young, 2003) separately to examine the theory of mind abilities of an old and a young group with IQ and educational level matched. We found that the performance of the old group was worse than that of the young group on the faux pas stories, especially in the faux pas understanding, but no significant difference existed between the two age groups in the strange stories understanding. Moreover, the performance on the faux pas and strange stories for both old and young adults was separately independent of fluid intelligence, full-scale IQ, verbal IQ, and performance IQ.
In this article, we review existing empirical research into the effects of damage to the amygdala on the recognition of facial, bodily and vocal emotional expressions. The evidence indicates that amygdala damage impairs the recognition of emotional expressions. Based on these neuropsychological data, together with anatomical, physiological, neuroimaging and psychological data, we propose that the characteristics of the involvement of the amygdala in the recognition of emotional expressions in normal brain are as follows: (1) The amygdala is involved in the recognition of emotional expressions irrespective of the stimulus type or the sensory modality; (2) The amygdala is necessary not only for the acquisition of emotional knowledge during development but also for online recognition processes in adults; (3) The amygdala is involved particularly in the recognition of negative emotional expressions, although the specific emotional categories in which the amygdala is involved differ among stimuli and subjects, i.e., the amygdala is not necessarily involved only in recognizing fear; (4) The amygdala inhibits the tendency to misrecognize negative emotional expressions as being positive.
  • 山内 裕子, 宮尾 益知, 奥山 眞紀子, 井田 博幸
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 45 (2013) No. 5
  • 公開日: 2014年10月11日
 【目的】Asperger障害の女児の臨床的特徴を男女で比較検討し, 診断上の注意点を明らかにする. 【方法】初診年齢, 初診理由となったおもな症状, 受診前の状況, WISC-IIIの結果をカルテより後方視的に比較検討した. 【結果】男児と比べ, 女児は10~15歳の受診が多く, 初診年齢が思春期に集中していた. 女児では睡眠リズム障害や心身症, 適応障害の合併が多かった. また, 女児のWISC-IIIでは動作性下位項目の内差が顕著でなく, 算数や積木下位項目が高値の男児とは異なる認知パターンが示唆された. 【結論】Asperger障害の臨床像には性差があり, 診断や対応にあたり, 性差を考慮する必要があると考えられた.
  • 浜田 恵, 村山 恭朗, 明翫 光宜, 辻井 正次
  • ストレス科学研究
  • Vol. 30 (2015)
  • 公開日: 2016年01月15日
The paper reviewed studies in this country and abroad and discussed following issues: social adaptation in adolescents and adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), stress or psychological burden which the family members bear, supports the family members can be provided, problems in adaptive behaviors and mental health which adolescents/adults with ASD exhibit. Furthermore, we addressed what kinds of supports have to be offered to adolescents/adults with ASD and the family members in this country: As adolescent a/adults with ASD and their family show vulnerability to stress, it is suggested that appropriate supports be provided for adolescents/adults with ASD (e.g. cognitive behavior therapy) as well as for the family (e.g. parent training). Therefore, we have to establish psychosocial support systems which can be provided for this vulnerable population everywhere in the country.
It is well-known about the abnormalities of the abilities to remember and preserve information in the individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Many previous studies have focused on the difference by a final memory performance between individuals with ASD and Typical Development (TD). Then, the aim of this study was to examine the learning process until learning in the individuals with ASD, compared to TD. The participants of ASD and TD groups studied all 24 words pairs. Each word pair was tested until they could reach a criterion, two consecutive testing sessions. Learning processes were examined with four measures of (1) the total number of trials and (2) the number of trials for each pair until two consecutive correct responses, (3) the performance of two consecutive correct responses during study trials and (4) the response time for each word during study trials. Finally, at 30 minute later. they were asked to recall each corresponding word for 8 cues randomly selected from 24 pairs. The results showed that the number of trials until learning (the measurement of (1) and (2)) in ASD group were much than that in TD, whereas, in ASD group, the performance of two consecutive correct responses during studying trials (the measurement of (3)) and final performance after 30 minutes on corresponding words to 8 cues was prominently less than that in TD group. These results are discussed in terms of the memory dysfunction related to adaptation in ASD.
自閉症スペクトラムにおける視機能評価: 視覚誘発電位を用いた検討
  • 藤田 貴子, 山崎 貴男, 神尾 陽子, 飛松 省三
  • 認知神経科学
  • Vol. 9 (2007) No. 3
  • 公開日: 2011年07月05日

This study evaluated effects of a self-monitoring package to improve a targeted social skill and problem behavior of two elementary school students with autism spectrum disorders placed in regular classrooms. Non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants and A-B-A designs were used. Assessment information was collected through interviews with teachers and behavioral observation. The targeted social skill and problem behavior were holding their heads up and touching stationery respectively, both while teachers were talking during Japanese and math classes. Students were instructed to monitor their target behaviors by themselves. Data were collected during the intervention and generalization settings by using direct observation for discussing the effects the program. Additionally, the information of the package’s acceptability to teachers and subjective assessment of understanding of classes by students and teachers were also gathered. The results showed that students increased their target social skill and decreased their problem behavior in the intervention and generalization settings, and these effects were maintained. Moreover, the data concerning acceptability and subjective assessment of understanding of classes were highly evaluated. These results were analyzed in terms of rule control.

In the present case study, ball-throwing skills were taught to a boy with Asperger's disorder, and secondary benefits for him from that experience were examined. The teaching program was based on applied behavior analysis. After a task analysis that divided overhand ball-throwing behavior into 10 behavior units, training utilized visual stimulus prompts and a chaining procedure, in a changing criterion design. The results showed that, although it took some time to achieve, all the behavior items were learned, so that the boy acquired skills necessary for ball throwing. The present study confirms the effectiveness of prompts using picture cards and behavioral coaching. It was difficult to maintain the boy's motivation for the prolonged training, although verbal interaction may be effective to increase motivation. Secondary effects observed included increased social interaction and a more proactive attitude towards exercise, behaviors that were not goals of the teaching program. Such effects may indicate potential benefits of the acquisition of sports skills as one component of leisure activities of children with developmental disorders.
  • 内匠 透
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 43 (2011) No. 2
  • 公開日: 2014年12月25日
 ヒト染色体15q11-13重複は自閉症の細胞遺伝的異常として最も頻度の高いものである. 染色体工学的手法を用いて, 我々は同相同領域を重複させたマウスを作製することに成功した. 本マウスは, 社会的相互作用の障害, 超音波啼鳴数の発達異常, 固執的常同様行動等, 自閉症様行動を示した. また, 発達期には脳内セロトニン異常を呈した. 本マウスは, 表現型妥当性だけでなく, 自閉症の原因である染色体異常をヒトと同じ型で有する構成的妥当性をも充たすヒト型モデルマウスである. 本マウスにより, 自閉症を含む発達障害の分子病態解明だけでなく, 新たな診断, 治療, 予防法の確立にも有効なマウスとして, 小児神経学領域における発展が期待される.
Mental Rotation of Viewpoint-Dependent/Independent Features in Children With Difficulty in Japanese Kanji Writing
This study examined viewpoint-dependent and viewpoint-independent visual cognitive processes in children of normal intelligence (mean age=9.8 years) who have difficulty in Japanese Kanji writing. A mental rotation task in which the stimuli consisted of two ice-cream cones with three differently colored scoops of ice cream was used. Children were asked to judge whether the two stimuli, one upright and one rotated, were the same or different. Ice-cream cones were either identical, mirror images, or non-mirror images. We found that children with difficulty in Kanji writing showed no impairment for identical and non-mirror images and only exhibited lower accuracy scores when stimuli were mirror images. Since children could complete mental rotation in the identical condition and could find the unique features in the non-mirror images condition, their viewpoint-dependent and viewpoint-independent systems may be intact. However, they had deficits in mirror image perception. These may be one of the factors underlying reversal errors in these children.
自閉性障害および注意欠陥/多動性障害における前頭葉機能の側性化 (lateralization) に関する研究
  • 青柳 閣郎, 相原 正男, 金村 英秋, 芹澤 みゆき, 岩垂 喜貴, 中澤 眞平
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 34 (2002) No. 5
  • 公開日: 2011年08月10日
前頭葉機能の側性化 (lateralization) を検出する神経心理学検査法である認知戦略検査 (cognitive bias task;CBT) を用いて, 自閉性障害児, 注意欠陥/多動性障害 (ADHD) 児における前頭葉機能を同年齢児と比較検討した.健常右利き男児 (10名, 平均年齢10.3歳) では, 既存情報に依存した選択を行い, CBTは高得点 (21.1±8.0) であったが, 自閉性障害児 (3名) では有意に低得点 (5.0±4.4) であった (p<0.01).ADHD児 (4名) でも, 低得点 (9.8±12.3) であったが, 特に多動, 衝動性の症状が顕著な症例で低得点であった.自閉性障害児においては前頭葉機能の側性化障害が示唆され, ADHD児の多動, 衝動性は左前頭葉機能低下が関与している可能性がある.
Semantic-pragmatic disordersの1例における言語性の意味理解障害について
  • 春原 則子, 宇野 彰, 加我 牧子, 松田 博史, 金子 真人
  • 脳と発達
  • Vol. 31 (1999) No. 4
  • 公開日: 2011年08月10日
Semantic-pragmatic disorders例の理解力障害に関する詳細な検討は少ない.本報告では, semantic-pragmatic disordersの1例に対して, 各言語モダリティに共通の独自に作成した抽象語を用いた検査を行い, 言語性の理解力障害について主に音韻処理過程と意味処理過程の乖離という観点から検討した.本検査の結果, 復唱と音読は健常児と同等あるいはそれ以上に良好であったが, 理解力は健常児の-1標準偏差を大きく下回っていた.今回の検討により, 本例における音韻処理過程と意味処理過程の乖離を定量的に明確に示すことができ, さらに, 単語水準でも抽象性の高い単語は理解が困難なことが明らかとなった.また本例は, SPECTを用いた局所脳血流量の検討において左側頭葉の血流が右側に比して低下しており, 本例の言語性意味理解障害には左側頭葉の機能低下が関与していると考えられた.
The current paper reviews recent studies on spontaneous social cognition in typically developing children, and its atypical development in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In typically developing infants, spontaneous attribution of mental states develops by the second year of life, well before they pass standard theory of mind tests that involves verbal instruction. By contrast, individuals with ASD, even those who can easily pass standard theory of mind tests, do not show spontaneous mental state attribution. The absence of spontaneous social cognition in ASD can be observed in different social cognitive skills such as motor mimicry and gaze processing, suggesting the critical role of the spontaneous social cognition in the adaptive social behaviour.
Development of Deceptive Behavior in Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder
This study investigated the development of deceptive behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing children. We used a modified version of the game context and the temptation resistance paradigm. We tested two types of deception: concealing (simply hiding certain information from another person) and strategic (not only hiding information but also providing wrong information). Results showed that typically developing children started to engage in concealing deception at four years of age in the temptation resistance paradigm and at five years of age in the game context paradigm. On the other hand, children with ASD started to engage in concealing deception at a verbal mental age of seven years in both the temptation resistance and game context paradigms. Difficulty in spontaneously applying theory of mind in children with ASD was discussed.
The present study aims to examine the problem of executive function in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) who do not have an intellectual disability in comparison with typically developing children. Participants were 20 children with ASD (ten second-graders, ten third-graders) but without intellectual disability and 20 typically developing children. The conducted executive function tasks were two inhibition tasks and two planning tasks. The results showed that in one inhibition task and both planning tasks, scores of children with ASD were significantly lower. Moreover, in one planning task, the third-grade results were significantly higher. From these results we are able to determine that children with ASD is presented with difficulties and possible strategies for overcoming those difficulties–in terms of inhibition and planning. We are also able to show how it compares with typically developing children of the same age even if there is no intellectual disability among the children with ASD. Additionally, the possibility that this situation develops in accordance with age is suggested.