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  • YOICHI WATABE, KAORU UDAKA, MASAKI KOBAYASHI, TAKECHIHO TABATA, TSUYOSHI EMURA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2009 Volume 49 Issue 5 824-825
    Published: 2009
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • TERUAKI FURUDOI
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2010 Volume 50 Issue 6 805-816
    Published: 2010
    Released: March 04, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Kansai International Airport was planned to provide a fundamental solution to the aircraft noise pollution problem in the area surrounding Osaka International Airport (Itami Airport) and to the increasing demand for air transportation This man-made island was constructed 5 km offshore in Osaka bay to minimize noise pollution in residential areas. The airport commenced operations in September 1994. The second phase of construction work involved building an island further offshore than the island built in the first phase. Since the sea water is deep at the Kansai International Airport construction site and the layers below the seabed consist of a very soft layer of Holocene clay (immediately below the seabed surface) followed by alternate layers of Pleistocene clay and sand/gravel, the construction of an airport island was expected to produce a considerable amount of ground settlement. The amount of settlement during and after construction needed to be predicted in the design of the airport islands, and the results needed to be considered in the details of the land development work. This report outlines the second phase construction work at Kansai International Airport and describes the related geotechnical issues, with a particular emphasis on settlement.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, KAORU UDAKA, YOSHIYUKI MORIKAWA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2008 Volume 48 Issue 4 495-509
    Published: 2008
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The consolidation characteristics of clay, based on the isotache concept in which the strain rate effect is considered, have been studied by many researchers. Most of these studies are aimed at calculating the secondary consolidation with high accuracy in order to evaluate the long-term settlement of large structures. In this study, as the first step toward improving the accuracy of the evaluation of long-term settlement at the Kansai International Airport, the consolidation characteristics of Osaka Bay clay are examined and organized based on the isotache concept. This study proposes a simplified model based on the isotache concept by using a compression curve and the relationship between the consolidation yield stress and the strain rate. The former and the latter are obtained from the constant rate of strain consolidation (CRS) tests and long term consolidation (LT) tests, respectively. The latter is expressed by an equation with three isotache parameters. This model is very practical because it requires a minimum of only one CRS test and one LT test. It is widely applicable to the Osaka Bay clay. The isotache parameters used in this model can be commonly determined for the Osaka Bay clays retrieved from various depths at the Kansai International Airport.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, TAKATOSHI NOGUCHI
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2011 Volume 51 Issue 6 1003-1018
    Published: 2011
    Released: January 18, 2012
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport) is a domestic hub-airport in Japan; however, the increasing number of passengers has brought it close to its capacity. In addition, there has been strong demand for the development of an international-flight network. Consequently, a new runway, called the “D-runway,” was planned and constructed from March 2007 to October 2010. Because some of the D-runway runs through a river mouth, a hybrid structure consisting of piled pier and reclamation fill was adopted. To overcome the geotechnical difficulties in constructing this hybrid structure on the soft clay deposit, various technologies in design and construction were adopted. This paper provides an outline of the project, the ground investigation, and the design of the D-runway structure from a geotechnical engineering view point. From the results of the site investigation, the stratigraphic model at the site was clarified. For the clay layers, a representative depth-profile for each soil parameter was determined. Some local soil properties which tended to be overlooked when only employing an engineering point of view can be appropriately captured by linking the geological and geotechnical information. In the construction of the D-runway, not only the ground improvement technologies (SD, SCP, and CDM) but also the new developed construction materials (the pneumatic mixing of cement treated soil and air-foam treated lightweight soil) were utilized. In the-D-runway project, various technologies used in previous airport constructions were brought together and applied to the ground investigation, design, construction work, and even maintenance. The construction of the D-runway was completed safely, rapidly, and economically, and it came into use on 21 October 2010, on schedule.
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  • Yoichi Watabe, Shinji Sassa
    Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication
    2016 Volume 2 Issue 51 1784-1789
    Published: January 31, 2016
    Released: January 29, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The Tokyo Haneda Airport has been developed by land reclamation since 1931. When we look back its history, dredged soils have been effectively used at the offshore expansion project (1984–2007) and the D-runway project (2007–2010). In the offshore expansion project, a dredged clay deposit in ultra-soft state was converted into an airport island. Because of softness of the dreaded soil, continuity of the vertical drains under large consolidation settlement, as well as large lateral soil movement, had to be concerned. In the D-runway project, lightweight treated soils of dredged clay were effectively used to reduce earth pressure on the seawall. To efficiently conduct large-scale placement, pneumatic mixing method was very useful. At the joint structure between the reclamation and piled pier sections, air-foam treated lightweight soil was placed as backfill, because more lightness was strongly required to ensure the stability.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, KAORU UDAKA, MASAKI KOBAYASHI, TAKECHIHO TABATA, TSUYOSHI EMURA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2008 Volume 48 Issue 4 547-561
    Published: 2008
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    The objective of this study is to empirically clarify the scale effect in long-term consolidation behavior. Frictional pressure loss arising at the interface between the consolidation ring and the specimen must be considered, when the specimen thickness increases. This study uses a special oedometer that can evaluate the quantity of the frictional pressure loss. Incremental loading oedometer tests are carried out in order to evaluate the frictional pressure loss in the normal oedometer test using a specimen with a height of 20 mm. The frictional pressure loss ratio generally exceeds 0.2 when the consolidation pressure is less than approximately 300 kPa, rather than the overconsolidation range. Consequently, a series of inter-connected type consolidation tests, in which the frictional pressure loss can be minimized by limiting the thickness of each specimen element, are carried out in order to investigate the scale effect of the specimen thickness in the range of 20-200 mm. The end of primary consolidation (EOP) can be clearly identified in the excess pore pressure dissipation. The law of squared H is essentially valid for the pore water pressure dissipation. However, the EOP becomes unclear in the strains when the specimen thickness decreases. The compressive strain at the EOP stays constant or slightly increases with the specimen thickness.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, YASUNORI SHIRAISHI, TOMOHIDE MURAKAMI, MASANORI TANAKA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2007 Volume 47 Issue 4 701-716
    Published: 2007
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Samples collected from both Holocene and Pleistocene layers in Osaka Bay were examined in this study. The objective of this study is to evaluate variations of soil parameters in a sample length of about one meter. The retrieved samples from EL. (elevation) −37.5 to −38.5 m and from EL.−125.5 to −126.5 m with a length of about one meter were divided into every 25 mm long to trim consolidation specimens. Variations of soil parameters obtained from laboratory tests were evaluated. Clay microfabric was also evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). The clay layers are relatively homogeneous with variation coefficient CV in a range of 0.025 to 0.12 for the consolidation parameters (e, pc, Cc and cv). CV of void ratio e is only 0.025 to 0.056. In contrast, CV values of the other consolidation parameters are significantly greater than this, but the average is less than 0.1. It can be concluded that CV of soil consolidation parameters for the homogeneous natural clay deposits dealt in this study is less than about 0.1. These variations are mainly influenced by sedimentary environment. Even the soil is said to be homogeneous, because the specimen size for the laboratory tests is sufficiently large in consideration of microscopic heterogeneity obtained from SEM and MIP.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, TAKASHI TSUCHIDA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2001 Volume 41 Issue 4 17-24
    Published: August 15, 2001
    Released: February 29, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A data set of unconfined compression strengths of Osaka Bay Pleistocene clays collected from large depths tends to be much scattered. This is because of large stress release in the collected sample. In more detail, the two following factors are possibly considered. A residual effective stress larger than 98.1 kPa is apparently impossible in a fully saturated soil because a negative pressure greater than a vacuum is non-existent, and some cracks are created in a sample when extruding it from the sampler and during trimming. In this study, a series of suction and unconfined compression tests for samples collected from 40-200m depths in Osaka Bay was carried out to investigate the relationship between the residual effective stress and the undrained shear strength. Suction larger than 98.1 kPa was measured in undisturbed samples collected from large depths by applying a back air pressure. The disturbance ratio defined by Okumura (1974) ranges from 1.5 to 3, implying that the samples show a small strength reduction of up to 15%. It is concluded that the quality of the undisturbed Pleistocene clay sample collected from a large depth is very good, if the effective stress is of concern and no crack is created. However, the unconfined compression strength of Osaka Bay Pleistocene clay tends to show a large variance due to the crack type disturbance that is created when trimming the specimen.
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  • YOICHI WATABE, TAKASHI TSUCHIDA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2001 Volume 41 Issue 5 47-59
    Published: October 15, 2001
    Released: February 29, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    This paper describes a geotechnical survey evaluating the shear strength of Pleistocene clay in Osaka Bay. In the stability evaluation for a seawall structure of Kansai International Airport, as the slip circle giving the minimum safety factor possibly passes through the Pleistocene clay layer, the stability could be greatly affected by the shear strength profile of the Pleistocene clay. The result of the stability analysis is very sensitively affected by the undrained shear strength profile, which is roughly estimated based on a ratio of undrained shear strength to consolidation yield stress (su / py) of natural clay deposit (Mesri, 1975 ; Tanaka and Tanaka, 1994) and the average apparent overconsolidation ratio (OCR=py / σ'v0) at this site (Horie et al., 1984). In this study, in order to evaluate the undrained shear strength obtained by typical testing methods, UC (unconfined compression) test, UU, CU, K0CU compression and extension triaxial tests and DS (direct shear) test were carried out for undisturbed samples of the Pleistocene clays collected for the second phase construction of Kansai International Airport. Mechanical behaviors and shear strength profiles obtained by each test were compared and discussed. The undrained shear strength and its scattering depend on the testing methods. The recompression method, in which a specimen is consolidated under the in-situ stress, gives many reliable test results. The UC and UU tests, in which a specimen is not consolidated, give very scattered and unreliable test results. From the comparison between undrained shear strengths for design determined by each test with correction factors, it is found that the strength of the DS test is smaller than those of K0CU and CU tests. This fact is derived from the relatively larger strength anisotropy of the Pleistocene clay. The undrained shear strength increase ratio with depth Δsu / Δz for design is obtained as 2.09kPa / m, considering strength anisotropy.
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  • Junichi Mizukami, Yasuo Matsunaga
    Japanese Geotechnical Society Special Publication
    2016 Volume 2 Issue 2 122-134
    Published: January 31, 2016
    Released: January 29, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In August 2010, the fourth runway called D-Runway (2,500-m long) was completed off the shore of the Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), which is the fourth largest airport in the world in terms of passengers handled. Since the D-Runway is situated at the mouth of the Tamagawa River, a hybrid structure combining a piled-elevated platform and land reclamation was planned so that it would not obstruct the flow of the river. In the reclamation area, a slope-type rubble mound seawall was constructed on the soft clay seabed, which was improved using the sand compaction pile method, with a total of 52 million cubic meters of soil, sand and rock used in the land reclamation. The piled-elevated platform is a massive 520,000-m2 structure in which 198 prefabricated steel jackets supported by 1,165 steel-pipe piles were connected together by welding on site. This project required huge quantities of construction materials, including 470,000 tons of steel and 450,000 m3 of concrete. The D-Runway was successfully constructed in just three and a half years thanks to the rapid construction method and a continuous 24-hours-a-day work schedule. This paper outlines the D-Runway project and its main structures.
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  • Kenta MIZUNO, Yoichi WATABE, Masaki KOBAYASHI, Takatoshi NOGUCHI, Yasunori AOKI, Takanobu YAMAMOTO, Mitsuru TAKAHASHI
    Journal of the Society of Materials Science, Japan
    2012 Volume 61 Issue 1 78-84
    Published: January 15, 2012
    Released: January 20, 2012
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    In the construction of the D-runway in Tokyo International Airport (Haneda Airport), “the settlement prediction and management system (HSAP)” which can efficiently evaluate the consolidation settlement of artificial reclamation was developed. The reclamation history data base which reflected the actual construction until July, 2009 and the reclamation plan after that was made. The actual measurement and the calculation value were compared and the various consolidation parameters were identified. Moreover, the long-term consolidation test and constant strain rate consolidation test were executed, and the secondary consolidation parameter was set based on the isotache model's concept. Based on the prediction result of the residual consolidation settlement, the filling height of the D-runway at the start of in-service period was decided to be 0.70m, which is required from the aviation operation.
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  • AYATO TSUTSUMI, HIROYUKI TANAKA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2011 Volume 51 Issue 5 813-822
    Published: 2011
    Released: November 01, 2011
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS
    The application of a strain-rate-dependent model, for example, an isotache model, is very useful and highly effective for predicting the settlement due to consolidation, including secondary consolidation. In the isotache model, compression curves are not only determined by pressure, but also by strain rate. The validity of this model has been experimentally confirmed by many researchers using different types of oedometer tests, such as constant rate of strain (CRS) tests, incremental loading (IL) tests, etc. However, considerable scatter has been observed in the test results, which show the effects of the strain rate, and questions arise as to whether such scatter is caused by the heterogeneity of the soil samples or by the incompletion of the model. To avoid the heterogeneity of the tested samples, special CRS tests, in which the strain rate is not kept constant but is varied during the tests, were carried out on intact and reconstituted Osaka clay samples. The effects of the strain rate on the compressive behavior of these clays were carefully evaluated in terms of visco-plastic strain, assuming that the total strain consists of visco-plastic strain and elastic strain. It was confirmed that the stress and the visco-plastic strain relation of clay samples strongly depends on the visco-plastic strain rate. However, the effects of the strain rate, under a given constant visco-plastic strain rate, do not become constant when the visco-plastic strain rate becomes very small. The reason is assumed to be due to the development of structures under a constant small visco-plastic strain rate. The development of structures may restrict the applicability of the isotache model to the compressive behavior of clay.
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  • HIROYUKI TANAKA, MASANORI TANAKA, SHINYA SUZUKI, TOSHIHIKO SAKAGAMI
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2003 Volume 43 Issue 6 51-61
    Published: December 15, 2003
    Released: February 29, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A new piezocone was developed and applied to Osaka Pleistocene clay layers as deep as 250 m. Its geometry is the same as that of the reference procedure defined by the ISSMFE and standard of JGS: i.e., the projected cross sectional area is 10 cm2; the angle of the cone is 60°; the pore water pressure is measured at the shoulder. This piezocone does not measure the skin friction. Due to great depth at the investigated site, the capacity of the point resistance (qt) and the pore water pressure is as large as 30 MPa and 20 MPa, respectively. The test was carried out, using a borehole drilled prior to the penetration, because of stiff sand or gravel layers and large skin friction between the rod and the ground. The qt measured by the cone penetration test (CPT) was correlated to the yield consolidation pressure (py) measured by the Constant Rate of Strain (CRS) oedometer test for the soil sample recovered near the point of the CPT investigation. The cone factor for the py value (Npc) was defined by (qt -pvo)/py, where pvo is the in situ total overburden pressure. The range of observed Npc value is relatively narrow and between 2.5 and 2.8, which is in the middle of the range of Npc factors measured in Holocene clays in the various areas in the world as well as Japan. The overconsolidation ratio (OCR) was also derived by CPT. Variation of the OCR estimated by the CPT is nearly equivalent to that measured by the CRS oedometer. It may be concluded from this investigation that the consolidation properties, especially the py value, derived from samples recovered from great depths, are quite reliable as design parameters.
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  • Yoichi WATABE, MASANORI TANAKA, HIROYUKI TANAKA, TAKASHI TSUCHIDA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2003 Volume 43 Issue 1 1-20
    Published: February 15, 2003
    Released: February 29, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    A series of K0-consolidation tests in a triaxial cell was carried out for marine clays collected from different areas in the world in order to investigate the behavior during K0-consolidation tests and evaluate K0-values that are required for laboratory tests with recompression techniques, FEM analysis using elasto-plastic constitutive equations, etc. It was confirmed that the famous equation K0NC = 1-sinφ' is useful; however, the definition of φ' should be concerned. Inthe case using φ' corresponding to a critical state line, i.e. (q/p)max, the equation underestimates K0NC by 0.05 ; in contrast, in the case using φ' corresponding to a peak strength, i.e. (q)max, the equation overestimates K0NC by 0.05. This study proposes a procedure for estimating the in-situ K0-value. For a representative undisturbed clay sample, K0-consolidation and K0-overconsolidation tests (i.e. SHANSEP test) are consecutively carried out to obtain the K-OCR relationship. Using the profile of OCR obtained from a series of oedometer tests, the K-value corresponding to the OCR can be calculated as the in-situ K0. The K0-values obtained from both the K0-overconsolidation test corresponding to the OCR in the laboratory and the flat dilatometer test (DMT test) in the field compared well.
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  • KOJI SUZUKI, KAZUYA YASUHARA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2007 Volume 47 Issue 2 303-318
    Published: 2007
    Released: January 27, 2011
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Estimating increase in undrained shear strength su of clay is an important purpose of consolidation analysis as well as settlement prediction when multi stage loading for construction of earth structures on soft clay is concerned. The present paper investigates the increase in su with regard to rate of consolidation. Since values of su are usually evaluated as a function of effective vertical stress σv′, rate effect on shear strength increment ratio in normally consolidated state sunv′ is first discussed considering the fundamental concept expressed by the equation of sunv′=sufy′, in which suf is in-situ undrained shear strength and σy′ is consolidation yielding stress. The paper also describes two case histories where actual increases in su were observed in soft clay deposits. The first site is located offshore Osaka-bay where a large-scale seawall was constructed, and soft clay in the site was improved by sand drains. The second is a reclaimed land in Yanai City where a sand fill and a subsequent test embankment were conducted on a soft clay deposit without improvement by vertical drains. It is found from the study that: (1) rate effect on sunv′ cancels rate effect on σy′, and the equation mentioned above is valid regardless of the rate of consolidation, and (2) the in-situ values of sunv′ observed in the two sites vary from 0.27 to 0.37 as consolidation progresses, and they are well related to rate of consolidation. According to the experience at the two construction sites, values of sunv′ with regard to rate of consolidation are proposed for design use at field/construction sites.
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  • WOO YOUNG JANG, MAMORU MIMURA
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2005 Volume 45 Issue 6 111-119
    Published: 2005
    Released: February 28, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Ayato TSUTSUMI, Hiroyuki TANAKA, Takayuki KAWAGUCHI
    Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshuu C
    2010 Volume 66 Issue 3 660-670
    Published: 2010
    Released: September 21, 2010
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
      It is well known that effective pressure and strain relation is strongly dependent on the strain rate and its dependency is very important to predict settlement caused by consolidation including secondary con-solidation. Many researchers have proposed strain rate dependent models, including so called Isotach model, whose compression curves on given strain rates are parallel in ε-log p’ relation and a parameter of strain rate dependency is expressed as the function of the strain rate. To examine the strain rate dependency of cohesive soils on compression curves under very slow strain rates, a Slow Constant Rate of Strain (SCRS) oedometer was developed to attain the minimum strain rate of 3.8 × 10-10 s-1. SCRS test was carried out on five different cohesive soils of intact as well as reconstituted samples. It is found that although compression curves of all clays strongly depend on the strain rate, the Isotach model can be applied to only Osaka clay.
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  • Noritaka HASEGAWA, Tamotsu MATSUI, Yasuo TANAKA, Yoshiki TAKAHASHI, Mitsuhiro NAMBU
    Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshuu C
    2006 Volume 62 Issue 4 780-792
    Published: 2006
    Released: November 20, 2006
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Thick deposits of Pleistocene strata are found at deeper depths below the seabed at Kobe Airport which was constructed offshore of Kobe Port. The Pleistocene Clays at the Osaka Bay are quasi-over-consolidated and their consolidation properties have not been well understood. Moreover, the drainage capacity of gravel or sand strata that interlay between the Pleistocene Clays was not clearly understood. In order to examine the settlement behavior of the Clays, a special precise measurement system over a unit depth of 1 or 3 m intervals was installed to measure both the compressions as well as the excess pore water pressures over the entire depths of the Upper Pleistocene Clays. The measurements covered the compressions of Upper Pleistocene Sand and Gravel layers, and those of Ma12 and uppermost Ma11 Clays that are to be brought into a normally consolidated state due to the airport fill load. Based on the measurements, it was found that the pre-consolidation pressure, pc, of Ma12 is function of the strain rate that is highest near the upper drainage boundary and also that the field pc value is smaller than that of the laboratory result because of the low strain rate in the field. The drainage capacity of sand and gravel layers was also found to be good.
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  • Kenta MIZUNO, Takashi TSUCHIDA, Masaki KOBAYASHI, Yoichi WATABE
    Doboku Gakkai Ronbunshuu C
    2007 Volume 63 Issue 4 936-953
    Published: 2007
    Released: November 30, 2007
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    It has often been indicated that the prediction accuracy of horizontal displacement by finite element analysis is inferior to vertical displacement (settlement). In this study, a new constitutive equation of the natural clay deposit was proposed for the purpose of improving the prediction accuracy of ground deformation. Then, the applicability of the proposed model for K0-consolidation tests in a triaxial cell was examined and the finite element analysis using the field measurement data of the large scale embankment were carried out. As the result, it was proven that the proposed model appropriately reproduced the element behavior of natural clay deposit in comparison with Sekiguchi and Ohta's model. And, the proposed model can predict settlements and horizontal deformations of large scale embankments at the good accuracy.
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  • HIROYUKI TANAKA, MIN-Soo KANG, YOICHI WATABE
    SOILS AND FOUNDATIONS
    2004 Volume 44 Issue 6 39-51
    Published: December 15, 2004
    Released: February 29, 2008
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Soil samples were recovered from the Osaka basin, where Holocene as well as Pleistocene marine clays are thickly deposited. It is found from X-ray diffraction analysis that the component of clay minerals for these clay layers is almost identical through all depths. This fact suggests that the origin of these sediments has not been drastically changed through at least more than 1, 000, 000 years. Using data obtained by oedometer tests, this paper examines ageing effects on consolidation properties. It is found that void ratio for the Pleistocene clays keeps large even under high in situ effective overburden pressure (p'vo). Salinity of pore fluid decreases with depth and becomes nearly zero at depths deeper than 70 m. However, the change in salinity does not give any influences on the index properties, suggesting that the relatively large void ratio for the Pleistocene clays is caused by other reasons than leaching. It is also found that the Pleistocene clays reveal no particular differences in consolidation properties, but fundamentally similar to those of Holocene clays. There is no distinguished difference in the overconsolidation ratio (OCR), non-linearity of the e-log p' relation after yield consolidation pressure including the maximum compression index (Ccmax) and the hydraulic conductivity (k). The only prominent difference in the Osaka Pleistocene clays, compared to the Holocene clay, is relatively small void ratio due to the large p'vo.
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