詳細検索結果
以下の条件での結果を表示する:
全文: "アザンデ族"
12件中 1-12の結果を表示しています
  • 馬淵 東一
    民族學研究
    1937年 3 巻 3 号 525-544
    発行日: 1937/08/15
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宮内 悦藏
    民族學研究
    1937年 3 巻 3 号 508-525
    発行日: 1937/08/15
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 木山 英明
    神奈川県立外語短期大学紀要 総合編
    1990年 12 巻 13-24
    発行日: 1990年
    公開日: 2018/02/22
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
    James Prescott, a neuropsychologist, has set forth a theory (Prescott 1975) that: body pleasure gained through physical touch and movement, as against that through optic, auditory, olfactory or gustatory sense, stands in a direct counteraction with the urge of violence. If the former is turned on, the latter is off, and vice versa. Not only that one tends to become violent when he/she is deprived of body pleasure, but also that one tends to develop a personality of either violent stoic or nonviolent pleasure-seeker when such a neurotic circuit is repeatedly activated during his/her young ages. The author tested this hypothesis cross-culturally with five traits concerning child-rearing practices as the independent variables and the frequency of muder incidences as the dependent variable. The codings were taken from (Barry et. al. 1980) for the independent variables and from (Palmer 1970) for the dependent one. The correlations obtained were as follows: Murder with: Pain Infliction upon Child: Tau b=.275 p<.05 N=29 Child Indulgence: Tau b=.404 p<.01 N=26 Parental Response to Child's Crying: Tau b=.308 p<.05 N=23 Length of Post-Partum Sex Taboo: Tau b=.368 p<.05 N=26 Sleeping Proximity between Father and Child: Tau b=.364 p<.01 N=32 The correlations with pain infliction, child indulgence and child crying were interpreted as reflecting the causal linkage that fulfillment of body pleasure in early ages makes a nonviolent personality, a confirmation of the hypothesis, although there must have been involved a direct linkage, too, that nonviolent parents tended to attend to children tenderly. The correlations of post-partum sex taboo and of father-child sleeping proximity were thought as indicating the direct linkage between sex and violence in adult behavior rather than a child's developmental sequence. Namely, a prolonged post-partum sex taboo deprives the parents of their mutual sex. That the father sleeps apart from his child tends to represent that he sleeps also apart from his wife, the child's mother. Both are, thus, indices of the sexual deprivation. Besides this, a prolonged post-partum sex taboo tends to be seen with extensive polygynous families, where fathers tend to sleep apart from mother-children sleeping quarters, those two indicating the extent of polygyny. Now, the more polygyny, the more celibate men are present. And most murderers are men. Thus, in those two ways, those two correlations suggest that the more people are deprived of their sexual satisfaction, the more murder is committed. Thus, all the five associations presented here support, further, the theory of James Prescott.
  • 祖父江 孝男
    民族學研究
    1982年 47 巻 3 号 308-309
    発行日: 1982/12/30
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • [記載なし]
    民族學研究
    1969年 34 巻 2 号 151-153
    発行日: 1969/09/30
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 福島 真人
    日本情報経営学会誌
    2012年 32 巻 2 号 3-12
    発行日: 2012/04/05
    公開日: 2017/08/07
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article intends to discuss problems related to our understanding of the complex causes of so-called organizational accidents. Having acquired the academic currency, the notion of organizational accidents with the emphasis of distributed causes of them, however, has given rise to a series of both epistemological and practical problems. Focused in this paper is the clash between this notion and our tendency of seeking for more localized causes, such as a particular person or a single incident. Also the question of legal responsibility challenges the assumption of this notion. By spotlighting these cases, this paper concludes the inherent limitation of our understanding of accidents caused by the organizational or distributed network of causes.
  • 松本 洋之
    科学哲学
    1991年 24 巻 31-44
    発行日: 1991/11/15
    公開日: 2009/05/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • チェワ社会の医療体系
    吉田 憲司
    アフリカ研究
    1986年 1986 巻 29 号 29-53
    発行日: 1986/12/31
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The aim of this paper is to describe the therapeutic activity of the Chewa and to elucidate its characteristics and logic.
    The Chewa attribute slight illness to God, and severe illness to the act of sorcerers. Illness which is caused by the dead or the ancestral spirits is quite rare. This tendency may well be ascribed to the existence of a masked society “Nyau”, whose function is to transfer the dead into the ancestral spirits, and to prevent them from doing harm to the living people.
    Traditional healers of the Chewa attach great importance to medicine, made mainly from plants and animals. In the case of illness caused by sorcery, healers connect symptoms of the illness and the attributes of a certain plant or animal, a part of which, they suppose, the sorcerer has sent into the body of the patient. Thus, the cure consists of giving the same substance to the patient, chanting a spell “the substance must go back to the sender”. In the case of illness caused by God, healers try to treat them using symbolic attributes of plants and animals: for example, trees which have white drops can wash the illness away, a tree whose name is “msolo” can pull out (u-solela) the illness, and the like. In both cases, healing is explained through the metaphorical association between symptoms and attributes of natural objects. This kind of treatment can visualize the healing process of the illness. In consequence, patient can not only imagine but also believe his recovery. It is no exaggeration to say that the Chewa's therapeutic system, which ascribes most of severe illness to sorcery and cure them through its counterwork, visualizes the process of outbreak and healing of illness to the extreme degree.
  • その機能的関連性について
    大森 元吉
    アフリカ研究
    1966年 1966 巻 3 号 49-64
    発行日: 1966/05/15
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Each of these religious beliefs shares in the same functions as follows: explanation of various misfortunes; moral sanction; and maintenance of a social structure.
    Besides each of them stands in a complementary relationship with one another in its functions indicated above. In many societies sudden death or serious diseases are thought to be caused by witches. Whereas ancestores give misfortunes of less severity, for ancestors do harms only when their descendants fail to observe their traditional way of living or their duties towards their kinsmen or ancestors, so that the descendants may correct their misbehaviors.
    Witches are generally associated with such character that tends to bring troubles into human relations. In this way people succeed in rejecting and banishing the persons of too much envious, competitive or uncompromising character from their society. Consequently witch-craft belief regulates the relationship between co-wives, neighbors and co-workers. Ancestor worship, on the contrary, gives sanction upon the relationship between a senior and a junior member of a kin group. Unless a son obeys his father's command, misfortunes fall upon the son, for the irritated father would not sacrifice to the ancestor in favor of his son.
    Witchcraft belief contributes to the maintenance of the solidarity of a group in two ways: it gives a safe way of dissolving frustrated feelings of the members which are created by conflicts that institutions and systems of the society might inevitably produce; and it prohibits the accusation of a witch within an intimate, cooperative kin group in which a collaborate relationship should be retained lest the fundamentally required stability of the society as a whole should not be broken. On the other hand ancestor worship considerably reinforces the authority of heads of kin groups of various size. The right of giving sacrifices to the ancestor is ascribed only to the heads, and thus the rest of the members must depend upon the heads in order to secure their ancestor's favor. In these ways the solidarity of the cooperative relationship among the members of a society is effectively strengthened and maintained by witchcraft belief and ancestor worship.
  • 木山 英明
    神奈川県立外語短期大学紀要 総合編
    1986年 8 巻 35-52
    発行日: 1986年
    公開日: 2018/02/22
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー
  • 松村 武雄
    民族學研究
    1939年 5 巻 3 号 251-280
    発行日: 1939/05/30
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 伊藤 守
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    1994年 44 巻 15-28,189-188
    発行日: 1994/03/25
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Although a large number of studies have been made on Luhmann's social system theory and Habermas' Communicative social theory, little is known about the importance of these theories in terms of informatization and post-modern society. The purpose of this paper is to show the neccesity of a communicative approach in the conceptual analysis of post-modern society and to further develop the concept of communication. In order to advance this purpose, Foucault's historical analysis of discourse and power and Melucci's social movement theory provide helpful points. Their arguments throw new light on"vulnerability"in communication subject. Habermas, with his concept of communication action, creates a theoretical approach that is able to recognize the beginnings of an answer to the basic problem since within its framework, the structures of social domination can be explained as the result of processes of communicative agreement that underlie an internal claim to the fulfillment of inter subjective freedom that serves as the standard for a reflexive"critique of power."In the history of Marxism, communicative understanding is treated systematically as the paradigm of the"social."But his foundation is not sufficient for grounding a communication-theoretic concept of society. The process of formation and institutionalization of social norms is not abstractly conceived as a moral development in learning that the human species realizes as a whole, but as a process of will-formation that takes place between some groups in the form of struggle over the basis of validity of moral norms. I introduce Michel Foucault's theory of power as a conflict model. Foucault finds a productively new disclosure on the sphere of social interaction and conflict. It is very important that he conceives of social system, in general, as networks of social power in which knowledge formations assume the special function of augmenting power. Discourse is a system of social knowledge that owes its genesis to the strategic requirements of an established order of power even as they may in turn effectively act upon a given order of power. His point of view compensates a weak point of Habermas' theory. There is one further question that we must not ignore in Habermas' communication theory. His analysis of the process of communicative understanding is quite unsatisfactory, therefore the"force of negation"in his theory is decisively weak. In this sense, Melucci's theory about new social movement provides helpful points. Melucci insists that"to communicate thus signifies the need to depend on what is common in order to discover and affirm difference, the possibility of choice introduces contingency and risk into relationships and makes them a field of emotional commitment and self-reflection."There is an important suggestion here, if I interpret the author correctly, that communication subjects must not deny the ambivalence of social relationships in post-industrial society. It means"vulnerability"in subjects. In my opinion, vulnerability is one of the most important factors to develop communication theory following Habermas' model.
feedback
Top