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  • 小林 登志子
    オリエント
    1985年 28 巻 1 号 65-92
    発行日: 1985/09/30
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper I shall discuss the ki-a-nag (the libation place for the dead) of the Pre-Sargonic Lagaš, especially the ki-a-nag of Enentarzi who was the first ruler of the new dynasty after that of Urnanše. We have many records about ki-a-nag in the administrative-economic archives of the é-mí (the house of the wife (of the ruler)). There are some kinds of ki-a-nag as follows: ki-a-nag, the ki-a-nag of Enentarzi, the ki-a-nag of lugal of Lagaš (district), the ki-a-nag of NINA (district) and the ki-a-nag of Urub (district). The most significants results of my investigation are the following:
    1. We find the ki-a-nag of Lagaš and of NINA in níg-giš-tag-ga texts, detailed account books of offerings for deities and temples. It is the point at issue why these two places were involved in the records of offerings to deities, though ancestors were generally differenciated from deities.
    2. The ki-a-nag of Urub in which maš-da-ri-a offerings were brought seems to be identical with that of Enentarzi, because he was the only one departed spirit who was given those in his ki-a-nag.
    3. The ki-a-nag of ensi is identical with that of Enentarzi according to DP 56 and Nik. I, 161.
    4. The ki-a-nag of Enentarzi was built in the first year of his reign according to RA 11, 61.
    5. Lugalanda and Barnamtarra, his wife, gave many offerings to the ki-a-nag of Enentarzi, but they did not directly bring those to this place.
    6. The ki-a-nag in gar lists, lists of monthly expenditure of barley and emmer, seems to be identical with that of Enentarzi, because Dudu, father of Enentarzi and sanga of Ningirsu, had been received and Lugalanda and his wife had individually given same quantity of emmer and barley to it every month until the first year of Uruinimgina, ensi.
    7. Dudu was enshrined in the é-ki-šál-la, not his ki-a-nag.
    8. I can find the ki-a-nag of Enentarzi but can not find that of Lugalanda, his son, in the records.
    9. Uruinimgina suspended the giving of cereal to ki-a-nag of Enentarzi from the first year of lugal. Therefore he seemed to have had the obligation to worship his ki-a-nag. He, however, gave emmer to Enentarzi and Lugalanda in the fifth and sixth year of his reign according to DP 53, Fö 14 and Nik. I, 89.
    10. The ki-a-nag in VAT 4875 and DP 57 might have been identical with that of Uruinimgina, because he as well as Enentarzi was the first ruler of the dynasty and also must have built his ki-a-nag.
    The ki-a-nag was the sacred place that the first ruler of the dynasty must have built and the successors and their wives must have been enshrined together. Urnanše also may have built his ki-a-nag, because he was the first ruler of the dynasty. Some of the ancestors such as Gilgameš must have become a deity. When the ancestor who had been enshrined in a ki-a-nag was deified, his ki-a-nag became the holy place such as the temple of Ningirsu. The ki-a-nag of lugal of Lagaš must have been that of Urnanše, because he had assumed the title of lugal.
    Enentarzi, the first ruler of the dynasty, built his ki-a-nag and Lugalanda, his successor, was enshrined together with him in the same ki-a-nag. It had been the private libation place in which the ruler's family worshipped. Under the reign of Uruinimgina, his ki-a-nag became the place that the ruler worshipped officially. He attemped to make his rulersnip stronger in relation to his reform policy.
  • オリエント
    1989年 32 巻 2 号 145-163
    発行日: 1989年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 「禿鷹の碑」と粘土板記録
    前川 和也
    オリエント
    2003年 46 巻 2 号 28-51
    発行日: 2003年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The battle formation of the Sumerian phalanx, which is carved in relief on the reverse of the Stele of the Vultures, is studied in this article in light of textual sources, i. e., administrative documents, almost contemporary to the Stele, and later royal hymns and lexical texts.
    DP 135 (dated around 2370 B. C.) suggests that a complete Sumerian phalanx was composed of thirty-two soldiers: a commander, a sub-commander, twenty-four spearmen and six shield-bearers. According to the Stele of the Vultures (produced 50 years or more earlier than DP 135), on the other hand, Lagashite troops of thirty men in phalanx formation, being led by King Eannatum, charged on the enemy. In my view, the phalanx of the Stele is composed of the following soldiers: a sub-commander, a shield-bearer who protects the sub-commander, twenty-four spearmen standing in four lines, and four shield-bearers protecting the first four spearmen of the respective lines. Although neither a commander nor a man holding a protective shield for the commander is found in the Stele, the battle formation drawn on the Stele differs only superficially from what DP 135 suggests. King Eannatum, whom the Stele depicts as standing unguarded in front of his troops in phalanx, plays the role of commander.
    I reconstruct the phalanx of the Stele as follows. The head and the two feet that are found on the far right (as one faces it) in the phalanx relief of the Stele (called Head 1-Feet 1-2 in this article) represent the sub-commander of the troops. The second soldier, with the head and feet second from the right in relief (Head 2-Feet 3-4), protects the sub-commander with his large shield. The spearman of Head 3-Feet 5-6 stands at the head of the six men in the first line, being guarded by the shield-bearer of Head 4-Feet 7-8, and so on. On the far left of the Stele, the head and feet of the spearman, who is positioned first in the fourth line, are only imperfectly carved (Head 9-Feet 17-18). Two more heads are in relief on the left side board of the Stele, with the carvings of their four feet being completely lost from the board (Head 1′-Feet 1′-2′ Head 2′-Feet 3′-4′). I conclude that the spearman of Head 9-Feet 17-18, found last on the reverse, occurs again on the right of the side board (Head 1′-Feet 1′-2′) and that he is protected by the fifth shield held by the man of Head 2′-Feet 3′-4′ on his left.
    The term ama-ERIN2 refers to shield-bearers in DP 135. In the other contemporary text (Nik 1 3), however, it occurs as a designation of the whole army (composed of both shield-bearers and spearmen). The expression ama-erin2-na of the later periods, which is often interpreted by Assyriologists to denote “the main body of the troops” on the basis of its Akkadian translation, seems to have been derived from ama-ERIN2 with a meaning as found in Nik 1 3. Like Eannatum of Pre-Sargonic Lagash, King Shulgi of Ur, dated to the first half of the 21st century B. C., was obligated to stand alone before his troops (called ama-erin2-na) [Šulgi B 31; Šulgi E 209]. It is rather doubtful, however, that Shulgi's troops were in phalanx formation as had been the case of the soldiers of Eannatum.
    ERIN2-suh5-ha, which is used as a designation for spearmen in DP 135, occurs again in a later lexical text in slightly different writing (erin2-suh). ERIN2-suh5-ha is possibly interpreted to mean “selected troops (of spearmen guarded by shield-holders).”
  • 堀岡 晴美
    オリエント
    1997年 40 巻 2 号 1-17
    発行日: 1997年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    For a long time the date of the Šuruppak tablets has been the subject of controversy. However, since R. D. Biggs concluded that these tablets can be placed in the EDIIIa Period, his proposal seems to be widely accepted today.
    This paper will reexamine this view and argue that the Šuruppak tablets actually belong to a different period. To substantiate this view, we will investigate the usage of ku3-luh-ha in the Šuruppak sale documents and royal inscriptions and administrative documents of the other cities. The term ku3-luh-ha is used in the time between Entemena and Uruinimgina, rulers of Lagaš in the EDIIIb Period. This fact leads to the conclusion that the date of the Šuruppak sale documents belong to the second half of the EDlllb Period.
    This paper will also investigate the order of the person attesting in bal-PN, the date system of Šuruppak sale documents. The persons are classified into two groups according to the material for payment, urudu group and ku3-luh-ha group. It is possible to assume that the one proceeds the other.
  • オリエント
    1982年 25 巻 2 号 146
    発行日: 1982年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
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