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全文: "エドワード・スノーデン"
7件中 1-7の結果を表示しています
  • 村田 潔, 折戸 洋子, 福田 康典
    経営情報学会 全国研究発表大会要旨集
    2017年 2017f 巻 F3-1
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/30
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    2013年6月からエドワード・スノーデンとその協力者によって行われた,米国の情報機関NSAによる無差別大量監視に関する内部告発が社会に与えた影響について,筆者らは2014年10月~11月に, 日本を含む8か国における,大学生を対象としたアンケート調査ならびに聞取り調査を行った。この国際比較研究の結果,「国家による監視」に対する社会的態度において,日本は調査を行った国の中で特異な存在であることが明らかになった。本研究報告ではこの調査結果に基づき,高度情報化が進む日本社会における「国家による監視」に対する人々の態度の特徴を示し,それがプライバシー保護や個人の自由と自律,民主主義のあり方などに対して持つ意味を明らかにする。
  • 坂井 修一
    情報管理
    2017年 59 巻 11 号 768-771
    発行日: 2017/02/01
    公開日: 2017/02/01
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    インターネットの利便性をこれまでになく享受し,ネット上に拡散する情報の力が革新的な発想を後押しすることも多い21世紀初頭は,同時に情報漏えいや権利侵害,依存といった弊害や危うさを露呈し始めた時代でもある。不可視だが確実に存在する脅威,ネットにつながっているゆえの不自由さをも見極める必要がある。現代の環境を冷静に認識し,今起きていることに対してどうふるまうべきか。現代思想・法曹・警察行政・迎撃技術・情報工学・サイバーインテリジェンス等のスペシャリストが,6回に分けて考える。

    第5回は情報理工学者で歌人の坂井修一氏が,「ソフトウェアに手足(アクチュエーター)と目鼻(センサー)がついたもの」という現在の世界を解析し,そこにおける人間のありよう,備えるべき教養,そして幸福を考える。

  • 村田 潔
    日本情報経営学会誌
    2017年 37 巻 2 号 97-108
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    Reflecting the recent trend of information and communication technology (ICT) use in organisations centred on “monitor and control”, the participatory surveillance environment has emerged. With the growth of such a socio-technological environment, whereby individuals come under 24/7 monitoring by both human and electronic eyes and real-time control made possible by advanced ICT-based information systems, individuals are treated as dividuals, that is, as a dividable existence in which a set of their personal data is used to represent a specific aspect of them. The nature of dividualisation is associated with dis/re-embodiment of the individual, and leads the alienation and objectification of human beings. Due to the dividualisation, holistic approaches to understanding individuals may be undermined, and this may seriously affect individuals’ ways of thinking, ideas of what an individual is, and paradigms of good societies. In this study, the social risks caused by the dividualisation of human beings in the participatory surveillance environment are discussed.
  • 辻 雄一郎
    法政論叢
    2015年 51 巻 2 号 111-130
    発行日: 2015/08/15
    公開日: 2017/11/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Fourth Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution in 1791. In no place in the Fourth Amendment does the term "warrant" appear. In interpretation of the Fourth Amendment by the U.S. Supreme Court, the police require warrants to perform searches. A warrantless search is deemed reasonable only if it falls within a specific exception to the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement. The ninety percent of American adults who own cellphones todays carry with them digital records of nearly every aspect of their lives. Two hundred and twenty-three years have passed since the Fourth Amendment was added. In Riley v. California, the Supreme Court held that the police generally have no authorization to search digital information on cellphones seized from arrested individuals without warrants. While the Riley case is certain to be a subject further study, the American scholars who have studied the case so far have found several lessons for the interpretation of constitutional law. In this article, I would like to discuss this issue with a focus on the interpretation methods of the originalist Justice Scalia and the intra-textualist Akhil Amar, and the battle between Congress and the judicial approach. Justice Breyer provided six factors to overturn precedents. Daniel Farber shows a pragmatic approach.
  • 福田 充
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    2016年 89 巻 45-60
    発行日: 2016/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    Along with the evolution of the media, risk society and globalization have made progress. Media technology manages the risks that result as these functions become means of control. With the progress of risk society and globalization,“ crisis management” has become an important theme in the world.   The problem with the National Security Agency (NSA) monitoring global communication has become apparent in the Snowden incident. Changes in media have also caused evolutions in intelligence activities: state power to monitor the world, social structure to preserve state secrets in the name of security, and risk management. Computers and the internet are supporting the social infrastructure.   Under the pretext of security (e.g., counterterrorism), monitoring technology has evolved and been introduced to society. As with intelligence activity, this technology is a technique for preventing potential risks that could create crises. Big data is used for economic marketing in corporate activities. It has been used as a tool for intelligence activities by political power.  The Arab Spring was described as “Revolution 2.0.” Public Diplomacy 2.0 is using social media (e.g., Twitter and Facebook). While bonding with intelligence activities, this development has affected international relations. In this way, media evolution and risk management society have progressed in the world.
  • 韓 永學
    マス・コミュニケーション研究
    2014年 85 巻 123-141
    発行日: 2014/07/31
    公開日: 2017/10/06
    ジャーナル フリー
    The objective of this article is to explore the status of the right to know in the special secrecy law. I found that the law gives much attention to safeguarding "special secrets" but has no regard for the people's right to know. Firstly, the law virtually admits its classification of what is a special secret is too wide-ranging, but restricts the declassification and disclosure of such secrets. Also the law has a chilling effect on whistle-blowing. Secondly, there is little guarantee of the Japanese Diet, the court and third party organizations checking on the enforcement of the special secrecy law. Thirdly, the provision in consideration of press freedom in the law does not have a substantial effect. In view of these serious defects, the law should be abolished or radically amended.
  • 土屋 大洋
    国際政治
    2015年 2015 巻 179 号 179_44-179_56
    発行日: 2015/02/15
    公開日: 2016/01/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    In response to an increasing number of cyber attacks, many governments have tasked their intelligence agencies with ensuring the safety and security of cyber space. This is a marked shift from the Cold War era when intelligence agencies’ main role was espionage in hostile countries. Their targets in this sense were clear and their tasks specific. However, perpetrators of cyber attacks today can hide themselves in the vast traffic of digital information. They might send computer viruses to a large indefinite number of computers and order them to attack a target by remote control. Or, they might take over someone else’s computer to eavesdrop others’ communications or to steal confidential information. This makes it difficult to identify the perpetrators of cyber attack incidents. With attribution becoming one of the core problems in cyber security, intelligence agencies are shifting their missions from espionage of fixed targets to wider surveillance of possible targets. This sometimes includes the general public.
    The shift has been generated by three changes in the information society. First, governments need to care for unknown risks rather than known threats. Intelligence agencies need to cast wider nets to detect possible signs of risk. Second, digital communications lowers the costs of collecting, processing, analyzing, and storing information. These lowered costs make surveillance easier. Finally, the prevalence of social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook has meant that people are putting an increasing amount of private and sensitive information online, available for collection by intelligence agencies. These changes have compelled intelligence agencies to shift their practices, with signal intelligence (SIGINT) increasingly becoming more effective than human intelligence (HUMINT). This paper looks at case studies of the United States and the United Kingdom to analyze the shift in intelligence practices in response to cyber security.
    In June 2013 former National Security Agency (NSA) contractor Edward Snowden revealed vast surveillance programs such as PRISM by the NSA. The British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) was also revealed to be working in close cooperation with the NSA. Snowden’s revelations also shed light on hidden cooperation between intelligence agencies and information technology companies including Google, Microsoft, Apple, Facebook, Twitter and others. Without such cooperation, intelligence agencies face difficulties accessing the communications of possible targets. These activities have been amplified by cultures of anxieties after the 9/11 terrorist attacks. The U.S. and the U.K. might be exceptional cases, but other countries, including other democracies, are conducting surveillance in some ways. As more and more people get online, the needs for such forms of surveillance may grow. Governments worldwide must consider reasonable and proper ways to protect their nations in cyber space, while striking a balance between privacy and security. This is an unavoidable policy task to be considered in the information age.
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