This paper provides a summary of contrastive and individual studies conducted in Japanese and Chinese from two perspectives: gender expressions in language, and the usage of language by women and men and indicates the remaining issues. Three points were summarized. Firstly, it was indicated that both Japanese and Chinese women in their twenties tend to refuse another person indirectly as compared to men and the men tend to interrupt another person more than women. Secondly, roles assigned as male or as female are stereotyped in Japanese and Chinese dictionaries. However, depreciation of women outside the home was observed in Chinese dictionaries more than in Japanese. Thirdly, expressions with the prefix "woman" were seen more frequently than those with prefix "man" in Chinese newspaper articles than in Japanese. Based on these studies, this paper proposes research directions. Firstly, it is necessary to compare natural conversations of various ages, meanwhile, considering how gender affects their language usage. In addition to natural conversations, an examination of images of women and men described in media discourses is also required. Finally, analyzing changes in gender stereotypes in media form selected by choice and media forms unconsciously encountered from the audience's perspective is also required.
This paper examines how the editorial focus of the Japanese gay magazine Badi has shifted over time and how the magazine has shaped the identity of gay men in Japan. Badi is the most popular magazine for gay men in Japan today. Its creation in 1993 coincided with a period of marked change in Japanese society regarding views toward homosexuality as well as with several watershed events such as in 1991 when homophobia was first addressed in a Japanese court and in 1994 when the first pride parade was held in Tokyo. By examining Badi as part of the Japanese gay liberation movement of the 1990s, and dividing the magazine’s editorial run into four distinct periods, we show that although the editors shaped the new identity and lifestyle, they were bolstered by masculinity.