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  • 津上 英輔
    美学
    1987年 38 巻 2 号 24-36
    発行日: 1987/09/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Die Impulse, die Mei fur die Entstehung des musikalischen Barockstils gab, gingen originar von seinem Musiktraktat, De modis musicis in vier Buchern aus. Es handelt sich dabei um eine rein philologische Untersuchung, in der die antiken Tonoslehren und ihre Anwendung im allgemeinen Musikleben erortert werden. Mei machte darin zwei musikgeschichtlich folgenschwere Fehler. Einmal nahm er das ptolemaische Tonossystem nicht als Problem der Oktavgattung ohne bestimmte Tonhohe an, sondern als eine Mischung der Oktavgattung und Tonhohe (2. Buch). Diese Missinterpretation fuhrte direkt zu seiner Auffassung von der antiken Ethoslehre (3. und 4. Buch), daher zur Kritik der zeitgenossischen Polyphoniepraxis (3. Buch), und zur Idee der Monodie (3. Buch). Zum andern glaubte Mei, die griechische Tragodie wurde immer gesungen (3. Buch), was die Geburt der modernen Oper zur Folge hat. Hier kann man zwar mit Recht von kreativen Missverstandnissen sprechen, aber warum konnten sie dann kreativ sein? Zu erwahnen sind : der philologische Trend der Aristoteles-Kommentare, die eine Ubersicht uber das antike Musikwesen benotigten, die geistige Atmosphare der italienischen Akademien, in der die Musik der klassischen Philologie begegnete, der Ubergang von Modalitat nach Tonalitat, wodurch eine neue Systematisierung zu erwarten war, und schliesslich die Schwierigkeit des Zugangs zum antiken Musikschrifttum. Mit Rucksicht auf diese geschichtlichen Situationen scheint nun die Kreativitat dieser Missverstandnisse nicht immer zufallig gewesen zu sein, sondern mindestens einigermassen notwendig. Mit anderen Worten erfullte Mei mehr oder weniger unbewusst eine geschichtliche Notwendigkeit.
  • 岡部 宗吉
    美学
    2004年 55 巻 2 号 55-68
    発行日: 2004/09/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    One of the principal arguments in Vincenzo Galilei's musical theoretical works is concerned with the intonations. He contests his former teacher Gioseffo Zarlino's theory on the intonation in vocal music of their time. Zarlino advocated the just intonation as a new system which can replace the Pythagorean intonation. His theory, however, conserves the concept of music as a mathematical discipline, while it respects an aural judgment. Galilei, on the other hand, assumes a more empirical attitude and criticizes Zarlino's metaphysically systematized doctrine. Galilei fully takes into consideration the practical problems which can arise in performance, at the same time he frankly acknowledges a difficulty in describing and demonstrating all matters of music with words or numbers. While the number, beside the sound, forms the basis of music in Zarlino's theory, Galilei treats the number as a means to examine the physical nature of the sound. Concerning Galilei's motive for discussing the intonations, I point out that various modifications on the lute were done in his time and that he considered the intonation as an element which influences the expression of the affetti, particularly in instrumental music which according to him was not inferior to vocal music.
  • 磯貝 靖洋
    文化経済学会〈日本〉論文集
    1997年 1997 巻 3 号 127-130
    発行日: 1997/03/25
    公開日: 2009/12/08
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 馬淵 卯三郎
    イタリア学会誌
    1957年 5 巻 110-114
    発行日: 1957/01/31
    公開日: 2017/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 柱本 元彦
    イタリア学会誌
    1994年 44 巻 74-99
    発行日: 1994/10/20
    公開日: 2017/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Oggi Busenello(1598-1659)e noto soprattutto come librettista dell'Incoronazione di Poppea, l'ultima opera di Monteverdi, considerata un capolavoro assoluto dai musicologi. Negli ultimi tempi, la critica ha cominciato a rivolgere la sua attenzione anche al libretto di quest'opera, che appare singolarmente vicino alla sensibilita modernaper la sua ambiguita e per la sua stupefacente spregiudicatezza, senza confronti nella storia dell'opera lirica. Nel 1637 venne aperto a Venezia il primo teatro pubblico. Da allora in poi il teatro veneziano si sviluppo accentuando il suo carattere cittadino. Il nuovo genere del dramma musicale conobbe una rigogliosa fioritura e si diffuse l'opera impresariale. Menter nelle altre citta molti intellettuali, legati ancora alla cultura aristocratica, disprezzavano il teatro lirico, quelli veneziani non solo lo apprezzavano, ma collaborarono personalmente alla sua riuscita, rinnovandolo. In quest'ambito, un ruolo decisivo fu svolto da un gruppo di intellettuali appartenenti all'"Accademia degli Incogniti". Decadenti, scettici e frustrati dal nuovo clima politico succeduto alla stagione di impegno in cui si erano formati, essi erano ostili a qualsiasi forma di autorita, ed attribuivano una grande importanza al teatro, per mezzo del quale potevano esprimere il loro pensiero e propagandare la loro ideologia, con la copertura del piacere. Anche Busenello, che era un membro di questa accademia, espresse il meglio di se nei suoi cinque libretti, in cui possiamo rintracciare con chiarezza il suo pensiero libertino e pessimistico, in particolare, nell'Incoronazione di Poppea(1642)e nella Prosperita infelice di GiulioCesare dittatore(1646). L'atteggiamento di Busenello, di per se tanto interessante, va naturalmente ricondotto al contesto storicamente determinato in cui egli opero. L'Incoronazione di Poppea non poteva che essere scritta nella Venezia di quel periodo. Nonostante il suo carattere profondamente originale, il suo stile e quello del teatro del Seicento. Anche gli elementi costitutivi del dramma vanno analizzati in rapporto alla pastorale e al linguaggio barocco dell'autore. E tuttavia il valore del libretto trascende i limiti dell'epoca in cui e stato concepito. Nell'Incoronazione di Poppea la poliedricita e l'ambiguita delle situazioni e dei sentimenti si sono incarnate nel dramma proprio come se la forma avesse trovato il suo contenuto. L'eccezionale talento drammaturgico dell'autore trasforma l'eterogeneita degli elementi in una complessita valorizzata al massimo dalla musica. L'Incoronazione di Poppea ha inaugurato il nuovo genere dell'opera di argomento storico, ma non ha avuto un seguito reale e non si e imposta come modello riformatore. Il capolavoro di Busenello e Monteverdi costituisce un caso unico ed eccezionale che ci permette di intravedere quali straordinarie possibilita latenti esistessero nel teatro italiano del Seicento.
  • ジローラモ・メーイの芸術体系論
    津上 英輔
    美学
    2018年 69 巻 1 号 13-
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    In his letter to Pier Vettori written in 1560, Girolamo Mei gives a classification of the arts in a pedigree-like diagram. It is a coherent system that contains, mutatis mutandis, painting, sculpture, poetry, music and dance, resembling, or surpassing, that of Charles Batteux. While this prima facie appears to be a mere graphic representation of Aristotle’s discussion of the three means of poetry and their combinations in the Poetics, Mei supplements it with modern theories and practices of art such as chiaroscuro and casting. He is not merely elucidating Aristotle’s thought in a purely scholarly manner, but presenting his reader(s) with a clear, complete picture of what the ancient theory is about, in a form easy to understand and ready to use. Such an orientation is also found in his description of ancient tragedy as an entirely musical drama, sung from beginning to end, and in his interpretation of the ancient theory of the modes, based on which he criticized his contemporaneous practice of polyphonic music. Yet, ancient theories are for him not so much raw material (pace Palisca) for a new product, as an old garment to be remade for a new use, utilizing as much part untouched as possible.
  • 大愛 崇晴
    美学
    2007年 57 巻 4 号 55-68
    発行日: 2007/03/31
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Johannes Kepler, one of the most famous astronomers during the period of scientific revolution, illustrates a unique view on consonance in Harmonice mundi (1619). First, Kepler rejects the Pythagoreans' symbolism of numbers (discrete quantity) that defines their concept of harmony and consonance. Instead, he defines consonance using geometrical figures that consist of concrete lengths (continuous quantity), treating numbers only as the values of the lengths. For explaining the concept of consonance, Kepler underlines the function of human soul to recognize harmony. He classifies harmony into two types: "sensible" and "pure." Sensible harmony (i.e., consonance) is realized by the human soul while comparing things that are perceived by sense (i.e., sounds). Pure harmony, on the other hand, functions as the archetype of sensible harmonies. It is an abstract mathematical idea, inherent in the human soul, and it certifies sensible harmonies as such. Moreover, this archetypal harmony is associated with God himself. Thus, Kepler hypothesizes on consonance based on his own metaphysics, which differs from the Pythagoreans' reflections on the subject.
  • 大愛 崇晴
    美学
    2002年 53 巻 1 号 57-70
    発行日: 2002/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    While it has been often emphasized that Monteverdi's seconda pratica opens the way to the essential idea of Baroque music : musical expression of passions of the text, Zarlino has been supposed to be a great defender of the more conservative style, prima pratica. However, Zarlino also develops the idea of "imitation of words" on the basis of the medieval conception of music as quadrivium. Zarlino supports the traditional Pythagorean view defining music as Harmonia, which is based on the simple proportions of the integral numbers and accordingly connotes consonances which sound agreeably to the sense. His view of music is therefore primarily speculative and mathematically analyzable by the reason. On the other hand, in the Renaissance humanistic thought, Zarlino seeks restoration of emotional effects of music in antiquity. He asserts the arousal of passions is caused by the very words to be set, those Harmonia (tune) and rhythm which are suitable to their emotional contents, and moreover, he stresses on the ethical purpose of music. But, Zarlino admits only the polyphony composed of consonances, as device of expression. He considers mathematical harmonic match as the most intrinsic part of music, recognizing the important role of words in music.
  • 津上 英輔
    美学
    1994年 45 巻 1 号 31-41
    発行日: 1994/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Along with theoretical explications in music and the very concept music', both inherited from ancient Greece, another channel of classical tradition is found in the realm of Western music : namely notated fragments from the ancient Greek world. They were first introduced to the West Europeans by Vincenzo Galilei in his Dialogo (1581). Yet curiously enough, he did not pay due attention which, in our eyes, such a direct evidence of ancient music should deserve. For he attempts here to elucidate and almost consecrate antiquity as a model of contemporary music. This inconsistency reveals the peculiar character of his attitude to ancient music : he was not so much interested in the real configuration of the Greek musical practice itself as in the image of ancient music gathered from literary, that is, secondary sources. The classical tradition in Western music is thus characterized by its indirectness. Accordingly the reconstructed image was largely influenced by the view of the classics current in other genres of art. In this way music could share aesthetic ideals with the plastic arts and literature.
  • 皆川 達夫
    美学
    1969年 20 巻 2 号 54-74
    発行日: 1969/09/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this article formation and chronology of the Cyclic Mass are discussed : according to the present writer's terminology of a Cyclic Mass, the five sections of Ordinarium Missae are unified by the use of same Cantus Firmus and the Motto (Kopfmotiv). The writer tries to conclude that the Cyclic Mass-form can be one of the criteria of the Renaissance music, that the groping of the Cyclic Mass-form on the 14th century can be regarded as the "proto-Renaissance, " the end of the Medieval music, the formation of the form on the middle of the 15th century as the commencent of the Renaissance music, and the decline of the form on the middle of the 16th century as the fall of the Renaissance music and that the Masses after that period, including the works of Lassus, Palestrina and Victoria should be rather classified as the works of Manierism.
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