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  • 科学史研究
    1989年 28 巻 169 号 65-
    発行日: 1989年
    公開日: 2021/09/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • ──既視感と新しさと
    重田 園江
    学術の動向
    2022年 27 巻 3 号 3_12-3_17
    発行日: 2022/03/01
    公開日: 2022/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー

     新型コロナウイルスのパンデミックは、人間の捉え方に二面があることを明らかにした。一つは生物種としてのヒトで、もう一つは社会的・政治的・関係的な世界に生きる人間である。この二つの軋轢としてコロナ禍で生じた社会的争点を理解することができる。

     この新しい感染症は、一方で歴史的な既視感をもたらす。疫病の鎮静化と経済活動との両立の困難、個人の自由と行動制限との対立、反ワクチン派の動向など、これまでの伝染病でも同じようなことが起きた。

     他方で新たな特徴もある。一つはワクチン開発における巨大製薬企業の役割であり、これは21世紀のグローバル資本主義のあり方を見事になぞっている。また、今回のパンデミックはグローバル資本主義そのものの問題の露呈で、また別の感染症が蔓延する可能性が高い。人間が地球環境と自然の一部であること、そして強者だけが肥え太る現状を理解するなら、経済活動をいまのままつづけることには首肯しがたい。

  • 増田 四郎
    社会経済史学
    1973年 38 巻 5 号 578-580
    発行日: 1973/01/15
    公開日: 2017/12/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 速水 融
    社会経済史学
    1973年 38 巻 5 号 580-583
    発行日: 1973/01/15
    公開日: 2017/12/10
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
  • 水野 和夫
    国際経済
    2009年 2009 巻 60 号 32-54
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2011/12/22
    ジャーナル フリー
      The US strong dollar policy (‘a strong dollar is in the interest of the country’), which had sought disengagement from the constraints of external imbalances since 1995, ended an historical mission in 2007 when the subprime loan crisis occurred and US investment banks collapsed or became commercial banks. That mission was to transform post-16th century capitalism whereby capital and the nation are integrated to global capitalism in which capital transcends the nation. The process has re-focused US attention on the issue of global imbalances and the dollar has weakened.
  • 児玉 善仁
    イタリア学会誌
    1986年 36 巻 122-143
    発行日: 1986/10/30
    公開日: 2017/04/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Durante il medioevo, dopo il secolo dodicesimo, fecero la loro comparsa nei Comuni italiani i maestri di scuola (rectores scolarum) e svolsero una parte molto importante nel sistema educativo comunale. Lo scopo di questo saggio e di chiarire, nel quadro della vita economica, politica e sociale della Venezia della prima meta del XV secolo, quali fossero i luoghi di provenienza e quali quelli di residenza di questi maestri nello spazio cittadino. A questo fine ho estrapolato dai documenti notarili (Vedi Nota 1) i dati riguardanti 278 maestri. Dalla loro analisi ho potuto trarre le seguenti conclusioni ; 1) I maestri non veneziani (che rappresentavano i due terzi del totale) provenivano in parte dall' estero, e specialmente dalla Germania, dalla Francia e del Portogallo, in parte dal Veneto, dalla Lombardia d dall'Emilia Romagna ecc. 2) Questi maestri avevano la tendenza a concentrarsi nelle parrocchie (contrade) lungo il Canal grande, oppure vicino al Ponte di Rialto e al Palazzo ducale. In queste zone infatti erano numerose le dimore dei ricchi nobili, dei liberi professionisti e di coloro che ricoprivano alte cariche nella burocrazia della Serenissima. 3) Da questo si puo dedurre che in generale i maestri sceglievano come loro primo luogo di residenza le contrade economicamente piu ricche e piu prestigiose. II Sestiere di San Marco rappresenta un' eccezione, pur essendo la zona piu prestigiosa di Venezia, non si riscontra in essa una forte concentrazione di maestri ; principalmente a causa degli affitti alti e della scarsezza di case disponibili. Di conseiiuenza essi si concentrarono nella zona est del Sestiere di Cannareggio e nella zona ovest del Sestiere di Castello. 4) L'analisi dei cambiamenti di residenza dei maestri in Venezia dimostra anche una eccessiva concentrazione di maestri nelle medesime zone e conseguentemente il formarsi di una forte concorrenza fra di loro. In seguito a questo alcuni dovettero trasferirsi nelle zone piu periferiche.
  • ―フィリピン先住民族アエタの事例から―
    田代 由巳
    国際開発研究
    2002年 11 巻 2 号 253-268
    発行日: 2002/11/15
    公開日: 2020/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study shows that the Ayta, the indigenous people in the Philippines, choose their own strategy of survival and decide by themselves whether they should become literate or remain illiterate. So the policy makers of literacy projects need to understand and respect their decision.

    This study is based on limited data by interviews, personal observation and the case study on the Ayta people living around Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines. The Aytas have been forced to face a radical change in their lifestyle since Mt. Pinatubo erupted in 1991. The author focuses on several aspects of the history of the literacy education among the Ayta; Who conducted the literacy programs for the Ayta even though they had lived their lives without literacy? When and why were the programs applied? And how did the Ayta respond to the programs?

    Before the eruption, some Christian missionaries, public schools, and NGO tried to teach reading and writing to the Ayta who lived in the east of Botolan, Zambales. Their purposes were to enlighten them in regard to Christianity, patriotism, civilization, and their development. However, the Ayta people didn't feel like they learned to read or to write because they had few chances to read or write in their daily lives. Moreover, they loved freedom, that is, being free from outsiders. Therefore, it was not an easy task to make many people totally literate. After the eruption, most of the Ayta living around the area moved into Loob-bunga Resettlement, established by the Philippine government, where public schools were built and NGO implemented the literacy programs until 1997.

    The survey shows two interesting findings as to the literacy situation in Belbel which is one of the eleven villages in the resettlement. First, even though DSWD (The Department of Social Welfare and Development) says that the rate of illiteracy is 8.3%, 37.1% of the residents never got the literacy education at all or had some difficulties with reading and writing. Second, the illiterate people tended to move back to their old village or other resettlements supported by NGO for the sake of keeping their traditional lifestyle, while the literate people wanted to adapt to the lowlanders' culture.

    The Ayta's culture has been changing rapidly. Some of the Ayta like to adopt a new lifestyle. Others try to keep their original way of life. Thus, their literacy abilities depend on their choice from these two strategies for their survival. It is not outsiders but the Ayta people themselves that decide to become literate or not.

  • 科学史研究
    1989年 28 巻 169 号 49-
    発行日: 1989年
    公開日: 2021/09/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
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