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  • 林 陽子
    国際女性
    1997年 11 巻 11 号 162-165
    発行日: 1997/12/20
    公開日: 2010/09/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大脇 雅子
    国際女性
    2000年 14 巻 14 号 127-134
    発行日: 2000/12/20
    公開日: 2010/09/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 山本 秀樹
    民族衛生
    2005年 71 巻 2 号 63-72
    発行日: 2005/03/31
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The risk of female genital mutilations (FGM) on HIV/AIDS infection was evaluated at the Ethiopian and Somalian refugee camp in Djibouti, horn of Africa. Sixty-one women out of 63 (96.8%), were mutilated of their genitals. Infibulations (FGM type III, WHO classification) were commonly practiced on 72.1 % (44/61), and clitoridectomy and/or excision of the labia (FGM type I and II) was performed on 27.8% (17/61) of the women . Fifty-six women (88.9%, 56/63) consented to give blood for the investigation of HIV/AIDS antibody . The Sunna type of FGM (type I and II) was common in Ethiopian women (80%, 16/20) Pharaonic type of FGM (type III) was common in Somalian women (95.3%, 41/43) . No HIV positive case was found in Somalian women, in contrast to prevalence of 37.5 % (6/16) in Ethiopian women . Pharaonic FGM (infibulations) may have a protective role against HIV/AIDS since it decrease sexual activity before marriage. Female genital mutilations are not recommended because it increases other health problems-gynecological infection, maternal complication during delivery and mental trauma. The effort to eliminate the female genital mutilations should be organized to promote reproductive health in Africa.
  • 高橋 哲哉
    法社会学
    2002年 2002 巻 56 号 16-25,273
    発行日: 2002/03/30
    公開日: 2009/01/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the last decade of the 20th century, two significant events were held to deal with the pasts which were profoundly traumatized by the crimes against humanity; The Truth and Reconciliation Commission in the Republic of South Africa and the Women's International War Crimes Tribunal on Japan's Military Sexual Slavery.
    The former avoided the "Nuremberg Option", that is the trial of criminals, in giving priority to establish the national unity and reconciliation. Amnesty was granted to the persons who had made full confession of the truth about their criminal acts with political objectives in the period of Apartheid. This principle of "justice without punishment" was guided not only by some inevitable "material" conditions in the new-born Country, but also by the philosophy of "forgiveness" in its hegelien or arendtien version.
    By contrast, the latter declared itself to be a renewal of "Tokyo Tribunal" in order to end the culture of impunity. Three days of trial produced the judgement according to which the Japanese Imperial Army' s "comfort women" stations and wartime sexual violence constituted crimes against humanity and the Supreme Commander of the Army and Navy, Emperor Hirohito did have legal responsibilities. Thus the Women's Tribunal, without real judicial effect, contested both the post-war Japanese culture of impunity about war crimes and the international culture of impunity about crimes against women in war.
    These two events can be highly appreciated as those which offered public spaces where the voices of victims and perpetrators could be heard seriously for the first time.
  • 大貫 挙学, 藤田 智子
    家族社会学研究
    2012年 24 巻 1 号 72-83
    発行日: 2012/04/30
    公開日: 2013/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    1970年代以降,フェミニズムは,ドメスティック・バイオレンス(DV)の背景に,近代家族における男性支配の権力構造があることを指摘してきた.これまで,多くの女性がDV被害に遭ってきたが,「被害」女性が「加害」者となってしまうケースもある.本稿では,DV被害女性が夫を殺害したとされる事件を取り上げ,動機の構成という点から,刑事司法における家族規範について考察する.
    裁判で弁護人は,被告人の行為を, DVから身を守るためのものだったと主張した.しかし裁判所は,弁護人の主張を退けている.検察官は,被告人の「不倫」を強調していたが,判決においては,「不倫」に対する非難ゆえに,弁護人の動機理解が否定されたのだ.本件裁判は,「不倫」を「逸脱」とみなす規範によって,弁護人のストーリーが排除される過程であった.近代家族モデルの犠牲者たる被告人が,家族規範からの「逸脱」ゆえに処罰されたといえよう.
  • 等松 春夫
    国際政治
    2017年 2017 巻 187 号 187_1-187_15
    発行日: 2017/03/25
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー

    The present issue examines relations between memories of history and international politics. In recent years interpretation of history with political implication (rekishi ninshiki) became a serious subject in matters regarding the past of war and colonial rule between Japan and China/Korea. However, the questions of history and politics is not peculiar to East Asian countries. Similar problems are occurring in many parts of the world as shown by articles in the present issue.

    History plays important and in some cases crucial role in domestic politics and international relations. In creating a nation-state a shared understanding of the past is a powerful vehicle to unite people for a common cause. Political actors therefore struggle over the monopoly of national history which is indispensable in gaining legitimacy of the government. However, such a narrative of nation-building is a double-edged sword. It is effective on one hand in maintaining the unity within the domestic community. On the other hand it fosters jingoism and causes frictions between other states. Typical of these are border disputes in which different stories of nation-building provide the confronting states with the basis for territorial claim. In recent years some states contest over registering historical sites and records in UNESCO World Heritage and Memory of the World schemes, thus opening a new battlefront of ‘war of histories’. Official recognition of a specific edition of history by an international organization such as UNESCO has political impact on relations of states concerned.

    A shared understanding of history often serves as a framework for post-war and post-colonial settlements. For example Germany and Japan’s re-entry to the western democracies became possible only when the two states accepted critical edition of their past during the Second World War. History may serve politics in such a way, however, with the side effect of bringing about the clash between ‘political correctness’ and academic objectivity and impartiality. Serious academic attempts to reexamine fixed official interpretation of history are therefore often criticized as revisionism.

    In an attempt to solve such a ‘war of histories’, bilateral/multilateral joint research projects were promoted by some states. European cases such as German-Polish and Franco-German projects on history studies were successful in forming certain degree of shared views of the past, and resulted in the publication of common school history textbooks. However, similar projects between Japan and China/Korea ended in confusion, widening the gap between different approaches to history by the three countries.

    It is expected that articles in the present issue will shed new lights on the question of history and politics.

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