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  • 後藤 裕加子
    史学雑誌
    1999年 108 巻 9 号 1551-1589,1716-
    発行日: 1999/09/20
    公開日: 2017/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The period between the collapse of the Il-Khanid dynasty in 1335 and the founding of the Safavid dynasty in 1501 is said to be a period of political confusion to Iran. Considering the social situation, after the Mongol conquest and the collapse of the 'Abbasid dynasty, which had been the symbol of the unity of the Islamic world, "official high Islam", like theologians, lost its meaning and its influence on the people. On the other hand, the nomad Turko-Mongol rulers and the common people admired the dignity and mirales of such "unofficial" religious groups ("folk Islam") as sufi-orders, and individuals like descendants of the Prophet Muhammad (sayyids). These trends strengthened after the collapse of the Il-Khanid dynasty. These "unofficial" religious groups enjoyed popularity and took part in politics with the support of the people. Two local dynasties by the Caspian Sea, which were founded by sayyid-families, the Mar'ashis in Mazandaran and the Kiyas in Gilan, were related to these religious trends. They have been understood in the context of a social reform movement ("the Sarbadar movement"), but these local dynasties did not arise out of class strife. The analogy of the Sarbadars in Khorasan and the Mar'ashis lies in the fact that the newly-risen rulers wished to gain the support of "folk Islam" in order to legitimate their own rule. The leaders of "folk Islam", who in turn wanted to control the rulers, began to seize political power for themselves. The Kiyas, who aimed at seizing power from the beginnig, removed local rulers of Gilan and came to the power with the military support of the Mar'ashis. When the Kiyas took Daylamistan, they coverted the Isma'ili inhabitants to the Zaydi faith. Later the inhabitants of Daylamistan played an important role in the army of the Kiyas. The Mar'ashis were the leaders of a sufi order, while the Kiyas were Zaydi 'ulamas. The local inhabitants admired the sayyids for their learning. The Turko-Mongol rulers of the 15th century, like the Aq Quyunlus, were influenced by such a social and religious situation. At the same time, they interfered in the internal affairs of the Caspian Sea region without any attempt to conquer it, showing more interest in the value of agriulture. The Mar'ashis and the Kiyas were allowed to retain their position of honor, because they were able to supply the Turko-Mongol rulers with the bountiful agricultural products of the region, especially silk. In the social and religious situation of Iran in the 14th and 15th centuries, in which the Mar'ashis and the Kiyas came to the fore, the Safavid order developed into the Safavid dynasty to conquer Iran.
  • 小牧 昌平
    オリエント
    1988年 31 巻 1 号 34-50
    発行日: 1988/09/30
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    After Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed in 1759, his eldest son, Aqa Mohammad Khan, was kept in Shiraz under the control of Karim Khan Zand. When his younger brother, Hosein Qoli Khan, came from Qazvin to Shiraz to meet his brother, Karim Khan appointed him the ruler of Damghan and sent him there in 1769. Damghan was not so far from his father's former domain of Astarabad and Mazandaran. These two districts were now governed by the persons responsible for his father's death, so he began to take actions against them.
    According to the sources written in the Zand period, Hosein Qoli Khan's field of activity was restricted to Mazandaran only, but we cannot agree with them for several reasons. Qajar sources relate his conquests of the Astarabad districts in detail, so it is reasonable to consider that his conquest extended to both the Astarabad and Mazandaran districts according to these sources. His conquest went smoothly in spite of several Zand expeditions, but he was assassinated in 1777.
    In Shiraz, Karim Khan intensified his observation of Aqa Mohammad Khan after Hosein Qoli Khan rose in revolt. So, Aqa Mohammad Khan escaped from Shiraz to Astarabad immediately after the Karim Khan's death in 1779. After his return to Astarabad, Aqa Mohammad Khan inherited Hosein Qoli Khan's former sphere of influence and pushed forward the establishment of the Qajar dynasty. It is thereby possible to estimate that Hosein Qoli Khan's revolt played an important role in the establishment of the Qajar dynasty.
  • 史学雑誌
    2000年 109 巻 6 号 1220-1253
    発行日: 2000/06/20
    公開日: 2017/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 勝藤 猛
    オリエント
    1992年 35 巻 1 号 110-122
    発行日: 1992/09/30
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 今野 泰三
    日本中東学会年報
    2016年 32 巻 2 号 97-120
    発行日: 2017/01/15
    公開日: 2018/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    During the Oslo process from 1993, Israel continued to expand settlements in the occupied territories. The important question in this regard is; how one should relate within the Israeli history the political, economic, social and cultural forces, which led Israel to the Oslo process, and those which kept it expanding its settlements. This paper seeks the answer by examining the previous research, looking at how they evaluate the relations between the issue of the settlements and the Oslo process. They are categorized into three groups; the works focusing on “the narrowly defined settlement issue,” the works emphasizing “the widely defined settlement issue” and “the third paradigm,” which tries to combine the former two paradigms. This paper argues that even though scholars adopt the third paradigm, unless they recognize the widely defined settlement issue as a root cause of the conflict and distance themselves from the decolonization myth of the Oslo process, they cannot solve the contradiction between their research framework and proposal for the solution. This paper concludes that while the Green Line ceased to exist as a material boundary, it still functions as an imagined boundary and ideological devise to maintain the premise that Israel can be democratic while defining itself as the Jewish state despite the continuing colonization, creeping apartheid and the demand of the Palestine refugees.
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