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  • その底辺と傾斜角について
    岩崎 宏
    土木史研究
    1997年 17 巻 271-279
    発行日: 1997/06/05
    公開日: 2010/06/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    ピラミッドの底辺と傾斜角を、古代エジプトの計測単位、測角法で報告した例は既に数多い。本稿は、ピラミッド時代全体を通じてその移り変わりを探ったものである。即ち、実測データからなるべく年純明快な関係を求め、それを建造当時の計画値としてその変遷を考察した.その結果、ピラミッドの寸法は王室肘尺でラウンドな敵値が選ばれており、傾斜角は古代エジプトの慣習に強く影響をうけながらも試行錯誤のあとが十分うかがえた。
  • 関 和明
    日本建築学会計画系論文報告集
    1993年 447 巻 119-128
    発行日: 1993/05/30
    公開日: 2017/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The styles of "Hb-Sd" pavilion in ancient Egypt can be classified in three types : 'detached type', 'semidetached side-by-side type' and 'hieroglyph (semidetached back-to-back) type'. And in its transformation, the form of hieroglyph sign of "Hb-Sd" pavilion may take an important role. And in architectural representation of hieroglyph sign, 'hieroglyph type', the orientation of axis must be adjusted to 'south-north', i. e. Upper and Lower Egypt, direction.
  • オリエント
    2004年 47 巻 2 号 167-209
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大沢 眞澄
    化学と教育
    1992年 40 巻 1 号 6-9
    発行日: 1992/01/20
    公開日: 2017/07/13
    解説誌・一般情報誌 フリー
    人類共通の遺産である文化財を後世に伝えるのは現代に生きる我々の責務である。とくに古文化財に関しては, その研究・保存の問題は急務とされている。古文化財のうち, 考古資料に対して化学は今までどのようなことをなしてきたのか。その歴史を振り返って見ることで, 未来への展望が開かれるのではないだろうか。
  • 白井 弥生
    オリエント
    2006年 49 巻 2 号 110-132
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Old Kingdom (ca. 2687-2191BC: 3-6 Dynasties) saw the emergence of large-scale private mortuary cults for the first time in Egypt. This can be observed in the textual attestations of private funerary domains and in the legal documentation pertaining to the administration of mortuary cults. It is however unknown for how long these cults continued to be perpetuated after the death of the tomb owner, nor are the processes of maintenance and abandonment of private mortuary cults during the Old Kingdom well understood. This paper will explore these issues, concentrating primarily on the evidence for architectural modifications to existing cult spaces, the material remains of ritual practice and the archaeological contexts in which such ritual objects have been found. The results of a study of these categories of evidence from five private mortuary cults in the Memphite area are presented in this paper. It is contested that in all cases, the cult continued to be practiced for at least ca. 50-100 years after the death of the beneficiary of the cult. In some cases, the scale of the cult was expanded, possibly due to the integration of additional mortuary cults belonging to individuals buried nearby into a collective cult. Abandonment of the ritual activity is shown not merely to have possibly been a result of the passing of time, but also to have been closely linked to the possible decline of the royal cemeteries at the end of the Old Kingdom.
  • コンクリート工学
    1993年 31 巻 1 号 76-78
    発行日: 1993/01/01
    公開日: 2013/04/26
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 惠多谷 雅弘, 須藤 昇, 松前 義昭, 坂田 俊文
    写真測量とリモートセンシング
    1998年 37 巻 2 号 23-28
    発行日: 1998/04/30
    公開日: 2010/03/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    A discovery of the buried Egyptian remains has been made by using satellite SAR data. L-band (HH) signal of SIR-C (Shuttle imaging Radar Mission-C), which was very similar to the characteristics of the existing Egyptian pyramids, was detected on a hilltop of Saqqara where nothing has been reported so far. As the result of the ground truth, some artificial lime stone blocks and significant fragments were found. The area is situated approximately 200m west of the pyramid of Merenre. This is a preliminary report of the study for satellite SAR application in Egypt.
  • 惠多谷 雅弘, 下田 陽久, 松岡 龍治, 坂田 俊文, 長谷 川奏, 吉村 作治
    日本リモートセンシング学会誌
    2005年 25 巻 5 号 459-472
    発行日: 2005/11/15
    公開日: 2009/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Previously unknown subsurface remains considered to be the Egyptian New Kingdom period were detected in the desert of western Saqqara by the utilization of JERS-1/SAR. A joint research team of Tokai University and Waseda University has been carrying out archaeological investigations using remote sensing technology to establish a new method of detecting remains. In 1995, the first preliminary survey of this study using Landsat/TM, SPOT/ Panchromatic, and JERS-1/SAR was done in the desert of Memphite necropolis, and remains covered with thin sand layer were pinpointed by the image interpretation of JERS-1/SAR. It is commonly called Site No. 29, and the surface features and backscattering coefficients at the site suggest us the existence of subsurface structures of the dynastic period.
    The detection of the Site No. 29 is extremely noteworthy, because there are some papers describing about subsurface imaging ability of L band SAR in the desert of hyperarid regions, but there is no example that subsurface remains of the dynastic period were actually detected by JERS-1/SAR in Egypt. This is the latest report studying about the relationship between JERS-1/SAR and the Site No. 29.
  • 高橋 幸一
    スポーツ史研究
    1998年 11 巻 1-15
    発行日: 1998/01/01
    公開日: 2017/03/18
    ジャーナル フリー
    Die vorliegende Arbeit sollte uberblickmassig uber den Sport in der Alten Welt informieren. 1. Agypten W. Decker hat eine neue Grundlage fur eine Revidierung der Beurteilung des altagyptischen Sports geschaffen. Er zeigt, dass der griechische agonale Gedanken bei den Agypten prasent war. 2. Mesopotamien W. Knauth betont, dass das Ideal der altiranischen Furstenerziehung das im Schahname gebrauchte Pahlawani war, so wie kalokagathia bei den Griechen. Der agonale Geist jst nicht nur fur die homerische Welt, sondern fur andere archaischen Gesellschaften Charakteristikum. 3. Kreta, Mykene und Homeros Die Technik des Stiersprungs bleibt fur uns noch dunkel. Der Agaisraum im 2. Jahrtausends v. Chr. war auch auf sporthistorischem Gebiet ein Schmelztiegel. Der mykenische Sport verdankt seine Entwicklung vielfaltigen Einflussen von ausserhalb. Der griechische Sport nicht erst mit Homer begann, sondern er auf solchem mykenischen Erbe aufbaute. 4. Die Olympische Spiele Fur den Ursprung der Olympischen Spiele fehlen authentische schriftliche Quellen und archaologische Materialien. M. lammer revidiert die klassische Vorstellung vom Gottesfrieden und zeigt dass Ekecheiria allen Wettkampfern und Zuschauern innerhalb eines festgelegten Zeitraumes ungehinderte Hin-und Ruckreise zu garantieren bestand.
  • 小山 敏夫
    英文学研究
    1992年 68 巻 2 号 369-373
    発行日: 1992/01/31
    公開日: 2017/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 芦原 和子
    英文学研究
    1992年 68 巻 2 号 364-369
    発行日: 1992/01/31
    公開日: 2017/04/10
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 富岡 康之
    材料
    1963年 12 巻 118 号 498-506
    発行日: 1963/07/15
    公開日: 2009/06/03
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 富士栄 厚
    美学
    2004年 55 巻 1 号 56-69
    発行日: 2004/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    I analyze the environmental sculpture of Michael Heizer's "trace" by his action in the desert and create the connection between Art and Archeology. The "Trace" has multiple meanings. The notion of "Displacement" which is related to "Trace", is defined as the displacement of the people, objects and matter. "Displacement" denotes the replacement or transfer. 1) I situate the historic context which has made the foundation for the interdisciplinary theory between actual art and archeology through the exchange of information of American art historians and anthropologists.2) I analyze the relation of the contemporary Land art and the notion of "Colossal", which also has multiple meanings, issued from 18th century philosophy of the Sublime, as evidence of connection between art and archeology. I also analyze "Diffracted Gestalt", the key concept in understanding the works of M. Heizer 3) I analyze the notion of "Displacement", in three cases: (1)Monument, (2)Connection of art and archeology, and (3)Copy. 4) 1 consider the actions of M. Heizer as ritual and analyze the meaning of his individual ritualistic action, referring the American Indian's ritual in the art context.
  • 長谷川 奏
    日本中東学会年報
    1999年 14 巻 147-162
    発行日: 1999/03/31
    公開日: 2018/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    Memphis was located at the most important place along the Nile channel, and flourished as a central city in the Dynastic period. In the Memphite area, people lived on low hilltops in cultivated land, and a necropolis was formed at the edge of the desert lead from the waterfront funeral-port. Men or commodities were prevalent on the Nile, when a building project or a religious ceremonies for local deities were held. In addition, Memphis was a city where temples, palace and military camp were placed. The eastern quarries provided them fine blocks as an architectural materials. And a lot of artifacts composed of ceramic, wooden, glazed or metal objects had been produced, transported or consumed in both Memphis and its necropolis. This is an aspect of a local economy at the Memphite area in antiquity, and it formed a great tradition. Then, the Imperial system made a new circulation. The Roman wares found at Karanis in Fayum, and at Hermopolis in Middle Egypt, show a trace of the trade network that ranged from the Mediterranean commercial center to the local market in Egypt. The Nile and canals also connected the Memphite area with the Western Delta region, where the Eastern Mediterranean market affected the distribution of the area. Thus both of the local tradition could have been succeeded in the Early Islamic period as a final aspect in late antiquity.
  • 竹野内 恵太
    オリエント
    2017年 59 巻 2 号 133-147
    発行日: 2017/03/31
    公開日: 2020/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー

    In Early Dynastic Egypt, stone vessels were manufactured on a large scale, probably by full-time specialists attached to the government or palace. The stone vessel was established as the primary piece of burial equipment during this period. Scholarship has focused on aspects of stone vessel production such as 'large-scale production' and 'attached specialisation'. However, the mortuary use of stone vessels has not been analysed in depth. Therefore, this paper clarifies the structure of their mortuary use and the background of their large-scale production, by comparing the assemblages of stone vessels found in tombs with the social class of the deceased.

     It was found that in the First Dynasty, the tombs of the higher classes in the Memphite region contained a variety of wares, including specialty wares and vessels of stone such as mudstone, basalt, and tuff from remote quarries. But in the Second Dynasty, the geographical distribution of stone vessels expanded. In parallel with that, the hierarchical ranking of stone vessels appeared also in local sites. It is argued that during the Second Dynasty the mortuary consumption of stone vessels was widely promoted in the whole Nile Valley by the royal court and that, kings and high officials distributed stone vessels to powerful local clans in order to create bonds between the center and local areas. At any rate, stone vessels were the preferred political and symbolic resource for promoting regional integration throughout the Early Dynastic society of Egypt.

  • 古谷野 晃
    オリエント
    2001年 44 巻 1 号 1-24
    発行日: 2001/09/30
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper focuses on the concept and purpose of borders or frontiers in ancient Egypt from a geographical view.
    Egypt is surrounded by desert on both sides of the Nile. The natural environment and isolated geographical location formed a natural barrier from foreign invasions, as well as providing very effective internal communications through the Nile.
    The borders or frontiers of ancient Egypt were not consistent throughout history. They were not easily distinguishable by the lines of demarcation. Particularly away from the Nile, aecumene regions or ‘empty lands’ were geographically stretched out very wide.
    The Definition of a border or frontier in ancient Egypt is diverse and sometimes contradictory. Historically they represent delineations of geographical, political, administrative, religious and cosmological order: aspects different from the modern borders or frontiers. Two terms which may be recognized as an expression of the borders and frontiers are in hieroglyphics: t3š expresses the actual geographical borders, and drw expresses the end of the cosmos, and frontiers far beyond the range of t3š.
    When considering either the borders or frontiers of ancient Egypt from a functional point of view, at least five types can be considered: natural, administrative, political, religious, and ethnic borders or frontiers. Each had its own function and geographical range.
    Natural borders were very stable geographically and geomorphologically only limited to the Nile Valley down to the First Cataract and the desert margins to the both sides of the Nile in the Delta regions. Administrative borders delineated by the margins of the frontier nomes were almost equal to the natural borders during the Dynastic era. The administrative borders extended much further than the natural borders at the Greco-Roman era by the establishment of new nomes outside of the traditional range of Egypt. Political borders, de facto limits of the state, were rather dynamic in its expansion, according to the foreign affairs. Guarding the borders from the foreign invaders and bedouins was recognized as one of the most important tasks for the pharaohs to undertake as lords of not only Upper and Lower Egypt, but also of foreign lands, beyond the borders of Egypt. Ethnic frontiers were not clearly distinguishable expect through their difference in faith, language and customs.
    The activities of the agricultural production were not typically in the frontier regions. The temples, military parks, custom posts and fortresses were scattered and placed in strategic points in the frontier zones, near trading centers with the neighboring countries. Their location represented the geographical distance of the frontier as well as their position with respect to their neighbors.
  • 畑守 泰子
    オリエント
    1987年 30 巻 2 号 14-27
    発行日: 1987年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the Old and Middle Kingdoms, there were some settlements called niwt mr, “pyramid cities.” These “cities” were founded near the pyramid complexes in order to insure the funerary cults of the dead kings. The inhabitants worked there only for that purpose. In spite of its limited purpose, these “pyramid cities” provide us with good materials which reveals the problem, what the ancient egyptian settlements were like.
    In this paper, I will look at what kind of institutions these “cities” were composed of. The following are disclosed:
    (1) Certainly after the 4th Dynasty, the most pyramids had their own “cities”. But it was not until the 5th Dynasty that we can find the descriptions of the “pyramid city” on the documents.
    (2) In the 6th Dynasty, the King Sneferu's “pyramid city” had a temple, arable land, canals, lakes, and trees. The inhabitants called hntyw-s who served as priest and cultivator belonged to the lower classes. And the Mycerinus' “city” possessed a kind of taxable property, and the Sahure's possibly owned cultivated fields.
    (3) Judging from the Kahun “City” in the Middle Kingdom, it seems that these “cities” in the Old Kingdom have contained such facilities as houses of personnel, storehouses, workshops, and etc.
    (4) Therefore, we conclude that the “pyramid city” had their own land and some facilities. However, it is under dispute whether such settlements can be regarded as “cities”. It may well be interpreted as “domaines”.
  • 村上 良丸
    土木学会論文集
    1986年 1986 巻 371 号 9-29
    発行日: 1986/07/20
    公開日: 2010/08/24
    ジャーナル フリー
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