During 13-14th century in Iran under the Ilkhanids, it has been noted that Iranian local societies were independent because Mongols were unable to control their settled societies. This was in particular emphasized in the south-west part of Iran, where many local ruling families had semi-independent dominance. But, what kind of administrative policy and system the Ilkhanids had toward such local societies is still obscure. Fars, one of the south-west regions of Iran, had some noticeable characteristic which were different from such a general understanding. First, it was financially important for the Ilkhanids. Second, the local ruling family Salghurids, was abolished in its earlier stage. And lastly, after collapse of the Ilkhanids, a new ruling family, the Injuids appeared. Although the Ilkhanids fiscal administration in Fars was studied by Dr. A. K. S. Lambton, her study was limited to listing of the confused aspects of Mongol fiscal control. Therefore in this paper, I have presented the analysis of (I) the processes of establishment of Ilkhanids' administrative system and policy in Fars, (II) the characteristics of the system and policy, (III) the background of the emergence of the Injuids, and (IV) the relationship between the Ilkhanids' rule and Shiraz society. Mongol administrative and fiscal system were first introduced to Fars by Salghurid atabeks, who were recognized their rule and established the relationship with the Ilkhans' family by marriage; Then various new taxes which the Mongols introduced to Iran, and the crown land inju were established. After the diminishment of the Salghurids' power, Fars was put under control of the governors(hakims) who were sent from the central government. But those who played the most important role in controlling Fars were the merchants of the Indian Ocean trade, the Sawamilis, rulers of Qays Island in Persian Gulf. They emerged because of the importance of Shiraz (the capital of Fars) in trade route between the Indian Ocean and inland regions of Iran, and Ilkhanids' strong interest in commercial wealthes. On their cooperation, muqata' ah system, the Ilkhanids' basic tax-collecting method had a great effect. But on the other hand, the relationship between the Sawamili who were the outsiders in the local society of Fars and other diwan officers who were in charge of tax-collecting was never free from hard conflicts. During the reign of seventh Ilkhan Ghazan, Ilkhanids' policy to Fars changed. First, though fiscal reform in Fars failed, Fars got more importance because its inju lands were Ghazan's own property. Second, since Sawamilis' Qays was defeated by Hurmuz which administratively belonged to Kirman, Sawamilis' contract got less effective in controlling the wealth of the Indian Ocean trade. Because of these changes, after the Sawamilis lost their position in Fars, the Injuids (inju administrators in Fars and bureaucrats of high office in the central government) finally held domination over Fars. In the background of the rise of the Injuids, there were the strict controls over Fars by the central government, and the financial importance of inju land system in the Ilkhanids. Then, the question is what kind of influence such a administrative policy of Ilkhanids had over Shiraz society. We can observe it in the appointment of the qadi al-qudat, and in the charitable activities toward public institutions of Shiraz. The change in three families of the qadi al-qudat of Shiraz in Mongol period, the Tabataba' is, the Baydawis and the Falis, reveals that the Ilkhanids made a lot of the request from Shiraz notables in the appointment of the qadi al-qudat. But Majd al-Din Fali's close and personal relationship with Rashid al-Din, the prime policy maker of the later Ilkhanids, suggests the political role of intellectual circle which Rashid al-Din organized in Ilkhanids'
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