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全文: "ゼンマイ"
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  • 明治後期から大正期における奥地山村の商品経済化の一類型として
    池谷 和信
    人文地理
    1989年 41 巻 1 号 71-85
    発行日: 1989/02/28
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the distribution of zenmai producing regions and their formation in the Tohoku region during the late Meiji and Taisho Eras. The young shoot of the fern zenmai (Osmunda japonica) is a traditional edible plant in Japan. Zenmai is distributed densely in the steep slopes of mountains which receive heavy snow. Therefore, zenmai of good quality has been produced in mountain villages of Tohoku facing the Japan Sea. The present writer identifies“zenmai settlements”where zenmai producing is economically important to village life.
    This paper is based on 50 days field research in the mountain villages of Tohoku and Hokuriku from August 1981 to October 1984. The author conducted oral research among many old people, and gathered a lot of information from brokers and wholesalers about zenmai producing and circulation.
    The results can be summarized as follows:
    The zenmai producing region expanded from the late Meiji Era to the Taisho Era, and the zenmai settlements appeared in the snowy region facing the Japan Sea, They were distributed at the foot of the Moriyoshi Range, the Waga Range, the Kurikoma Range, the Chokai Range, the Asahi Range, the Iide Range, and the Echigo Range. (See Fig. 3.) This zenmai production brought people a secure income of a lot of money in about one month of each year. The custom of Maegari also arose, in which brokers advanced rice and other staples to villagers each fall in exchange for zenmai deliveries the next spring.
    The formation of the zenmai producing regions was caused by two trends. First, village people close to the old producing regions spontaneously began to produce zenmai upon learning of its value. Second, brokers began to visit places distant from the old producing regions and advise village people to produce zenmai and sell it. These two behaviors were stimulated by the imcrease of demand as population grew in the cities, and by merchants' easy access to the remote mountain villages with the completion of the railroad network.
    From the above, we can see how the mountain villages of Tohoku facing the Japan Sea, having difficult access to markets, were drawn into commodity production of zenmai, a light and expensive food formerly gathered in the wild. This pattern is similar to the development of specialized commercial production in conjunction with shifting cultivation in other remote and mountainous parts of Japan: wild tea in Kyushu, Mitsumata (for paper making) in Shikoku, and sericulture in Central Japan. This shows the development of a commercial economy through particular products in the remote mountain villages of Japan.
  • 遠山 正俊, 大谷 親
    日本時計学会誌
    1987年 120 巻 28-39
    発行日: 1987/03/20
    公開日: 2017/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Usually the gearing of mechanical watch rotates regularly but by accident, for example, when connection between gear and axle is separated, then it begins to rotate rapidly at a very high speed. This phenomenon is discussed about SEIKO SPORTSMAN SEVENTEEN (mechanical watch for gentlemen) in which transmitting gearing is removed and only indicating gearing (from movement to date indicator) is reserved. The angular velocity is measured by means of optical method and relations betwden angular displacement and angular velocity, etc. are obtained. Furthermore, they are investigated theoretically. Conclusions are : 1. Angular velocity of movement barrel; Mazimum value is about 560 rps when mainspring is wound up by 6 times. Angular velocity ω as function of angular displacement θ is obtained. 2. Angular velocity of hour wheel; Maximum value is about 3900 rps when mainspring is wound up by 6 times. 3. Number of winding up of mainspring and angular displacement of movement barrel ; Angular displacement in number of rotation is about 2 or 3 times larger than number of winding up. 4. Slipping between center wheel pinion and cannon pinion is observed.
  • 吉本 源之助, 花房 秀郎
    日本機械学會論文集
    1952年 18 巻 71 号 17-20
    発行日: 1952/07/15
    公開日: 2008/03/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    When the spiral spring is wound, the stresses produced in it will come to plastic region. In the first place we obtain the permanent deformation of the spring after the initial winding, with reference to the mechanical properties of the material and the deformation when initially wound up. Then considering the change of shape of the spring by winding, we show a graphical method of calculation for the relation between the torque and the angle of the rotation of one end of the spring with respect to the other. By this method we could obtain the results in good accord with the experiments.
  • 三井田 圭右
    地理学評論
    1974年 47 巻 6 号 370-386
    発行日: 1974/06/01
    公開日: 2008/12/24
    ジャーナル フリー
    高度成長期以降,価値の増大をみせている山形資源としての山菜,とくにゼンマイをとりあげ,その生産の卓越する東北の豪雪地帯にある奥地山村集落を研究対象地域として,その生産の実態とそれらの集落においてもつ意味などについて考察しようとした.
    その結果, (1)ゼンマイ生産は,各集落における最も重要な産業であり,おのおのの林野慣行にもとづき,今日の生産活動の中では最も原始的な形態で生産が行なわれている. (2)ゼンマイの産地価格のここ10年間にみられる高騰は,産地住民の所得水準を高め,人口減少の緩慢化など,過疎化に抵抗的な様相を各集落に顕現せしめている.などの諸事実が明らかになった.
  • 池谷 和信
    東北地理
    1988年 40 巻 4 号 287-289
    発行日: 1988/12/20
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 第2報, 動力部
    羽藤 武宏, 鈴木 一義, 冨井 洋一, 吉田 充伸, 横田 泰宏, 久保田 裕二
    日本機械学会論文集 C編
    2007年 73 巻 729 号 1537-1544
    発行日: 2007/05/25
    公開日: 2011/03/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The “Man-nen dokei”, which is a historic perpetual chronometer, was made in 1851 by Hisashige Tanaka, who founded the predecessor of Toshiba Corporation. It has six multi-functional clock faces and a celestial globe. It is said that it runs for almost a year with just a single winding. Man-nen dokei was disassembled and restored in a national project. We investigated on the mechanism of Man-nen dokei in cooperation with this project. In this paper, we report on the mechanism of the power supply. As a result, from mechanism constitution of the power supply, we confirmed that maximum continual movable days of Man-nen dokei were approximately 225 days. But from the fusee steps and the double spring composition, it is thought that Hisashige's goal was to make it move for 1 year continually. The spring that generates the huge torque became necessary to make it move for 1 year, but it is assumed that the spring were wound just a little due to strength poverty of the wooden frame. Moreover, we think the composition of one fusee is a reasonable design to obtain necessary torque continuous operation with stability for 1 year, and the reason why Hisashige used composition of two fusees still remains to be unclear.
  • 小泉  雄一郎, 孫 世海, 齋藤 毅, 黒須 信吾, 千葉 晶彦
    粉体および粉末冶金
    2014年 61 巻 5 号 243-249
    発行日: 2014/05/15
    公開日: 2014/08/05
    ジャーナル フリー
    Flat spiral spring (i.e. coils of metal ribbon such as clock-mainsprings) can store elastic strain energy and release the energy as kinetic energy on demand. Recently, devices to generate electricity from the elastic strain energy are attracting attention as energy saving tools and emergency power source. However, a higher energy density and downsizing are necessary for practical use. In the present study, the electron beam melting (EBM) has been applied to Co–Cr–Mo alloy, which has a potential ability to store approximately 30 % higher elastic strain energy than the currently best material, in order to maximize its Young’s modulus by controlling the crystal orientation texture. A high Young’s modulus of 275 GPa and a high strength of 1.2 GPa have been achieved with a rod by selecting its longitudinal axis parallel to the space diagonal of the space defined by the x– and y– scanning direction of electron beam and the z–build direction. The mechanical property of the rod is very attractive for a high energy-density clock-mainspring material. Moreover, the single-pieced fabrication of a spring-shaft-balance disk unit was tested, and the surface-smoothing and the control of local crystal texture during the EBM process have been emerged as necessary challenges.
  • 羽藤 武宏, 久保田 裕二, 吉田 充伸, 横田 泰宏, 冨井 洋一, 鈴木 一義
    年次大会講演論文集
    2005年 2005.5 巻 1005
    発行日: 2005/09/18
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり
    Man-Nen Dokei, which is a historic perpetual chronometer, was made by Hisashige Tanaka, who founded the predecessor of Toshiba Corporation, at 1951. It has six multi-functional clock faces and a celestial globe. It is said that it runs for almost a year with just a single winding. Man-Nen Dokei was disassembled and restored in a national project. We have investigated on the mechanism of Man-Nen Dokei in cooperation with this project. In this paper, we report on the mechanism of the power supply. As a result, the structure of the power supply was clarified, and from the mechanism composition, it has been understood that the maximum continuous operating days are about 225 days and the fusee composition had not been optimized for the power supply.
  • 小柴 定雄
    ばね論文集
    1952年 1952 巻 1 号 122-126
    発行日: 1952/08/25
    公開日: 2010/03/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    The superiority of the quality of materials is essential for a good time piece spring. Accordingly the quality of raw materials, composition, heat-treatment, micro-structure, surface finish etc. must be fully examined for making good springs.
    The author has investigated influence of impurities, relationship between non-metallic inclusions and cleanliness, change of hardness and micro-structure with a rate of cold working and intermediate annealing, heat-treatment and mechanical properties on the spring steel sheet which had been made of good Masago iron sand.
    The author has also investigated for purposes of reference, foreign and Japanese time piece springs which were obtained on the open markets.
  • 新潟県三面におけるゼンマイ採集に着目して
    池谷 和信
    東北地理
    1984年 36 巻 2 号 91-104
    発行日: 1984/06/25
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to clarify changes in village lifestyle caused by a dam construction plan. An investigation of Zenmai (Osmunda japonica) gathering in Miomote, Niigata prefecture in Japan was conducted in order to identify such changes. Zenmai gathering is a traditional occupation of the village people, which is highly susceptible to the influences of nature. Changes will be analyzed in accordance with the following four points: 1. Mutual relationship between village people and natural environment as reflected by the way people gather Zenmai. 2. Production of Zenmai and its economic importance to village life. 3. Communal characteristics of the village as represented by the customary practice of Zenmai gathering. 4. People's perception of the balance between nature and their Zenmai gathering activities.
    This paper is based on 40 days field research from May to December in 1981.
    The results can be summarized as follows.
    1) The gathering area for each family around 1970 was determined. The size of these areas did not change following 1970. The village people who gathered Zenmai were aware of Zenmai ecology. The gathering territory was decided by mutual agreement. This produced stability and high Zenmai production.
    2) In 1981 however the area changed as most land came to be used by two or more families. Overgathering, a disregard of Zenmai ecology and destruction of the gathering territory structure occurred. This state of affairs has produced changes in people's perception of their relationship to nature and instability in Zenmai production.
    3) The change in the Zenmai gathering field structure was caused by a dam construction plan, which has been in negotiation for ten years. No final agreement has yet been reached. The other causes of the change were the increase in the number of Zenmai gatherers, and the emergence of new Zenmai gathering areas caused by the expansion of older areas.
    As described in the four points mentioned above, the changes in Miomote, an area waiting a decision concerning the future dam site, show clearly the deterioration of a once stable community toward that of an unstable state.
  • 千住 匡人, 山本 隆栄, 長 弘基, 佐久間 俊雄
    M&M材料力学カンファレンス
    2011年 2011 巻 OS2107
    発行日: 2011/07/16
    公開日: 2017/06/19
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    The fatigue life of conventional heat-engines using shape memory alloy (SMA) wire is too short (lower than 10^5 cycles). Therefore, heat engines using SMA does not come into practical use. Our research team proposed the new heat engine with spiral spring actuator using SMA ribbon. This heat engine is expected to improve the fatigue life. In this work, the fabrication of spiral spring SMA actuator and investigation of the operating characteristics of this actuator was carried out. The chemical composition of alloys used in this study is Ti-49.9at%Ni. The dimension of SMA ribbon is 2m length, 6.8mm breadth and 0.125mm thickness. The SMA spiral spring is fabricated from SMA ribbon by heat-treatment. The actuator using the SMA spiral spring is operated by the heating with thermal water (373K). It is confirmed that this actuator is able to generate electricity by the thermal water. Besides, the output power of this actuator is 0.034W/g/%.
  • 三橋 鉄太郎, 中川 竜一
    ばね論文集
    1952年 1952 巻 1 号 127-129
    発行日: 1952/08/25
    公開日: 2010/03/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    In order to improve spring steel made in Japan we have investigated fundamentally the following properties of spring steel sheet made in Sweden and England as to the chemical composition, micro-structure, allowance of thickness and behaviors on quenching treatment.
  • 堀口 奨斗, 増本 憲泰
    年次大会
    2016年 2016 巻 G0800101
    発行日: 2016年
    公開日: 2017/06/19
    会議録・要旨集 認証あり

    Some energy is lost from an operating machine by all means. In this research, the energy that is lost by the intention of the manipulator of the machine is defined as the artificially discarded energy. Then a way to recover the artificially discarded energy from an operating machine as the potential energy is discussed. In this paper, the basic mechanism to recover the kinetic energy of a vehicle reducing speed by braking as the potential energy into a spiral spring was proposed and the prototype of it was made. The preserved energy in the spiral spring will be regenerated as the kinetic energy again of the vehicle when the vehicle begins moving. The flow of the energy is shown and the recovery efficiency and the regeneration efficiency are discussed by some basic experiments.

  • 日本時計学会
    日本時計学会誌
    1967年 42 巻 81-82
    発行日: 1967/06/05
    公開日: 2017/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三橋 鐵太郎, 上野 學
    鐵と鋼
    1951年 37 巻 10 号 524-527
    発行日: 1951/10/25
    公開日: 2009/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The "Metal Progress" 1948 (P. 648) reported that the fatigue limit is improved by the "martemper and temper."
    It seems to differ from the "martemper" called in our country, but it means to bold an object for a time at a temperature just above Ar" transformation and to cool it gradually in this critical range of the Ar" transformation and temper.
    The fact that the fatigue limit is improved by the "martemper and temper" is probably due to being free from the microcrack by quenching, but its problem has not been solved yet. The authors reported the comparison of the mechanical properties in the martemper and temper, the austemper, and the oil quenching and temper on the hardness, the tensile strength, the elongation, the fatigue limit and the simple torque test.
  • 清野 嘉之, 小松 雅史, 赤間 亮夫, 松浦 俊也, 広井 勝, 岩谷 宗彦, 二元 隆
    森林総合研究所研究報告
    2018年 17 巻 3 号 217-232
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/11/15
    研究報告書・技術報告書 オープンアクセス
    2011年3月の東京電力福島第一原子力発電所事故以降、高レベルの放射性セシウム(134+137Cs) が検出された10種以上の日本の野生山菜に出荷制限が課されている(2017年7月31日)。しかし、環境から野生山菜への放射性セシウムの移行やそれに影響を及ぼす要因を調べた研究がほとんどなく、出荷制限が維持されるべきかどうかの判断に利用できる情報は限られている。福島県郡山市の131地点で野生のゼンマイ(Osmunda japonica) の葉を2015年7月と8月に採取し、137Cs の野生山菜への移行に影響を及ぼす可能性のある環境要因を調べた。重回帰分析によると、ゼンマイの葉の137Cs 濃度は生育地のリター中の137Cs 量、空間線量率、上層木の被覆率、リターの被覆率と有意な関係があった。後3者をパラメータに用い、ゼンマイの葉の137Cs濃度を予測するモデルを100地点の検体を用いて構築し、残りの31地点の検体で検証した。予測の結果は系統誤差が小さく、モデルの正確さ(accuracy) は高かった。しかし、予測値は観測値の約 1/5 ~ 5倍の間に分布しており、モデルの精度(precision) は低かった。測定値と予測値の残差平方和が大きいため、生育環境に関する上記の3つの情報を利用しても、出荷制限を解除するために必要な検体数を現行の目安(60) から減らすことはできないと考えられた。植物季節の違いが、今回観察されたゼンマイの葉における137Cs 濃度の変動に関与している可能性がある。今後の研究では、このような大きな変動を引き起こすメカニズムを明らかにする必要がある。
  • 横内 陽子, 宮崎 雄三, 河村 公隆, 日浦 勉
    日本地球化学会年会要旨集
    2014年 61 巻 1B05
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/09/12
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    成層圏オゾン破壊物質である塩化メチルの最大の発生源は熱帯林であるが、その放出量を支配する要因や発生源が熱帯域に偏っている理由については、不明である。最近、亜熱帯~冷温帯に自生するゼンマイの葉が大量の塩化メチルを放出していることが明らかになり、単一種からの塩化メチル放出量を異なる気候条件下で比較することが可能になった。本研究では、つくば、苫小牧、屋久島においてゼンマイからの塩化メチル放出量を調べた。その結果、つくばでは有意な季節変化は認められない一方、苫小牧では6月の放出量は8月の1/10以下であること、屋久島では採取地点によるバラツキが極めて大きいこと等が分かった。また、塩化メチル放出量と葉内の塩化物イオン濃度との間に正の相関(R=0.70)が見られた。
  • 茂木 正俊, 高橋 理, 塩原 研治
    マイクロメカトロニクス
    2008年 52 巻 198 号 13-22
    発行日: 2008/06/10
    公開日: 2017/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper describes an air-viscous slow governor used in Spring Drive Sonnerie. Spring Drive movement makes no noise during hand movement. This is an ideal condition for installing mechanism for striking a bell. Japanese Buddhists' prayer bell "orin" was chosen for the sound source. Our objective was to create a sonnerie that offered the resonance and the clear tone of an orin. The reverberation resonance of an orin is produced by a hammer that strikes the bell at approximately 3-second interval. Along with the smoothly flowing second hand, the sound imparts a sense of slow and tranquil flow of time. To achieve the ringing tone of an orin amid a tranquil stillness, we developed a non-contact slow governor that made virtually no noise. The key to the "silent" slow governor is the wings around the rotor that produce resistance caused by viscosity of the air. This rotor turns at a constant speed at which the reactive force of the main spring and the viscous resistance caused by the air are balanced.
  • 日本時計学会
    日本時計学会誌
    1967年 43 巻 96-97
    発行日: 1967/09/10
    公開日: 2017/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 佐藤 二郎, 池田 国男, 鎌田 仲男
    日本時計学会誌
    1961年 20 巻 39-51
    発行日: 1961/12/15
    公開日: 2017/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
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