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  • 桜井 由躬雄
    東南アジア研究
    1978年 16 巻 1 号 136-156
    発行日: 1978年
    公開日: 2018/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
     The natural and war related calamities that caused the famines that forced peasants in North Vietnam to abandon their native villages from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries are analyzed through an examination of some Vietnamese chronicles and geographies.
      1) During Lê dynasty there were many droughts from spring to early summer that led to large-scale famine. This illustrates that fifth-month rice production was important in North Vietnamese agriculture, especially in the highland areas beyond the Red River Delta.
      2) One of the major causes of instability in rice production during Lê dynasty was the difficulty of maintaining stable yields in fifth-month rice cultivation which depended entirely on rain from the unpredictable Northeast Monsoon. Furthermore, the fifth-month rice cultivated in the highland areas was frequently damaged by locusts, especially in the fifteenth century.
     3) Tenth-month rice cultivated in the delta area suffered damage from inundation by the Red River. In the early years of Lê dynasty, the flooding effected mainly the Hà Nội district and later, with the agricultural development of the lower delta, the Hu'ng-Yên district too was subject to flooding. However, except in the Thanh-Hoá delta, only a few of these floods led to famine.
      4) The littoral zones of the Red River Delta were frequently damaged by high tides, mostly caused by typhoons. However, although such damage had increased with reclamation, it rarely caused large-scale famine.
      5) Civil war produced famine in certain strategic areas such as Hải-Du'o'ng, Nghẹ-An and Thanh-Hoá.
      It appears that famines occurred mostly in the highland areas, the upper part of the middle delta provinces, and the Thanh-Hoá and Nghẹ-An provinces during Lê dynasty.
      However, a geography written at the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows that most of the ghost villages have thôn or phu'ò'ng as part of their name, indicating that they were probably established in the later part of Lê dynasty. From this it appears necessary to research into the socio-economic factor linking natural or war related in calamities to the peasants, abandonment of their native villages. This will be considered in part (2).
  • 山形 眞理子
    東南アジア -歴史と文化-
    2017年 2017 巻 46 号 88-92
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2019/06/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • ──ムオン人のモを事例として──
    大泉 さやか
    東南アジア -歴史と文化-
    2014年 2014 巻 43 号 23-43
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2016/12/17
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this paper is to study the political utilization of the ethnic minorities’ folk-literature in Socialist Vietnam.

    In Vietnam, folk literature is being considered as the soul of both the nation and the proletariat and under the Socialist regime, the collection and publication of folk literature was promoted. Especially, from the mid-1960s to the mid-1970s, some of the ethnic minorities’ legends drew attention as moral lessons for achieving national unity, since they highlight that each and every Vietnamese of various ethnic groups is born from the same parents. The Muong people’s legend is a fine example in this case. Originally, male faith healers had inherited the ethnic Muong’s funeral prayer, Mo, in the oral tradition. Under the guidance of the provincial cultural bureaus, a part of Mo was collected during the 1960s, and subsequently was published in a book entitled The Birth of the Earth, the Birth of Water (Đẻ đất đẻ nước, ĐĐĐN) in the mid-1970s. Prior to this, the Association of Vietnamese Folklorists, the Institute of Literature, the Ministry of Culture and other related agencies sanctioned the draft of the book, which was to make it the “official legend” of the Muong people. At that time, performing Mo in funeral ceremonies was prohibited by governmental instruction promoting “the new way of life (nếp sống mới),” which included the elimination of superstition and the simplification of funeral rites, wedding ceremonials and festivities. Therefore, the intention of publishing ĐĐĐN as folk-literature was to separate Mo ‘text’ from its ‘performance’ at the funeral.

    From the end of the 1980s, as the Doi Moi policy goes on, the meaning of ethnic / national culture has been re-evaluated in terms of “national unity in diversity.” Consequently, the Mo began to be seen not as a form of superstition, but as a symbol of Muong ethnic culture. Accordingly, a number of books on the study of Mo were published introducing it as a whole, including both the text and performance. Since the funeral rites of the Muong people were simplified and shortened due to the implementation of “the new way of life” policy, some parts of Mo were omitted and faith healers already gave up handing it down to the younger generation. Currently, a growing sense of crisis that they would lose their traditional Mo among the local people, has led them to collect and publish it for preservation though the faith healers are facing difficulty to maintain memory of some parts of Mo that are no longer used in their rites today. In conclusion, the collection and publication of Mo, as a symbol of ethnic / national culture (heritage), continues to be a means of promoting national unity.

  • 送出地域の現状と日本への看護師・介護福祉士派遣の展望
    新美 達也
    アジア研究
    2015年 60 巻 2 号 69-90
    発行日: 2015/01/10
    公開日: 2015/01/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses Vietnam’s out-migration policy and the current situations of its overseas workers, and the impact of out-migration on the regional development of the regions where the migrants come from. The paper also discusses the prospects for sending nurses and caregivers to Japan from Vietnam, which is about to start at the time of writing this paper.
    Vietnam dispatched workers mainly to East European countries before 1991 through official channels, based on intergovernmental contracts with these countries. Since 1991, out-migration of workers from Vietnam has been based on contracts between private companies. Out-migration has contributed to the Vietnamese economy and to regional development. In 2013 alone, Vietnam sent about 90,000 workers to Taiwan, Malaysia and Korea. The Vietnamese government has been encouraging out-migration, because it will contribute to reducing poverty, developing regional economies, and fostering international cooperation.
    Although the total number of overseas Vietnamese workers is far less than those of Filipinos and Indonesians, the number of Vietnamese workers sometimes exceeds those of Filipinos and Indonesians in Taiwan, Korea and Japan. The most important destination in 2013 was Taiwan, which absorbed 40,000 Vietnamese workers, or 45% of all workers that left the country in that year. On the other hand, Korea, which had also been an important destination for overseas Vietnamese workers, stopped the acceptance of the Vietnamese.
    The incidence of out-migration is high in some particular districts. Nghe An province, which is one of such districts, received US$ 85 million in 2009 as remittances from the 45,000 workers who went abroad from this province. The amount of remittance was equivalent to 50% of the provincial government’s total revenue. The most important destinations for overseas workers from Nghe An province are Taiwan and Malaysia, accounting for 30~40% of all overseas workers from Nghe An. Work experiences in foreign countries, however, did not contribute so much to transferring modern industrial techniques to the workers’ origins, because almost all of the returnees engage in farming after returning home.
    Based on the economic partnership agreement (EPA) between Japan and Vietnam, the first batch of the candidates for nurses and caregivers from Vietnam will come to Japan in June 2014. These nurses and caregivers come from the same regions where other types of overseas workers come from. Considering the insufficiency of medical staff, especially highly educated nurses, in Vietnam, the out-migration of nurses may have a detrimental impact on the domestic supply of medical services. Besides this, the candidates from Vietnam may not be able to pass the examination necessary to work as qualified nurses in Japan, considering the low rate for Filipino and Indonesian candidates—who came to Japan earlier—to pass the examination.
    Even with these problems, we can still conclude that out-migration has positive impacts on Vietnamese regional development. The knowledge and experiences acquired by the candidates for nurses and caregivers who are about to start their training in Japan will contribute to the development of medical services in Vietnam.
  • 山田 幸正, チャン ティクェハー, 藤田 香織
    日本建築学会技術報告集
    2005年 11 巻 21 号 355-360
    発行日: 2005/06/20
    公開日: 2017/04/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper refers to architectural features seen in the jointing technique of traditional timber structures in Vietnam, being based on the surveyed data of 5 examples which were finished restoring and repairing works of wood-built traditional folkhouses. Although there are various types of structural frameworks in the whole country, we have found out only three types of joints so far. One of those details has a small partial dovetail, another is much deeply cut out the top of column.
  • 白石 隆
    史学雑誌
    1979年 88 巻 5 号 817-822
    発行日: 1979/05/20
    公開日: 2017/10/05
    ジャーナル フリー
  • チャン ティ クェ ハー, 山田 幸正
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2004年 69 巻 579 号 135-140
    発行日: 2004/05/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Being based on the surveyed data of 254 examples collected since 1997 in the four provinces of the Northern parts of Viet Nam ; Bac Ninh, Ha Tay, Nam Dinh and Thanh Hoa, this paper refers to an evolutional process of the spatial composition which we can find in the traditional Vietnamese dwellings. At first, analyzing the different structural systems shown between the central axial part and the lateral sides in the main room, the authors describe a functional shift occured in the main room. Then, viewing a devekiomental process caused by changing the practical use of hien, we discuss an evlutional changing developmental process caused by changing the practical use of hien, we discuss an evolutional changing of the spatial meaning in the whole main building composed of a main room, lateral sub-was and hien.
  • 田崎 智宏, 小口 正弘, 吉田 綾, マノマイビブール パナテ, ウンロイ パタヤポーン
    廃棄物資源循環学会研究発表会講演集
    2017年 28 巻 A3-6-O
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2017/11/28
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    アジアの冷房需要の急増とそれに伴う環境負荷の増大を念頭に、アジアにおけるエアコンと住宅を対象に、複数製品の連関を考慮した製品ストックモデルの開発を試みた。本モデルは、エアコンの普及促進施策、省エネ化促進施策、住宅の断熱性能向上施策をポリシーミックスで実施した場合の政策効果を推計し、アジアにおける政策立案に貢献することを狙いとしている。
  • その可能性と課題
    吉開 将人
    東南アジア -歴史と文化-
    2002年 2002 巻 31 号 79-96
    発行日: 2002/05/30
    公開日: 2010/03/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    Lingnan (Guangdong and Guangxi in China) and northern Vietnam have a long history of relation dating back to ancient times. However, after Vietnam's independence from China, the history of both areas came to have completely different meanings for both Chinese and Vietnamese historians. This article is an attempt to discuss the history of both areas as an unity, based mainly on recent archaeological studies.
    The topics discussed here are:
    (1) The conquest of the Lingnan area by the Qin dynasty began within one year after the unification of the Warring States and that northern Vietnam was outside of the Qin's conquest area.
    (2) The Nanyue kingdom established by Zhaotuo at the end of the third century B. C. in the Lingnan area had different control systems over different areas of the kingdom. Northern Vietnam was one of them.
    (3) Except that several artifacts belong to early Shang dynasty, all of the early dated findings related to Chinese cultural tradition, such as a bronze pot, coins and mirrors unearthened in northern Vietnam, are dated the Nanyue period, the second century B. C.
    (4) The significance of the Nanyue period as the starting point of political and cultural relation between Lingnan and northern Vietnam should be highly valued.
    (5) Official seals for special titles and other archaeological facts showing as continuation of local tradition indicate that political control over native leaders and the cultural tradition since the Nanyue period basically continued in these areas, even after the conquest of Nanyue by emperor Wudi of the Han dynasty in 111 B. C. until the middle of the first century A. D.
    Several historical issues during the first millennium A. D. and problems about the construction of self-image and historical identities by both Vietnamese and Cantonese historians after independence of Vietnam from China are also discussed.
  • 小宮 元晃, 柴田 昌三, 神埼 護, 渡辺 弘之, サン ファン ミン, ナム ブー タン
    森林応用研究
    2001年 10 巻 1 号 55-61
    発行日: 2001/03/20
    公開日: 2018/01/16
    ジャーナル フリー
    株立ち型のタケ(Dendrocalamus membranaceus)は北ベトナムにおいて重要な造林種のひとつにあげられている。この竹林の適正な管理方法を示すために,2大産地のタインホアとフートにおいて地上部現存量と新竹生産量を調べた。調査はタインホアとフートにおいて,林齢2〜21年の林分の中からそれぞれ7林分と6林分,計13林分を選んで行った。その年の伐採開始前の各林分に400m^2の調査区を設置し,稈の齢,サイズなどの調査を行った。さらに標本竹として各齢階と直径階から計8〜10本を選び,地上部現存量を推定するために稈のサイズと稈,枝,葉の乾重との間の相対成長式を作成した。また1年生の竹より新竹生産量を推定した。現行の管理法による林齢10年を超える林分での地上部現存量は約39ton/haで,林齢6年を超える林分での新竹生産量は約12ton/ha/年で安定的に推移していくものと思われた。
  • 大林 太良
    民族學研究
    1985年 50 巻 2 号 221-222
    発行日: 1985/09/30
    公開日: 2018/03/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 春山 成子, Van Phai VU
    地学雑誌
    2002年 111 巻 1 号 126-132
    発行日: 2002/02/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Analyzing landforms and sedimentary features, and the dominant factors affecting their formation, the lower Song Hong Delta is divided into natural levee and back swamp, delta, tidal flat, sand ridge complex. The dominant process in the coastal area is deposition and the shoreline has moved seaward at various rates in modern times, however, coastal erosion has recently been occurring in the south of the river mouth. The erosion rate has been 32.3 m/y at Hai Trieu for the last 20 years. The most intensive accretion occurred at Kim Son-Nga Son, where the average rate of accretion has been 60-80 m/y for the last 50 years.
  • 片野 朋治, 山田 幸正
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2012年 77 巻 675 号 1241-1248
    発行日: 2012/05/30
    公開日: 2012/07/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    Our surveys have revealed 9 churches in existence with vertically-elongated timber-framed structure that are located in the Red river delta area, 7 churches in the PhatDiem diocese, 1 in the ThanhHoa diocese and 1 in the HaNoi diocese. This paper aims at shedding light on architectural characteristics of the vertically-elongated timber-framed structure from the viewpoint of architectural history, by analyzing and comparing with normal timber-framed 46 churches that have been completed architectural survey. Though the vertically-elongated timberframed structure has been limited in number and areas, this manner of structure has architectural significance in considering traditional technics of Vietnamese timber structures.
  • 藤倉 哲郎
    アジア研究
    2009年 55 巻 1 号 54-72
    発行日: 2009/01/31
    公開日: 2014/09/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    The series of reforms in the earliest phase of Doi Moi (renewal) in Vietnam, carried out during the late 1980s and into the early 1990s, brought about drastic changes in the circumstances of employed workers and trade unions. As a result of a restructuring of the workforce, 70,000 workers were laid off from state-owned enterprises or the public sector and many of these transferred to the private sector. At the same time, the basis of the organization of trade unions was greatly damaged and it became clear that trade unions would be unable to protect the rights and interests of workers until they changed their organization methods, which had almost entirely depended on government policy relative to employment and workers’ livelihood. This paper focuses on the activities of trade unions conducted as a response to the conditions in those days and the course taken in the early 1990s by the Vietnam General Confederation of Labour(VGCL)—which was the only national trade union organization in Vietnam, and was under the control of the Vietnam Communist Party—and reviews these restrictions and historical significance.
    In response to the conditions in the earliest phase of Doi Moi, trade unions conducted their own program independently of government policy. Their practical activities in the early 1990s made them highly conscious of their primary role to protect workers’ rights and interests. This was an epoch-making event for the trade unions, which had acted as the authority to implement government policy and whose approach to the protection of workers’ rights and interests had relied almost entirely on government policy. In addition, trade unions tried to diversify forms of organizing workers to strengthen their organizational basis. However, they could not obtain results in line with their expectations, especially in the private sector where the workforce increased rapidly.
    On the other hand, the course that the VGCL decided on at the 7th National Congress of Trade Unions in 1993 did not directly reflect the achievement of trade unions, particularly for the fringe organizations. The VGCL’s approach was highly regulated by the political circumstances of the early 1990s. The VGCL moderated its role of protecting workers’ rights and interests and rather emphasized the path of socialism, leadership of the Communist Party and national unity of trade unions under the VGCL umbrella. Thus, in the early 1990s the VGCL gave priority to maintaining the regime although it is obvious that protecting workers’ rights and interests is indispensable to trade unions.
  • 桜井 由躬雄
    東南アジア研究
    1982年 20 巻 2 号 285-306
    発行日: 1982/10/30
    公開日: 2018/05/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper discusses the relationship between the peasant drain and the pattern of landownership in the Red River Delta during the later Lê and the early Nguyễn dynasties.
     1. Các Trấn Tổng Danh Bị Lãm, a geographical report compiled in the 19th century, was analyzed to determine the distribution of abandoned villages, which were found to be concentrated in the central areas and northeast highlands of Northern Vietnam. This suggests that the major cause of the frequent peasant emigrations in the 18th century was severe draught which damaged fifth-month ricefields in the swamp areas and tenth-month ricefields in the highland areas. Clearly the occurrence and intensity of the peasant drain was geographically variable, depending on local environmental conditions.
     2. Through regulations intended to counter the peasant drain in the Lê period, the central government tried to encourage the peasants remaining in the villages to bring abandoned agricultural lands back under cultivation. In this way, the government hoped to prevent the loss of land revenue. The land rolls compiled in the early 19th century for some of the villages in Nam Định province, situated in typical backswamp areas, on small natural levees and on sand banks, shows that most of the fifth-month ricefields were taken over by peasants who settled on the natural levees.
     It is concluded that the local variation in environmental conditions and the Lê government policy resulted in the transfer of landownership to outsiders in the traditionally closed villages, especially to relatively well-to-do peasants living in better environments, who accumulated the poor-quality rice-fields abandoned through the peasant drain.
  • 桜井 由躬雄
    東南アジア研究
    1978年 15 巻 4 号 552-572
    発行日: 1978年
    公開日: 2018/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
     The natural and war related calamities that caused the famines that forced peasants in North Vietnam to abandon their native villages from the fifteenth to the eighteenth centuries are analyzed through an examination of some Vietnamese chronicles and geographies.
      1) During the Lê dynasty there were many droughts from spring to early summer that led to large-scale famine. This illustrates that fifth-month rice production was important in North Vietnamese agriculture, especially in the highland areas beyond the Red River Delta.
      2) One of the major causes of instability in rice production during the Lê dynasty was the difficulty of maintaining stable yields in fifth-month rice cultivation which depended entirely on rain from the unpredictable Northeast Monsoon. Furthermore, the fifth-month rice cultivated in the highland areas was frequently damaged by locusts, especially in the fifteenth century.
      3) Tenth-month rice cultivated in the delta area suffered damage from inundation by the Red River. In the early years of the Lê dynasty, the flooding effected mainly the Hà-Nội district and later, with the agricultural development of the lower delta, the Hu'ng-Yen district too was subject to flooding. However, except in the Thanh-Hóa delta, only a few of these floods led to famine.
      4) The littoral zones of the Red River Delta were frequently damaged by high tides, mostly caused by typhoons. However, although such damage had increased with reclamation, it rarely caused large-scale famine.
      5) Civil war produced famine in certain strategic areas such as Hải-Du'o'ng, Nghe-An and Thanh-Hoá.
      It appears that famines occurred mostly in the highland areas, the upper part of the middle delta provinces, and the Thanh-Hóa and Nghẹ-An provinces during the Lê dynasty.
      However, a geography written at the beginning of the nineteenth century, shows that most of the ghost villages have thôn or phu'ò'ng as part of their name, indicating that they were probably established in the later part of the Lê dynasty. From this it appears necessary to research into the socio-economic factor linking natural or war related calamities to the peasants, abandonment of their native villages. This will be considered in part (2).
  • 春山 成子
    水利科学
    2002年 46 巻 3 号 1-13
    発行日: 2002/08/01
    公開日: 2018/03/14
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 伊藤 未帆
    史学雑誌
    2010年 119 巻 5 号 862-867
    発行日: 2010/05/20
    公開日: 2017/12/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • —先行研究の整理と展望—
    加藤 敦典
    比較家族史研究
    2019年 33 巻 80-94
    発行日: 2019/03/31
    公開日: 2020/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 筒井 一伸
    経済地理学年報
    2005年 51 巻 3 号 242-260
    発行日: 2005/09/30
    公開日: 2017/05/19
    ジャーナル フリー
    ベトナムは改革・開放政策,ドイモイを端緒に,1990年代には外国資本の投資による経済成長に湧いた.しかしながら,その下での公共投資の地域的特徴は,資料収集の困難さなどから,実証的に明らかにされることはほとんどなかった.本研究はベトナム非大都市地域を対象として,地方公共投資の地域的特徴を明らかにすべく,社会経済的状況を示す統計データを用いた地域類型化をおこない,定量的に把握した地域的性格と地方公共投資の特徴との関係を分析した.1990年代のベトナムにおける公共投資は,一般に均衡成長と平等というイデオロギーから,効率の良い地域を優先する不均衡成長アプローチへと転換していったとされる.この点は本研究における分析結果から次のように明らかにされた.すなわち,ベトナム政府が厚遇政策をおこなってきたとされる少数民族地帯での地方公共投資では,確かに90年代前半にはその片鱗がみられたが,後半には必ずしもその傾向はみられない.これに対してベトナムの経済成長において重要な地域では,90年代後半に地方公共投資額が劇的に増加している.ベトナム非大都市地域における地方公共投資は,社会資本整備の遅れた地域への優先配分と,ベトナムの経済成長において重要な地域への優先配分という二つの特徴を有しており,これらの間を揺れ動きながらすすめられている.
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