Charles Dickens’s Barnaby Rudge is regarded as one of his few historical novels, as it deals with the Gordon Riots in 1780. Many critics have analyzed Barnaby Rudge by using two words, ‘public’ and ‘private,’ as key concepts. The point is that although he chooses historical and hence ‘public’ events, namely, the Gordon Riots, as a main plot of the novel, Dickens’s intention is, basically, to write about ‘private’ lives of its main characters. The purpose of this paper is to investigate this point by focusing on the duel between Geoffrey Haredale and John Chester which is depicted at the end of the novel. Before the duel takes place, Haredale and Chester encounter and have a quarrel with one another several times, which becomes more and more violent after each encounter and which leads up to the duel in the end. By closely examining these scenes in which they face each other one by one, I argue that this conflict between Haredale and Chester also has both ‘private’ and ‘public’ aspects, that the duel has a meaning of a punishment on Chester, and that it is quite appropriate that this duel concludes the novel which portrays ‘private’ lives of its main characters.
In this study, we study ultimate swelling characterized by limiting chain extensibility of swollen elastomers. Limiting chain extensibility is introduced into the Flory-Rehner theory. The derived inequality allows for analysis to provide an ultimate value of swelling ratio. This ultimate value is not exceeded at equilibrium swelling regardless of the set of material constants. Under uniaxial loading at equilibrium swelling, deswelling can occur even in tension.
In recent years, regeneration of brownfields can be seen in many places, but like all public open spaces they are competing for scarce resources for their continuing management. This study aims to clarify the landuse changes and formation of partnerships of open spaces by greening brownfields in Northwich Woodlands, Cheshire, UK. Research methods are based on literature review, interviews with representatives of the Mersey Forest and local authority agents, and field observation. From the findings, it became evident that majority of greening brownfields took place in the 1990s and 2000s in parallel with conservation of historical and industrial heritage, which took a longer period of time for environmental improvements in some cases. The main challenge is now to continue the management of the open spaces since the works had been completed. Partnerships with a range of parties is the key factor; because of Northwich Woodlands has a variety of open spaces covering an area of over 300 hectares to attract a variety of sources of funds and staffs, as well as to raising its profile to the public owing to the limited access in the past. Coordination with the community is greatly enhanced through an active group of volunteers.
Erdheim-Chester Disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytic tumor. The disease is characterized by the symptom of bone pain of the whole body. We report a case of BRAF V600E-positive ECD related tumor of the maxilla. A 55-year-old woman was referred to our department because of pain and swelling in the maxilla. X-ray photo examination showed no clear abnormality; however, PET-CT and a bone scintigraphy showed an abnormal accumulation. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of an ECD-related tumor. After diagnosis, we conducted additional PCR and immunostaining examinations, and a result of gene mutation in BRAF was obtained. In 2017, the FDA approved Vemurafenib (BRAF-inhibitor) for ECD patients. In the future, we will have more opportunities to treat ECD patients, so it is suggested that not only biopsy but also the genetic analysis and the immunostaining of BRAF V600E are important for adequate treatment.