1978年の 「日米防衛協力のための指針」 策定は、従来、秘密裡になされていた共同計画策定が公式化された、日米安全保障関係史上、画期的な出来事だと位置づけられる。本論文では、この 「指針」 策定をもたらす契機となった米国側のイニシアチブ、すなわち公式化要請の背景には、従来見逃されてきた、米国の国内政治要因があったのではないかとの仮説を提示する。具体的には、米＝タイ間の秘密裡の共同計画が米軍の越権により策定された等と議会で問題視されたことを受け、日本との同様のそれについても批判を受けるのではないかと危惧されたことが背景にあったとする。他方、 「指針」 策定作業においては、この米国側の要請を受けた日本側が 「指針」 の基礎となる文書を起草する等、イニシアチブを取ることとなった。これは、日本の国内政治上の理由より、共同計画策定が秘密裡に実施されるようになったとの歴史的経緯より、公式化を実現する上では、日本側が自らの問題を解決すること、すなわち、日本国内において共同計画策定に関する政治的なコンセンサスを形成することが最も重要な課題であったことに由来する。
The U.S. withdrew the troops from South Vietnam and the ROK on the basis of the Nixon Doctrine, implemented détente that supported relaxing international tension by U.S.-China reconciliation, and pursued peaceful coexistence on the premise of the status quo in Asia. This is the reason why I focus on the Vietnam War which had been the background that caused structural changes of the Cold War in East Asia. And, the Vietnam War was the first test case that the U.S. and South Korea cooperated in the actual combat since the formation of the alliance. The experience in Vietnam was the opportunity for the ROK government to know the possibility and the degree of the support from the U. S. in times of emergency.
However, few previous studies have ever been done on the Vietnam War from South Korean viewpoints of the U.S.-ROK alliance. In that sense, the questions caused by the foreign policy of the U.S. must be demonstrated as follows; first, as a divided country like South Vietnam, what did the ROK government think about the U.S. support in combat? Secondly, while peace negotiations went on, what was considered necessary by the South Koreans? Thirdly, after Paris Peace Accords, what were South Korean views on it and how did the ROK government respond to the problem by its policy? Lastly, how did Koreans feel about the fall of Saigon and what was the difference between the U.S. and South Korea on the Korean Peninsula issues of post-Vietnam War?
The purpose of this paper is to explore further into the Vietnam War, associated with the ROK and the U.S.-ROK alliance, based on the diplomatic archives. Especially, I would like to focus attention on the question of how the ROK government dealt with Vietnam’s situation in the process of US withdrawal and what happened to its way between self-defense and the alliance since then.
Through the whole analysis, the following conclusions were obtained; the first is South Korea became aware of partnership from the patron-client relationship and the transferring of operational control of South Korean forces because of the Vietnam War. The second is unilateral US withdrawal plan and the end of the war by negotiations decreased reliability of US military commitment in ROK. Nevertheless, South Korea also reconfirmed that the alliance was indispensable to the national security. The third is the U. S. reduced the possibility of direct intervention in conflict on the Korean peninsula after the Vietnam War. One final point is the Vietnam War was a factor to accelerate self-defense policy in Seoul.