Hydrothermal char (HTC) that has oxygenated functional groups (OFGs) has gained much attention as a solid catalyst for biomass hydrolysis. Hydrothermal carbonization of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) was conducted at treatment temperatures of 200～250 °C and treatment times of 1～24 h in the presence of zinc chloride (ZnCl2). Elemental analysis of HTC gave H/C and O/C ranges of 0.89-1.54 and 0.24-0.70, respectively. The amount of oxygenated functional groups (OFGs) were evaluated by dynamic NaOH adsorption method based on Boehm titration. According the van Krevelen diagram, with increasing the treatment time, the amount of OFGs on the HTC initially decreased through dehydration and increased through re-hydration. The enhancement of OFGs on the HTC at longer reaction times was significant in the presence of ZnCl2.
本報では，フレキシブルカーボンの親水性に大きく寄与する含酸素官能基（OFGs）量の向上を目的として，ベイマツの粉末への水熱反応におけるOFGs量の反応温度，反応時間および塩化亜鉛（ZnCl2）の添加量依存性の把握に努めた．本研究ではベイマツ粉末20 wt%水スラリーを反応温度200–250°C，反応時間0.5–24 h，ZnCl2添加量を0–100 gとして水熱反応を行い，炭化物収率，セルロース残存率，H/CおよびO/C，そしてOFGs量を測定した．OFGs量は時間の経過とともに減少するものの長時間反応では増加した．また，ZnCl2を添加することでOFGs量が向上した．
Urine containing anticancer drugs may be scattered outside the toilet bowl during urination, and these drugs may be spread when they are stepped on. The scattering of urine droplets is dependent on the shape of the toilet bowl, contact point of the urine with the toilet bowl, and the posture assumed for urination. However, this concept has not been well investigated. In this study, we investigated the scattering of urine using fluorescent dye in a urinal and a Western-style toilet.
To represent urination in the standing position, we sprayed a fluorescein solution on the wall or the bottom of a urinal. We modeled urination in the standing and sitting positions in a Western-style toilet by spraying fluorescein into the toilet bowl and in three spots around the toilet bowl. The number of droplets, area, scattering distance, and scattering area around the toilet bowl were measured optically.
The droplet scattering was more extensive around the toilet bowl when the liquid was aimed at the bottom of the urinal and the front edge bottom of the water in the Western-style toilet. There was no droplet scattering when using the Western-style toilet in the sitting position.
If a male patient receiving chemotherapy urinates in the standing position, the anticancer drug will spread through scattered urine and become an environmental pollutant. Therefore, it is important to instruct male patients to urinate in a sitting position when using a Western-style toilet.