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  • 国内大学トップレベルのゲーム分析から
    中川 昭, 松村 径
    スポーツ運動学研究
    1998年 11 巻 25-37
    発行日: 1998/11/19
    公開日: 2020/05/08
    ジャーナル フリー

     The purpose of this study was to clarify the relative merits of penalty kicks (PK's) in attack, the types of attacking tactics used from PKs, and the effectiveness of different types of tactics in domestic top-level university rugby. Eleven matches involving the best 8 teams in the 1997 national university tournament were analyzed as a sample. The main findings were as follows: 1)Analysis of frequency, ball possession, and the relationship with scoring showed PK’s to be a valuable method of attack in the game. 2)Six different tactics were identified, i.e., Touch Kick, Quick Attack, Set Move, Maul, Scrum, and Penalty Goal (PG). 3)From the overall analysis of 11 games it was shown that the frequency of use was in the order of Touch Kick, Quick Attack, and PG, amounting to a little less than 90% of all PK’s tactics. 4)Examining these results in six separate areas of the field, in the defensive and middle area Touch Kick was used in the largest proportion and Quick Attack ranked second. However, the proportion in the use of Quick Attack became larger in the middle area of the field. In the offensive area of the field PG and Quick Attack were used in the largest proportions. Approaching the try line, the proportion in the use of PG became smaller and Quick Attack became larger. Touch Kick was used from approximately 20% of PK’s in this offensive area of the field. In the area just before the try line all types of tactics were used with little difference in the proportion of use. 5)From the seperate analysis of 8 teams, in the defensive and middle areas of the field, two types of team tactics were found, i.e., teams which mainly used Touch Kick and teams which attempted to attack by using Quick Attack and Set Move as well as Touch Kick. In the offensive area of the field the rate in the use of PG and main tactics excepting PG were different among the teams. In the area just before the try line teams which favoured tactics such as Maul or Scrum were found. 6)From overall analysis of tactics involving Touch Kick, high level performance was attained in the continuity of ball possession, but performance was poor in terms of territory gained. With the tactics of Quick Attack and Set Move high level performance was attained on both crossing over the gain line and continuation of ball possession. With the tactics of Scrum and Maul performance was considered to be poor since hardly any tries were gained from using these tactics just before the try line. With PG the percentage of success was 75% in all areas of the field and about 80% in the area between the 10m line and the try line. Therefore performance level with this tactic was considered to be high. It was considered from these results that team tactics at PK’s should be recognized as an important training objective and need to be polished in the coaching situation.

  • 高森 秀蔵, 山本 巧
    コーチング学研究
    1998年 11 巻 1 号 55-63
    発行日: 1998/03/31
    公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー

        The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical activities of referees during rugby games. Referees in 6 games (including 2 company games, 2 university games and 2 high school games) were filmed with 2 video tape recorder to estimate the distance and velocity using a DLT method. Accelerate phase and tum movement of referees were videotaped using another video tape recorder.

        The results were summarized as follows:

    (1) The mean time of out-of-play per a play was almost 30 second.

    (2) The mean time of in-play per a play in high school games was almost 20 second.

    (3) The longest total distance was 6567.4m in university games.

    (4) Jogging (under 4m/sec.) shared the highest percentage of almost 90%.

    (5) There were 286 times of accelerate phase in university games.

    (6) There were 379 times of tum movement in high school games.

  • 廣瀬 恒平, 田中 大雄, 千葉 剛, 嶋崎 達也, 鷲谷 浩輔, 千坂 大二朗
    コーチング学研究
    2019年 32 巻 2 号 189-202
    発行日: 2019/03/20
    公開日: 2019/09/02
    ジャーナル フリー

        The purpose of this study was to clarify effective tactics of attack on the sport of rugby sevens using notational analysis of game performance on the menʼs rugby sevens at Olympic games 2016. The main results of this study were as follows; 1) The rate of attack to the open-side and reverse-direction are higher. 2) To breakthrough the defence-line is more difficult than the gain-line. 3) In the number of passes before contact, the rate of breakthrough the defence-line unused pass were the lowest and the rate of unused pass in the Top6 teams was lower than the bottom6 teams and therefore the attack option using pass is effective. 4) In the attack options, the rate of breakthrough the defence-line under the overlap situation is the highest and therefore the attack option to carry the ball at vacant space is effective. 5) In the starting points in attack, the rate of breakthrough the defence-line in attack from turn-over and therefore turn-over is one of the effective starting points.

  • 下園 博信, 村上 純, 佐々木 康, 山本 巧, 古川 拓生
    コーチング学研究
    2011年 24 巻 2 号 207-210
    発行日: 2011/03/20
    公開日: 2019/09/02
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 小西 徹, 前田 正登
    コーチング学研究
    2015年 29 巻 1 号 87-99
    発行日: 2015/10/20
    公開日: 2019/09/02
    ジャーナル フリー

        This study aimed to clarify techniques for kicking along various trajectories toward variously positioned targets in direct free kicks in soccer. Four experienced soccer players (career:12±0.8 years) belonging to a university soccer club participated in this study. Participants were asked to kick a soccer ball to 4 targets at various combinations of vertical and lateral positions in the goal (3.5 m left of center and 3.5 m right of center; 1.2 m from the ground and 2.2 m from the ground) from behind a screen (height 1.8 m×width 2.5 m) positioned 9.15 m in front of kicking points. Participants kicked from 3 positions located 20m from the goal (center of goal, 3.5 m left of center, 3.5 m right of center). The behavior of the kicked ball was recorded by 4 normal-speed video cameras and analyzed using three-dimensional direct linear transformation. Two high-speed video cameras were used to capture parameters related to ball rotation; one was placed facing the kicker and another was placed beside the kicker to capture the moment the ball was kicked. Results indicated that the lateral component of the Z-coordinates tended to approach the center of the goal and varied more widely than the vertical component. Additionally, lateral kicking direction was the most important parameter to kicking along various trajectories for all participants and combinations of target positions. The kicking direction for greatest reduction of error appeared to differ by strategies for kicking along various trajectories. Lastly, vertical kicking direction was an important parameter to kicking along various trajectories for some participants, but for other participants, initial velocities as well as kicking direction were important parameters.

  • 佐伯 誠司, 松元 秀雄, 川合 武司
    日本体育学会大会号
    1999年 50 巻 70B20706
    発行日: 1999/09/15
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 廣瀬 恒平, 中川 昭
    スポーツ運動学研究
    2006年 19 巻 29-44
    発行日: 2006年
    公開日: 2020/05/11
    ジャーナル フリー

     The purpose of this study was to develop a new tactics on kick-off and 50m restart kick (KO) play with corresponding to the change in recent years in rugby football, and was to verify its effectiveness using the method of game analysis. In order to attain the purpose, game performance after introducing the new tactics on KO was compared with that before the introduction in T univ., which is at the 16 best level in Japanese university team. Samples of the game analysis were 14 matches in 2003 and 12 matches in 2004. As a result, it was shown that the new KO tactics had the following effect: 1) causing the receive team not to use lifting, 2) advancing the field position of the next restart after KO, 3) improving defensive performance after KO, 4) lengthening time of occupying the opposite territory continuously and raising the probability of scoring after KO. Though the new KO tactics developed in this study is considered to be promising, accumulating additional data using the various teams as the subject will be necessary in future.

  • 小栁 竜太, 梶山 俊仁, 大塚 道太, 高田 正義, 杉原 叡土
    コーチング学研究
    2020年 33 巻 2 号 197-206
    発行日: 2020/03/20
    公開日: 2020/06/11
    ジャーナル フリー

        The aim of this study is to quantify the movement characteristics of High-intensity running. To achieve a goal, data from Global Positioning System were synchronized with game footage by Sportscode (Version 10.3.21), which were categorized to Source of possession and Ruck and Mauls (R/Ms).
        The results of this study indicate that
    1) High-intensity running of BK is more than FW. Furthermore, attack situation is more than defense situation (FW:5.0 vs BK:12.0).
    2) In the Source of possession, BK recorded significantly more High-intensity running than FW on Turnover and Kick in attack situation, and also Turnover in defense situation.But FW recorded more High-intensity running Restart on defense situation.
    3) In R/Ms, FW recorded more High-intensity running on Restart in defense situation, BK recorded more High-intensity running on Kick and Turnover, which is transition phase of ball possession.
    These findings show movement characteristics of High-intensity running during rugby competition. And these findings can be used to help planning an effective training.

  • 佐伯 誠司, 松元 秀雄, 川合 武司
    日本体育学会大会号
    1998年 49 巻
    発行日: 1998/08/20
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • *梶山 俊仁, 村松 哲平, 林 卓史, 髙橋 幸平, 大塚 道太, 中本 光彦, 廣瀬 勝弘, 山本 巧, 佐々木 康, 黒川 隆志
    日本体育・スポーツ・健康学会予稿集
    2021年 71 巻 1P198-161-28
    発行日: 2021年
    公開日: 2021/12/28
    会議録・要旨集 フリー

    ラグビー
    のゲームは前後半のキックオフでインプレーが開始され、反則等によりアウトプレーとなることで、ゲームが一時中断される。このように
    ラグビー
    のゲームはキックオフからノーサイドまでインプレーとアウトプレーが交互に繰り返される。このインプレーの再開は小さな反則等、又は得点があった場合はスクラム、ラインアウト、キックオフのセットプレーが用いられる。また大きな反則があった場合は
    フリーキック
    、ペナルティーキックがインプレーの再開に用いられる。これら再開プレーの中でも小さな反則等、又は得点があった後に行われるセットプレーにはボール争奪の機会(contest場面)が用意されている。加えてこのボール争奪の機会は小さな反則を犯したチームの反対側のチーム(攻撃側)がボール投入権を持つことで、攻撃側が有利となるようにルールが設定されている。ところで、
    ラグビー
    のゲームで得点をするためには、ボールを所有して相手のインゴールを目指して前進することが求められる。そのため先ず、ボール所有権を獲得することが必要となる。一方、もし攻撃側がボール所有権を失った場合には、ボール獲得の機会はスクラム等のセットプレーと、タックル成立後のブレイクダウン及び相手のキック等の一般プレーの2つが用意されている。これらのことから、ボール獲得の機会においてルール上、攻撃側に有利に設定されているセットプレーにおけるボール獲得の成否はゲームの勝敗に直接的に関わる重要なプレーの1つであると考えられる。そこで、本研究では
    ラグビー
    のセットプレーの成否がゲームの勝敗に及ぼす影響について検討した。研究方法は2019年
    ラグビー
    ワールドカップ予選プール8ゲーム、及び決勝トーナメント8ゲーム、合計16ゲームを標本として、記述的ゲームパフォーマンス分析の手法を用いてスクラム、ラインアウト、キックオフのボール獲得の成否について分析を行った。

  • 狐塚 賢一郎, 井手口 学, 冨岡 徹, 村上 一郎, 村上 秀明, 斉藤 直樹, 弘 卓三
    日本体育学会大会号
    1993年 44B 巻
    発行日: 1993/10/05
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 土田 了輔, 阪元 容昌, 相河 美花
    身体運動文化研究
    2002年 9 巻 1 号 13-24
    発行日: 2002/03/31
    公開日: 2022/03/31
    研究報告書・技術報告書 フリー

    Sports games have had many prohibitions. For example, three steps with carrying the ball were prohibited in Basketball. In addition, you were not able to touch the net when you attempt to block the opponent's attack in Volleyball.

    These prohibitions were believed to be severe and to be undoubted so that they were called taboos in sports. Taboo was, however, known as a special prohibition among other prohibitions in social anthropology. According to the structuralist analysis in social anthropology, taboos were found in ambiguous boundaries between two or more verbal categories that consist of our perception of the world. These taboos were thought that they were the markers showing some dangers for a society.

    With this character on mind, taboo had a possibility to become a tool of analysis for classifying prohibitions in a sport.

    Therefore, this study attempted to find taboos in soccer for investigating the validity of the tool; taboo. As the results of this study, handling the ball was distinguished from other prohibitions as a taboo. In addition, there were two different kinds of handling and this result was in accordance with the historical study of handling in soccer. One handling was strongly prohibited for distinguishing the role of goalkeeper from the field player. The other was, however, not strongly prohibited, because this handling had permitted as the fair catch.

    This study successfully investigated the validity of taboo as a tool of analysis for classifying prohibitions in sports rules.

  • 椿原 徹也, 渡辺 一郎
    日本体育学会大会号
    2004年 55 巻 094K20009
    発行日: 2004/09/01
    公開日: 2017/08/25
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
  • 小栁 竜太, 出口 達也, 千葉 剛, 嶋崎 達也, 高田 正義
    コーチング学研究
    2020年 34 巻 1 号 35-45
    発行日: 2020/10/20
    公開日: 2021/05/27
    ジャーナル フリー

        The study aims to quantitatively evaluate the use of punts in high school rugby games to clarify their practical use by winning teams. The subjects were 49 games, which were close game aspects, which were punts (n=1,349) in the national high school rugby tournament seasons from 2015–2019. The punts were categorized into game-time, area, start of possession, rucks and mauls (R/Ms), position, and type. A Mann-Whitney U test was conducted between the winning and losing teams, and discriminant analysis was subsequently performed.
        The results revealed that if the median punts used in a Japanese high school tournament match is 12, the punts achieved greater statistical significance in winning teams in relation to 45–60min of game-time (U=695, p<.01), Turnover (U=776.5, p<.01) and Restart (U=765, p<.01), than in losing teams. In particular, the results suggest that punts in Turnover are effective. The use of high punt, short punt, grubber kick, and punts from the scrum half is limited in current high school tournament matches. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the technical aspects and decisionmaking process of executing punts.

  • 青沼 裕之
    体育学研究
    2014年 59 巻 2 号 869-885
    発行日: 2014年
    公開日: 2014/12/20
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2014/08/12
    ジャーナル フリー
      A number of studies, both in Britain and Japan, have focused on the establishment of modern British football. Several studies agree that in the process of formation of the Football Association (F. A.), six meetings were held from October to December 1863, and that the F. A. was formed at the first meeting held on October 26th. Subsequently, at the sixth meeting on December 8th, two representatives of the club, who loved Rugby Football, left this meeting in protest against the banning of “hacking” and “running with the ball”. Ultimately, clubs that emphasized “kicking” and “dribbling” took charge in formulating the F. A. laws.
      Researchers in both Japan and Britain have been satisfied with the description given in The History of the Football Association 1863-1953, and they have neglected to take a closer look at the process of deliberation over the formation of the F. A., the formulation of the F. A. laws, and the contents of various decisions. However, Adrian Harvey's Football: The First Hundred Years: The Untold Story has revealed facts that were not included in The History of the Football Association, and it has become possible for us to paint a more accurate picture of the early period of football history that differs from that of the past. Harvey indicated that the roles played by public schools and the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge in the formation of the F. A. were more indirect than initially believed, and that—at that time—the F. A. did not occupy an important position in British football.
      In this paper, I aim to confirm the facts that were not contained in The History of the Football Association, and reconsider the reasons for the formation of the F. A. and enactment of the F. A. laws 150 years ago, by analyzing in detail Harvey's book and newspaper articles dealing with this issue published at the time.
      The conclusions of the study are as follows: 1) The F. A. was formed by 14 representatives of 11 clubs that were based in London. 2) The F. A. Committee did not intend to enforce the F. A. laws throughout Britain at the time of formation of the F. A., and tried to reach an agreement with the London clubs that “kicking” and “dribbling” were important. 3) The people who formed the F. A. were youths belonging to the middle class whose occupations included clergymen, lawyers, doctors, government officials, military officials, lawmakers, academics, and rich businessmen involved in commerce and finance.
  • 浅井 武, 瀬尾 和哉, 小林 修, 村上 正秀, 錦織 大介, 溝田 武人, 久羽 浩之, 清水 鉄也, 姫野 龍太郎, 谷口 哲也, 桶田 史朗, 宮嵜 武, 後藤 崇史, 野中 正洋, 青木 克巳, 溝田 武人, 朴 盛敏, 深町 友和, 鳴尾 丈司
    日本風工学会誌
    2004年 2004 巻 99 号 101-112
    発行日: 2004/04/30
    公開日: 2010/06/04
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 瀬尾 和哉, 浅井 武, 小林 修
    会議録・要旨集 フリー
    This paper describes the Pareto optimal solution of a curve kick in soccer. We have carried out wind tunnel tests of a soccer ball. The aerodynamic forces acting on the spinning soccer ball was measured. Moreover, the multi-optimization of a curve kick was carried out by using G.A. The flight time and the curved distance were taken as objective functions. The Pareto solution as well as the optimal kick conditions was obtained on the basis of aerodynamic data.
  • 2003年ワールドカップおよび日本選手権大会との比較から
    森 弘暢
    コーチング学研究
    2005年 18 巻 1 号 101-110
    発行日: 2005/03/31
    公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 寺田 進志, 佐野 淳
    スポーツ運動学研究
    2013年 26 巻 95-106
    発行日: 2013年
    公開日: 2020/05/13
    ジャーナル フリー

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of Kinästhese soccer players. In or-der to achieve this purpose, firstly literature on the reason that why soccer players cannot handle the ball deliberately have been reviewed. According to the literature, making the game more ap-pealing and using“ art of foot” was the main reason of prohibiting soccer players from handling the ball deliberately. Secondly, meaning of kicking the ball has been studied. As a result, kicking the ball is a kind of behavior which determine losing or winning of the game. As for the Kinästhese soccer players, we concluded that conscious effort [I will kick the ball] is one of the major charac teristics which should be considered by coaches.

  • ―1999年 第7回 JAPAN SEVENS 国際大会を対象に―
    渡辺 一郎, 斎藤 武利, 勝田 隆, 河野 一郎
    コーチング学研究
    2001年 14 巻 1 号 117-129
    発行日: 2001/03/31
    公開日: 2021/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
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