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全文: "フリーズ" 建築
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  • 秦 明子
    美学
    2014年 65 巻 2 号 124-
    発行日: 2014/12/31
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
  • ラファエッロによるイオニア式オーダーの解釈とその影響
    飛ヶ谷 潤一郎
    建築史学
    2004年 43 巻 91-124
    発行日: 2004年
    公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 星 和彦
    建築史学
    1990年 14 巻 2-22
    発行日: 1990年
    公開日: 2018/09/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松本 靜夫
    建築史学
    2007年 49 巻 170-175
    発行日: 2007年
    公開日: 2018/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 星 和彦
    日本建築学会計画系論文報告集
    1988年 390 巻 117-127
    発行日: 1988/08/30
    公開日: 2017/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー

    James Gibbs (1682-1754) seems to have referred to some architectural books of the Italian Renaissance in the process of establishing his proportional system of the orders described in his Rules for Drawing the Several Parts of Architecture (London, 1732). Andrea Palladio was quoted twice in his book and he kept in his library the books by Alberti, Cataneo, Palladio, Scamozzi, Serlio and others, which were later bequeathed to the Radcliffe Trustees in 1754. Moreover, Gibbs already said in the "Introduction" of his earlier work, Book of Architecture (London, 1728), "...these Designs should be done in the best Tast (taste) I could form upon the Instructions of the greatest Masters in Italy". It has so far been pointed out that Palladio's influence was evident in the Rules for Drawing and Gibbs's library played an indispensable role in his architectural practice. But the argument for how much Gibbs depended on Italian architectural books including Palladio seems not to have been discussed thoroughly. Taking it into consideration that Gibbs criticized the modular system which was commonly adopted in the late Renaissance, books such as Vignola's regola delli cinque ordini d'architettura (1562. Gibbs did not have the book, but C. A. Daviler's Cours d'architecture qui comprend les orders de Vignola was included in his possession), Palladio's I quatro libli dell'architettura (1570. Gibbs had an edition of 1601 published in Venice and also an English version of 1715) and Scamozzi's I'idea dell'architettura universale (1615) must have been good guides for his studies of the orders. The present author would like to inquire into the comparisons of Gibbs's orders with those of the above-mentioned architectural books of the Italian Renaissance and also with Perrault's Ordonnance des cinq especes de collones selon la methode des anciens (1683. Gibbs kept an English version of 1708), which was regarded as having an effect on the method of propotioning the order in the Rules for Drawing. This present paper consists of the following three sections '. $1 Proportional comparisons between the principal parts, and the essential parts of the order $2 Compositional and proportional analyses of the essential parts $3 Comparisons of the profiles of Palladio, Vignola and Gibbs. The result of the comparison of the heights of the column (Table 1) shows that Gibbs's system completely coincides with that of Vignola's. The progression of the column heights is not necessarily equivalent to that of Palladio's, but the proportion of the entablature to the column corresponds with that of Palladio's and Scamozzi's. In the proportional comparisons of the essential parts of the entablature (Table 2), Gibbs's ratios often accord with Perrault's, Vignola's or both of them. However, Gibbs's manner of proportioning the pedestal is different from that of the Renaissance sources. Furthermore, each author varies in the proportion of the pedestal to the column, and he adopts his own ratio of one essential part to the others (Table 3), except that Perrault and Gibbs fix the ratio between cap, dado and base regardless of orders. The comparative analyses of components of the essential parts of the order shows that Gibbs coincides with the Renaissance authors in allotting the cornice, capital and base of the column (Table 4, Figs. 1-5, 7). It is probable that Palladio and Vignola also would have been much more referred to than the others. But Gibbs does not imitate them directly for he changes the details of the mouldings, for example, the projection of members like corona and the thickness of fillets. Especially the compositional and proportional relationship of the Ionic and Composite architraves and capitals is characteristic. His Ionic architrave has two fascias, whereas all the

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  • 長田 年弘
    西洋古典学研究
    2012年 60 巻 25-36
    発行日: 2012/03/23
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    This paper aims to analyze the meaning of the Parthenon frieze against the backdrop of the votive culture on the Acropolis. The composition of the Parthenon frieze could be summed up as a procession of the mortals to the seated gods who receive their offerings. The gods and men face each other, and so the theme and iconographical type accord well with the characteristics of a votive relief. The frieze relief shows remarkable similarities with the so-called adoration reliefs. Parallel examples are the votive reliefs Acropolis Museum no. 581 (ca. 490 BCE) and no. 577 (ca. 480-70 BCE). In the genre of the adoration reliefs the difference in the height of the gods and mortals is always clearly expressed, while on the other hand the closeness of these two groups is also vividly rendered by their gestures or direct body contact. The rendering of this god-protege relationship seems important when we interpret the mes- sage of the Parthenon frieze. Compared to the votive reliefs, the Parthenon frieze is however in one point very different: namely, in that most of the former monuments were dedicated privately, seldom by the public. It becomes therefore significant to investigate the development of the public votive monuments on the Acropolis. So far as we know, most of the votive monuments on the Acropolis of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE were dedicated by private citizens or groups. Before the construction of the Parthenon only a few public monuments were set up on the hill, e. g. the Bronze Athena, and the bronze chariot group commemorating the Athenian victory over Boeotia and Chalkis. Many private monuments stood around them. On the other hand, under the democratic regime in Athens official documents began to be inscribed on a stele and dedicated on the Acropolis. In this respect the first Athenian tribute list was of special importance because it resembled the Parthenon sculpture. From the sociological point of view, both could have functioned as a showcase for the Athenian Empire. The Parthenon frieze seems to have demonstrated that Athens was, as the Olympian gods' protege, in a particularly privileged position. It becomes clear that the type of a votive relief was intentionally chosen when designing the frieze. It was supposed to send a message to the viewer: it is the polls that placates the gods and enjoys a special relationship with them, not an individual citizen. The action of the offering itself remained, but the individual demonstration of honor was removed from the relief. The fine art produced under the Periclean democracy seems to have emphasized the predominance of the community over the domestic, while showing to the outside world that Athens enjoyed a special status of the gods' protege.
  • 長田 年弘
    西洋古典学研究
    1996年 44 巻 60-72
    発行日: 1996/03/15
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー

    The frieze of the Siphnian Treasury is famous for its monumental relief sculpture, which summarizes the whole development of the archaic Greek art. This paper presents a new interpretation of the north side of this frieze, representing the Gigantomachy, the fight between the Olympian gods and the giants. Despite the remarkable discovery in 1985 of the numerous inscriptions on the relief surface of the north frieze, which indicate the names of the sculptured gods and giants, several important relief figures remain anonymous. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying two figures, a female figure at the east end of the frieze and a male at the west end. The scene in the west end : the warrior represented at the far right of the frieze, who fights on the side of the gods, has previously been identified variously as Ares, Briareos(a Titan)or Karneios(a local Spartan god). However, we find the theory by Vian more convincing than these hypotheses. Vian suggested that this figure represents one of the giants who has deserted his side. The episode of the betrayal in the Gigantomachy is known from a hellenistic literary version by Diodorus Siculus, who reveals the name of this cowardly giant, Mousaios. Because of this act, Diodorus says, all giants were destroyed by the Olympian gods. The scene in the east end : on the right of the Hephaistos, two goddesses are represented. Moore reconstructed still another goddess to the right of these figures and regarded these three goodesses as representing Moirai, the goddesses of Fate. However, Moore does not seem to have made a strong case. The two preserved goddesses differ from each other not only in size but also in costume. So the two goddesses most probably belong to different levels of hierarchy : the left smaller figure being perhaps a lesser goddess, while the right one a higher Olympian deity. According to our theory, it is possible that this left smaller figure represents Gaia, goddess of the Earth. Gaia is the mother of the giants and so often appears in scenes representing the Gigantomachy. She is depicted as intervening in the fight asking the Olympian gods not to destroy her children. The representation of the goddess in this frieze seems to correspond to the conventional iconography of Gaia. She holds up the left arm, bent in a right angle at the elbow. In the iconographical tradition of Greek art, this gesture indicates that she is speaking and seems to support our interpretation, because representation of a goddess who is not taking part in the fight between the gods and giants could be no other than Gaia herself. It seems that no serious consideration was previously given to this gesture. There are also several vase paintings from the sixth century B. C. depicting the Gigantomachy, in which Gaia appears. In these examples she is represented as intervening in the fight using almost exactly the same gesture as the figure in the Siphnian frieze. If this interpretation is accepted, the next question should be as following : what is the Gaia in this frieze saying, and to whom? A parallel example should help us to solve this problem. The vase painting of the slaughter of Troilos by Achilleus on the famous Frangois vase from the sixth century B. C. provides an appropriate parallel. On this vase, the successive events are depicted in one picture, demonstrating the development of the story. The left part of the vase painting represents the beginning of the story(the warning to Troilos by Apollon) , in the center the main scene(the slaughter of Troilos by Achilleus)and on the right, the end of the story(the father king, Priamos, hears about the catastrophe). It seems that the same narration system with a three-part composition was also adopted in the Gigantomachy frieze of the Siphnian Treasury. The goddess Gaia was, like Apollon, known to the ancient Greeks for her predictions. The Gaia in our frieze also seems, like the

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  • 林田 義伸
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    1999年 64 巻 523 号 293-300
    発行日: 1999/09/30
    公開日: 2017/02/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the design of the stoa of Zeus in Athens. Through the analysis of the dimensions and their proportions of the building, the following conclusion was given. 1) As initial dimension and proportion, the width of the stoa was given as 150 ft., and the width of the wings as one-fourth of whole length of the stoa. 2) The axial intercolumniation of the wings was the basis for the proportional relationships of the stoa. 3) The small difference between the width of the wings and the depth of the stoa occurred from angle contractions.
  • 長田 年弘
    オリエント
    1994年 37 巻 2 号 170-184
    発行日: 1994年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    In dieser Arbeit wird die Beschreibung der Entwicklung frühhellenistischer Kampfdarstellung versucht. Es wird sich zeigen, daß diese Entwicklung von der klassischen Zeit bis zum Hellenismus einen einheitlichen, konsequenten Charakter besitzt. Es wird anderseits immer versucht, die Entwicklung in Zusammenhang mit der historischen Situationen zu bringen. Erwähnt werden drei größte Barbarenkriege, nämilich der Perserkrieg im fünften und vierten Jht. v. Chr. und der Galaterkriege im dritten Jht. v. Chr. Die Kampfdarstellung scheint immer das Bewußtsein der zeitgenössischen Griechen über ihre eigene Identität gegenüber die Barbaren widergespiegelt zu haben.
    Zuerst wird die frühhellenistische Darstellung, der Perserkrieg-Fries des großen Grabes von Leukadia, beobachtet. In diesem Fries ist bei fast jeder Zweikampfszene die Überlegenheit der Griechen gegenüber den Barbaren stark betont ausgedrückt; der Sieg der Griechen wird demonstrativ vorgeführt. In einer Amazonomachie des fünften und vierten Jhs. v. Chr. wurde ein solcher Kontrast niemals so klar dargestellt: in klassischer Zeit ist die Szene, die die Niederlage einiger Griechen wiedergibt, immer bewußt neben der Niederlage der Amazonen dargestellt. Auch wenn wir das Thema der Perserschlacht in Betracht ziehen, finden wir, daß dieses Gleichgewicht während der klassischen Zeit im wesentlichen beibehalten wurde.
    In der ersten Hälfte des dritten Jhs. v. Chr. hat sich die Tendenz nach der Demonstration des Sieges weiter entwickelt: in der Kunst wurde ein bestimmtes Schema gefunden, das durch die Nebeneinanderstellung der Sieger-Besiegte-Komposition völlig anders als in klassischer Zeit aufgefaßt wurde. Dargestellt ist in der Folge nicht die eigentliche Kampfszene sondern die Bestrafung durch die Sieger. Als die typische Beispiele dieses Darstellungstyps werden der Kyzikos-Stele und der kleine Amazonomachiefries am Parmeniskos-Stele aus dem dritten Jht. v. Chr. angeführt.
    Was die Ursache dieser allgemeinen Veränderung und der Entwicklung der Kampfdarstellung in der frühhellenistischen Epoche angeht, ist vor allem mit der Einführung des neuen Themas der Galatomachie nach der Invasion der Kelten im Jahre 277 v. Chr. als einem konkreten Anlaß zu rechnen.
  • 河辺 伸二, 伊藤 公人, 三輪 和弘
    日本建築学会構造系論文集
    2014年 79 巻 701 号 887-893
    発行日: 2014/07/30
    公開日: 2014/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The digital terrestrial television which uses the electromagnetic wave of the UHF band was shifted completely in July, 2011. In this paper, the electric field strength level is measured in the reception condition that is different of the distance and the building environment in the urban space. As a result of the measurement, the following have been understood. 1. The building of the 11th floor to the 14th floor shows the amount of radio attenuation more than 10dB. 2. In an open space, whenever the distance from a digital tower is 3 km away, the electric field strength level decreases about 10dB. When the distance from a digital tower exceeds 18 km, the value of the electric field strength level does not change according to circumference environment. 3. The actual electric field strength level of urban space is decreased to 70 percent or less as compared with the electric field strength level in free space. At the ground and the point which is subject to the influence of a building, it decreases even to about 20 percent.
  • 土居 義岳
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2005年 70 巻 587 号 229-234
    発行日: 2005/01/30
    公開日: 2017/02/11
    ジャーナル フリー
    The French Academie Royale d'Architecture discussed on the ideal size of interior cornices in 1710. The analysis from the Minutes and the Reports reveals that the ideal view distance was from 8 to 18 pied (feet) and that these scales correspond exactly to the interior scales of the Parisian hotel residences in the 17^<th> and 18^<th> century. And contrary to Vitruvius who took the ratio of two optic angles, the Academie made use of the optic angle of cornice.
  • 星 和彦
    日本建築学会計画系論文報告集
    1990年 410 巻 155-164
    発行日: 1990/04/30
    公開日: 2017/12/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Isaac Ware's (d. 1766) A Complete Body of Archtecture... of 1756 is not only the most important of his works but also one of the remarkable books during the Neo-classical period in Britain. As a result of looking it over, the present author has drawn has conclusions as follows : Ware's theory of the proportions of orders is not able to be understood simply in the context of the Renaissance tradition, and he has the different point of view of proportion from both that of the Renaissance and that of Perrault's, and therefore, his proposal of the proportions of orders should be regarded as typically English, since he maintains the plural systems of proportion on the basis of feasibility.
  • 阿部 順子, 小林 克弘
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2002年 67 巻 555 号 333-338
    発行日: 2002/05/30
    公開日: 2017/02/04
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this study is to make clear the architectural concept of a French modern architect R.Mallet-Stevens. What was the most important for him was to match his architecture to the times in which he lived. He was willing to adopt decorative elements, such as le vitraux blanc (white stained glass), if they were original and creative. He regarded his architecture as a geometrical sculpture. He did not provide any clear reason for his concept, but it is sure that the figure he created has realised the strong contrast of light and shadow, which he loved.
  • 若山 滋, 李 強, 宮地 幸子, 北川 啓介, 夏目 欣昇
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2004年 69 巻 580 号 49-55
    発行日: 2004/06/30
    公開日: 2017/02/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this research, we aim at clarifying the classification and distribution of "level type horizontal member" for exploring a relation between the natural climate and propagation of culture style in the Eurasia area. "Level type horizontal member" is classified to 12 sorts from four angles and by analyzing the map of distribution and transition we get results as follow. The typical form of the stone-made "level type horizontal member" are simple beam and entablature type while the typical form of the wood-made type are the beam and "beam+ tokyoiT with complicated composition and various section shape. Originating from Greece, the Occidental entablature continued to spread and at .last it reached Southeast Asia in 19th century. The influence of the "beam + tokyou" is strong in East Asia.
  • 杉本 俊多
    日本建築学会論文報告集
    1980年 290 巻 151-157
    発行日: 1980/04/30
    公開日: 2017/08/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    The intention of Schinkel as a reformative bureaucrat to design the model of urban dwelling houses (in : "Grundlage der praktischen Baukunst"; Berlin 1830) lay in presenting generally the idea of systematic order in urban space, in order to lead the craftsmen under the public interest of the state to the modernization of the town. The method to give architectural form was radically changed and systematized. (1) The space of the site was recognized as a geometrical form and used at the maximum in a rationally economical sense. (2) The architectural form was composed combining some geometrically formed wings vertically and horizontally, reforming the method shown in "Precis" by J.N.L. Durand. (3) The plan of apartment was rationally organized with corridors and staircases departed clearly from the living spaces. The facade was articulated with horizontal lines and decorated with ornaments of classic style, that showed a kind of grammer of decoration. The social status of inhabitants in each apartment was shown by it in the public space of street, which was given a character of a space of respresentation.
  • 大日本窯業協會雑誌
    1921年 29 巻 349 号 489
    発行日: 1921/09/20
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 大森 峰輝, 野田 宏治, 小林 正
    豊田工業高等専門学校研究紀要
    2013年 45 巻 79-86
    発行日: 2013/02/12
    公開日: 2017/04/27
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 鈴木 雅之
    イギリス・ロマン派研究
    2009年 33 巻 156-160
    発行日: 2009/03/20
    公開日: 2017/01/17
    ジャーナル フリー
  • -その2 対比的構成-
    椎橋 武史, 小林 克弘
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2008年 73 巻 628 号 1387-1393
    発行日: 2008/06/30
    公開日: 2009/09/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpose of this paper is to study how the idea of “mobile equilibrium” is expressed in building design of Louis Sullivan, following our former papers. In this paper, we analyzed the relationship between the idea and the contrasting composition on the facade of his buildings. In many of his facades, “the mass” which is static, rigid and massive and “the detail” which is dynamic, organic and delicate are clearly contrasted. By this contrasting composition, Sullivan expressed in his facade the idea of “mobile equilibrium”, both “emotional and intellectual”, both “subjective and objective”.
  • 岩田 千穂, 吉武 隆一, 伊藤 重剛
    日本建築学会計画系論文集
    2012年 77 巻 678 号 1967-1976
    発行日: 2012/08/30
    公開日: 2012/10/15
    ジャーナル フリー
    Ancient Messene, Greece, was founded by Epameinondas in 369 B.C.. Kumamoto University Architectural Mission for Greek classical Architecture has surveyed, since 2007, the architectural remains of the theater including more than a hundred of blocks from walls, columns, etc., in order to reconstruct its form of 2nd century A.D. The authors analyzed each block in detail and tried to reconstruct the scene building which would have been built in 2nd century A.D. and reached the conclusion that the scene building was 12.2 m high and two-storied with rows of Corinthian, Lotus-Acanthus, and Ionic columns on the front.
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