Typically, Augustine is considered a person who, under the influence of Hellenistic culture, viewed the body negatively. However, recent research has demonstrated that Augustine came to consider the body in a positive light through his understanding of key Christian thoughts such as creation, the Incarnation, and the Body of Resurrection.
Nevertheless, the fall of man (hereafter referred to as “the fall”) is a serious matter for Augustine. Since the fall, the body has had a different nature from that in the Garden of Eden. According to conventional research on Augustine (e.g., by Margaret R. Miles), he believed that the problematic condition of the body could be solved only in future life. However, in actuality, Augustine also indicated that humans could improve the condition of their body in the present life. This paper clarifies how Augustine understood bodily improvement as occurring (by grace) in this life. It does so by examining his writings on the Pelagian controversy, which have not been sufficiently studied from this viewpoint.