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  • 金城 厚
    東洋音楽研究
    1990年 1990 巻 55 号 91-118,L8
    発行日: 1990/08/31
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    It is the intention of this article to review the ryukyu scale, about which various theories have been proposed to date, and to make some propositions that may serve as the basis for future research on the subject.
    The first point at issue is the structure of the ryukyu scale. Koizumi Fumio has interpreted the ryukyu scale (do mi fa sol si do) as being formed from two disjunct tetrachords, each of which is, in his terminology, comprised of two nuclear tones at the interval of a fourth with one infixed tone. In this interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, fa, sol and do.
    On the other hand, Kakinoki Goro has proposed another interpretation, according to which the melodic movement of Okinawan folksong is ruled by a tertial nucleic structure. In his interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, mi, sol, and si.
    The second point at issue is the question of which of the ryukyu and ritsu scales is the older. Kojima Tomiko has concluded that the ritsu scale (including the ryo scale as a variant of the ritsu) is the older because it is seen in old-fashioned myth songs in certain remote villages in the Ryukyu region. On the other hand, Koizumi insisted that the ryukyu scale was far older than the ritsu.
    In the present author's view, there seem to be two different kinds of ryukyu scale in Okinawan music: one is a scale based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure (do mi fa sol si do), in which the nuclear notes locate at do, fa, sol and do; and the other is a scale based on a pentachordal nucleic structure (mi fa sol si do mi), in which the nuclear notes locate at mi, sol and si.
    The present author has undertaken an investigation of the finalis of all pieces in the repertoire of Okinawan classical songs accompanied by the sanshin (long-necked plucked lute), whose melodies are notated in kunkunshii notation in four volumes. Within the 195 pieces investigated, there are 83 pieces (43%) whose finalis is located at the fourth, while there are 42 pieces (22%) whose finalis is located at the third, fifth, or seventh. The former are based on the tetrachordal nucleic ryukyu scale. However, in the latter the fourth is not stable enough to be thought of as a nuclear note. The present author proposes a pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale which has its tonic at the third, because through investigation it is possible to recognize that the third, fifth, and seventh function as nuclear notes, and among these the third is most frequently the finalis.
    It is possible to suppose that the ryo scale (do re mi sol la do) and the pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale (mi fa sol si do mi) are parallel with each other. In both cases the scale consists of the following intervals: narrow, narrow, wide, narrow, wide, in ascending order. The pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale, however, displays a little more contrast in terms of the width of its intervals.
    In the case of certain folksongs of Yaeyama, some of which are dealt with in this article, the pitch of notes in the melody as performed is subtly heightened or lowered, so that it is difficult to identify the scale as being ryo or pentachordal nucleic ryukyu. Therefore, the relationship between these two scales, which appear to be opposites, is, in fact, not dualistic but monistic in nature.
    Such a relationship is analogous to that of slendro and pelog in Javanese music. This is worthy of note for the purposes of future comparative research.
    The conclusions of the present author are as follows. In Okinawan music there are five scales: min' yo and ritsu, both based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Amami and Okinawa Islands; while ryo and pentachordal nucleic ryukyu, both based on a pentachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Yaeyama, Miyako and Okinawa Islands. A complex of these scales is
  • 田中 悠美子
    東洋音楽研究
    1995年 1995 巻 60 号 120-124
    発行日: 1995/08/31
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 関 喜房
    東洋音楽研究
    1977年 1977 巻 41-42 号 a1-a11
    発行日: 1977/08/31
    公開日: 2010/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 関 喜房
    東洋音楽研究
    1977年 1977 巻 41-42 号 160-150
    発行日: 1977/08/31
    公開日: 2010/11/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三好 啓士
    日本教科教育学会誌
    1986年 11 巻 2 号 57-64
    発行日: 1986/08/31
    公開日: 2018/05/08
    ジャーナル フリー
    普通教育における音楽科の授業はソルフェージュによって支えられるはずのものである。ソルフェージュは音楽の読み書きであり,内的聴感の育成であり,音楽構造の聴覚的把握力を養うなど音楽的認識力の発達をたすけるための教育方法である。そして,その認識力により更に音楽の深みへの到達を期待するものであるからソルフェージュは,まさに音楽教育の基盤となるはずのものである。ところが我国では,例えばハンガリーの音楽教育(コダーイ・システム)などのようにはソルフェージュは重要視され研究されているとは言いがたい。むしろ無機的なソルフェージュ訓練が生徒に苦痛をもたらすことさえある。その改善をめざして音楽への道となるようなソルフェージュ探求のための提案が本論の主旨であるが,その方法論の提示の前に,本論文ではソルフェージュすべき音楽の諸要素にかかわる原理として音高論とその教育論を中心に述べていくことにする。
  • 網干 毅
    美学
    1981年 32 巻 1 号 39-50
    発行日: 1981/06/30
    公開日: 2017/05/22
    ジャーナル フリー
    Though the ars nova music, the representative of which is G. Machaut, has been mainly treated under the interest of 'the Renaissance problem, ' according to the recent thoughts in the history of music that the Renaissance starts on the 1430's, it is located in the Middle ages. In this case, we must find the own principle of the musical style in the ars nova music, different from that of the Renaissance music. As compared with the music of Dufay, who stands on the opening of the Renaissance, it is found out that in the music of Machaut a tone is comprehended as 'a point', whereas in Dufay's as 'a sound'. In the Middle Ages the interval is understood under the relation of numbers and it is considered that they reflect deeply the Providence of God. In an actual music, the octave, the fifth and the fourth are 'perfected' intervals. Music is made of a duration of their 'perfected' sound. The music of Machaut is also founded on that principle. So his most melismatic melody with much feeling floats in such 'perfected' sound.
  • 今井 仁
    日本音響学会誌
    2011年 67 巻 3 号 101-112
    発行日: 2011/03/01
    公開日: 2017/06/02
    ジャーナル フリー
    本研究の目的は,普化宗尺八曲の音律を物理的尺度で表現することにある。そのために,まず,著名な奏者の演奏録音から基本周波数を抽出し,旋律をセント表示のグラフにした。これにより五線譜では表せなかった,微細な音程変化と音価を知ることができた。次いで,旋律の中に核音と中間音の存在を確認し,一曲に占める音価の値の占有率から主音を決めた。主音を決めたことにより,普化宗尺八曲の音階表示が可能になった。普化宗尺八曲「調子」を中心に解析したところ,律音階と都節音階は一元論的な関係にあることが分かった。また,各奏者には特有の音律があること,曲中においても核音も中間音も,奏者固有の音程変化を示すことが分かった。
  • 我妻 龍聲
    智山学報
    2018年 67 巻 139-175
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2019/03/30
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿では現行の智山声明の反音曲を中心に呂律の旋律構造の考察を試みた。智山声明の由里は商と徴に付き三重の宮にはユリソリが付く。由里とは核音に付く働きである。核音とは旋律の中心となる音で由里が付く商、徴、三重宮が智山声明の核音である。この商、徴、三重宮の間隔は四度である。四度音程の音の集まりをテトラコルドという。智山声明では商、徴、三重宮を核音とするテトラコルドが三段に重なる旋律構造であると考える。また、商、徴、三重宮は上下に音を持ち四度下に音を持つ。これは導音と上主音と下方に属音を持つ主音の位置と考えられる。呂音階で導音、上主音、属音を持つのは商である。この事から智山声明は呂音階商旋法が四度音程で三段に重なる旋律構造であると考える。以上の視点から智山声明の旋律構造について考察してみたい。
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