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  • 田村 孝
    西洋古典学研究
    1990年 38 巻 61-72
    発行日: 1990/03/29
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    In 89 B C, the First Mithridatic War began in Asia Minor between Rome and Pontus It was difficult for either nation to gain a victory without the broad support of the Greek city-states and the native Asians This paper will elucidate the political attitudes of the city-states in Asia Minor to the Roman and Pontic soldiers Attention will be focused on the attitudinal trends of the populations of the cities, and, in particular, the social and political situations deciding these attitudes will be explained With the advance of Pontic army, cities and individuals were pressed to decide whether to support or oppose the anti-Roman uprising led by Mithridates, king of Pontus The widely held belief is that upper class citizens were inclined to support the Romans in order to maintain their privileges while the dominated and exploited lower classes were pro-Mithridatic It would, however, be a mistake to suggest that the entire upper and lower classes determined their respective attitudes by some unanimous consent Indeed, it was difficult for upper class leaders to choose between two great countries such as Rome and Pontus, or to know which would eventually be more favorable for their future prosperity Thus, the only way was to act flexibly in a real political situation An incident at Ephesus was a typical example The Ephesians who had initially supported Mithridates later accused him of being an aggressor when the war began to develop favorably for Rome, and they rose in a revolt against Pontus which then spread to many other cities On the other hand, when the upper class citizens recognized the overwhelming victory of Mithndates, some responded to the situation by becoming anti-Roman Still others watched the changing situation in silence Only the lower class might have been cosistently anti-Roman Mithridates was essentially a despotic monarch and indifferent to the tradition of liberty and autonomy of the Greek city-states He himself embodied a contradiction Had he not been a tyrant, he would not have been able to take command of a great war against Rome Yet, as a tyrant, he could not deny his exploitation of the cities and the Asian people Only when he pursued the cities' interest and covered up his essential despotic nature did both the upper and lower class citizens support him and rush into the anti-Roman movement And yet, when the situation changed again and Mithridates' true nature showed itself, these same cities were compelled to leave him In this way, the attitudes of the cities, representing the collective will of the upper and the lower classes, responded to his contradictory nature
  • 浜崎 鈴子, 井下 佳織
    武道学研究
    2006年 39 巻 1 号 35-44
    発行日: 2006/09/30
    公開日: 2012/11/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    Norrbotten Handicap Sports Federation (NHIF) Budokai in Sweden holds their spring camp in May every year. This camp is unique in that both disabled and non-disabled people participate and practice karate-do together. In May 2005, Hamasaki from the US and Inoshita from Japan were invited to teach at the camp by Mr. Pontus Johansson, the chief staff of the NHIF Budokai. The training was scheduled in four sessions by five group categories: Group 1=Children, Group 2=Adults with assistance, Group 3=Adults with physical disability, Group 4=Those with concentration disorder disabilities, and Group 5=Adults. There was only one disabled in the children's group.Group 2 had five participants who were all mentally handicapped. Although the authors found it difficult to motivate this group, accomplishing this task proved most rewarding. Group 4, who practiced at the same time as Group 2, was instructed by Mr. Niklas Bremer from the NHIF Budokai and Mr. Dan Johansson from the Sweden Wado-kai. Group 3 and Group 5, who practiced together, had two people who had difficulties in walking. All of the participants in Group 3 and Group 5, regardless of whether they were disabled or not, cooperated with each other, practiced to their best, and achieved the goal set for this camp.
    We observed how karate practice improves People's abilities and how disabled people live life in Sweden through karate-do; they fully enjoy their lives like any other human being. It was also impressive that all of the instructors, assistants, and parents understand the disabled people and help them not out of duty, but also with a sense of responsibility as a community member.
    This report describes the 2005 Spring Camp with details about the training content, goals and result of each session and group.
  • リサン エ
    人類學雜誌
    1928年 43 巻 7 号 309-314
    発行日: 1928/07/15
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 藤井 紀之
    地学雑誌
    1995年 104 巻 5 号 793-796
    発行日: 1995/10/25
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 杉村 貞臣
    オリエント
    1969年 12 巻 3-4 号 87-120,224
    発行日: 1969年
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    Since 614, when the Holy Cross in Jerusalem fell into the Persian hand, the time was getting ripe for taking back it, and was strengthening the spiritual unity of the Roman Empire with the doctrine which was proposed by Sergios.
    The Roman Emperor Heracleios (610-641) went on an expedition into the Persian territory from 622 to 629, and took back the Holy Cross. In the Christian world, before the expedition, the Monophysist in Syria and Egypt opposed the proporsal of Sergios, but during the expedition they changed to agreed to it, and the Pope Honorius I (625-638) recognized the Monotheletism.
    We can point out that the Persian Expedition of Heracleios went a long way toward strengthenning the unity of the Empire in the early part of the seventh century.
  • 吉村 忠典
    オリエント
    1963年 6 巻 3 号 27-36,63
    発行日: 1963/12/25
    公開日: 2010/03/12
    ジャーナル フリー
    In dieser Abhandlung sammelte ich die Stellen über die caesarischen Armeen im Osten in den Jahren 48/47 vor Chr. Zwar hat man bisher Caesars Legionen ziemlich eingehend untersucht. Aber die Hilfstruppen wurden dabei weniger beachtet. Mich interessierten auch die Hilfstruppen, und zwar in dem Zusammenhang, den ich in der Historia, X, SS. 473 ff. dargelegt habe.
  • 高橋 正
    人文地理
    1965年 17 巻 4 号 337-355
    発行日: 1965/08/28
    公開日: 2009/04/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The object of this paper is to trace the parallels and climates found out in the old maps published in Europe in and after the opening years of modern times, to its origin.
    First of all, the zone theory, divided the land surface into five parts by the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn and the polar circles, have been closely connected with the thoughts of the Pythagorean School. This zone theory was accomplished by Aristotle. The idea on the arctics of Aristotle, however, had been extremely variable. According to the spread of geographical knowledge among Greeks, the zone theory by Aristotle had to be revised. By setting the arid zones under the both tropics, Poseidonius urged to divised the land surface into seven regions. On the other hand, Polybius set forth a six division theory that there is an ecumene directly under the equator thoroughly. But the zone theory of Strabo adopted a classical form which was handed down the medieval ages.
    Secondly, though climate had been primarily a word meaning ‘latitude’, according to Strabo it was becoming a word which designated specifically certain latitudes. The klimata of Hipparchus was only incompletely represented by Strabo, In contrast to Eratosthenes who divided the climate rather arbifranily, Hipparchus' lines of the klimata were drawn every 1/4 hour during the daytime in the summer solstice. As for Marinus and Ptolemy, they strictly distinguished the conception of parallels and that of klimata. And in view of the results so far achieved, at last they have taken a word of meaning; the former is a line, and the latter a zone.
    At intervals of 1/4 hour, both Marinus and Ptolemy drew the parallels. The seven standard climates of Ptolemy had been distributed according to the line of parallels through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria, Rhodes, Hellespont, the middle of Pontus (Black Sea), the mouth of River Borysthenes. On the Geographice Hyphegesis of Ptolemy we cannot find out his thoughts concerning klimata, but his seven klimata system is found in the chapter 7. 8. 12 Vol.2, and chapter 11 Vol.6, of Almagest. And then the author presumes that klimata of Marinus must have been those that were drawn at every 1/4 hour as shown in chapter 15, Vol.1, of Ptolemy's Geography.
  • 土井 健司
    日本の神学
    2010年 49 巻 150-154
    発行日: 2010/09/17
    公開日: 2012/01/30
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 井上 一
    西洋古典学研究
    1978年 26 巻 117-120
    発行日: 1978/03/23
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • (明石書店,2017年,469ページ)
    山添 博史
    ロシア・東欧研究
    2017年 2017 巻 46 号 129-131
    発行日: 2017年
    公開日: 2019/02/01
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田之頭 安彦
    西洋古典学研究
    1958年 6 巻 125-126
    発行日: 1958/05/10
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清永 昭次
    西洋古典学研究
    1969年 17 巻 11-21
    発行日: 1969/03/25
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Before the Second World War, the birth of coinage in Asia Minor was generally placed at the beginning or in the first half of the seventh century B.C. But in 1951, E.S.G. Robinson, by reconsidering the coins (together with dumps immediately preceding them) found at the Ephesian Artemisium in 1904-5, insisted that coinage can hardly have begun in Asia Minor much earlier than about 630 B.C. Since then many scholars have accepted his opinion. In 1959, however, N.G.L. Hammond criticized this 'recent opinion', and put the first appearance of coins in Asia Minor in c. 687-77 B.C. on the strength of several pieces of evidence. I. Archaeological evidence. A. The coins and dumps from the Artemisium at Ephesus must have been coeval with other finds from it (700-590 B.C.). B. Two vases from Khaniale Tekke in Crete contained gold and silver dumps along with other objects (c. 800-650 B.C.). C. At Perachora the supposed dedication of an iron drachma which was demonetized as the result of the introduction of coinage at Corinth is dated to a time before 650-40 B.C., being judged from the unearthed stone with the dedicatory inscription. II. Literary evidence. A. Hermodike, a wife of Midas, struck coins (Heraclides Ponticus 11, 3). B. The gold coins of Gyges were held in high repute (Pollux 3,87; 7, 98). C. The first coinage of the Greek mainland was struck at Aegina by Pheidon of Argos (Strabo 358, 376; Marmor Parium 30; Etymologicum Magnum 613), who is said to have been contemporary with Gyges. Upon these I remark as follows. I.A, II. A,B are easily refuted. In his more recent study of the vases of I.B, the excavator dates their contents to the seventh century B.C., not c. 800-650 B.C. The Perachora inscription of I.C. may belong to as late as the first half of the sixth century B.C. Moreover, concernig the exact character of the undiscovered 'drachma', nothing decisive can be said. The iron spits found at Argive Heraeum seem to confirm the tradition (Orionis Etymologicum 118), which reports the dedication of the obsolete spits to Hera of Argos by Pheidon. But those spits are not necessarily taken as the tradition goes. There is also some doubt about the credibility of informations on Pheidon's coinage of II. C. Accordingly, Hammond's contention is not strong enough to deny the appropriateness of Robinson's conclusion, which is based on precise numismatical and archaeological research.
  • —スウェーデン・オーストラリア・ニュージーランドでの知見から—
    岡田 龍司, 徳安 秀政, 岡崎 祐史, 近藤 雅一, 中島 たけし, 濱名 智男, 中尾 智栄子, 安田 友美, 黒瀧 万里
    武道学研究
    2015年 47 巻 3 号 209-214
    発行日: 2015/03/31
    公開日: 2016/03/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 久松 英二
    宗教研究
    2010年 84 巻 2 号 455-479
    発行日: 2010/09/30
    公開日: 2017/07/14
    ジャーナル フリー
    ビザンツ末期の一四世紀に正教修道霊性の中心地アトスで始まったヘシュカズムの霊性は、心身技法を伴う「イエスの祈り」の実践と、神の光の観想の意義および正統性弁護のための理論から成り立つ。体位法と呼吸法を伴った「イエスの祈り」は、ビザンツ修道制における静寂追求の伝統上に位置づけられるが、それによって得られる光の観想体験は「タボルの光」という聖書表現をもって解釈しなおされた。次に、ヘシュカズムの理論レベルにおいては、光の観想をめぐる東方キリスト教的な解釈が注目される。その特徴を端的に表現するのが、「働き」(エネルゲイア)という概念で、この概念は光の観想体験の意義および同体験の正統性の説明として機能する。よって、ヘシュカズムの理論は内在や本質の抽象論より、働きや作用のダイナミックな具体論を特徴としている。そのような理論に支えられたヘシュカズムの霊性は、「エネルゲイア・ダイナミズムの霊性」と称してもよかろう。
  • 岡田 泰介
    史学雑誌
    2015年 124 巻 7 号 1323-1332
    発行日: 2015/07/20
    公開日: 2018/01/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 松本 宣郎
    西洋古典学研究
    2009年 57 巻 88-101
    発行日: 2009/03/26
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    I. Mission and Interchange The primitive church was oriented to preach and prevail in the world. Less twenty years after the death of Christ many churches existed in the cities of Asia Minor, Greece, and even in Rome. Apostle Paul greatly contributed to strengthen those churches, traveling the eastern Mediterranean world three times. He was the greatest travellor in the ancient world. Not only Paul but many apostles taraveled and many churches exchanged circulars. What was the purpose of these frequent human interchange ? I suppose it was the collective demand of the leaders of the church for unity of faith. II. The Second Century Paul came to Rome, it is a historical fact. But we can't confirm Peter's coming there. However, Christians travelled actively from the first century. The first famous one was Ignatius, the bishop of Antioch. He was arrested and sent to Rome as a criminal. During this journey he wrote many letters to five churches such as Rome, Ephesus, Smyrna and so on. His friends carried his letters and they were used as circulars. Ignatius wrote a letter to Polycalp of Smyrna also, who was invited by Anicetus of Rome and attended the meeting, which was the first synod as far as we know. The Christians of Lyon also had a close relation with those of Phrygia. After a severe persecution ended, the Chrsitians of Lyon sent a letter telling it(Eusebius, Hist. Ecc, v. 1-2). Justin was born in Palestine and lived in Rome. His disciple Tatian was an Assyrian and came to Rome. Valentinus, a Gnostic was Egyptian, then he worked in Rome. In a word, Christians and churches had frequent interchange beyond our imagination. And Churches began to unite and often had synods. The church of Rome began to claim its supremacy but often had to be registed. III. The Third Century; Alexandria, Carthage and Rome In the third century, Chrsitians multiplied considerably. The emperors like Septimius Severus, Decius, and Valerian ordered to persecute the churches. But those persecutions ended shortly, so churches tried to make synods after them. We examine three big churches and their bishops. Dionysios, the bishop of Alexandria, wrote many letters to almost all the churches in the empire, and those letters quoted in Eusebius' Hist. Ecc. He was an onthodox leader and was respected by many churchmen of other provinces. Cyprian, the bishop of Carthage, was popular bishop and good leader. He wrote much as a church father. He was a rigorist against the lapsi and insisted re-baptism for those who had baptized by the clergy who lapsed at the persecution. He called general synods again and again and fought against the enemies. Other bishop like Firmilian of Cappadocia suppoeted him by his letter. Cyprian had a close interchange with Roman bishops and psresbyters, such as Cornelius and Stephanus. They were generally torelant to the lapsi, so Cyprian criticized them, especially Stephanus often. But he was martyred when Valerian ordered the sacrifice to the clergy of the curches. IV. Unity and Catholic orthodoxy In the middle of the third century, Churches established the system of synod it seems. From all provinces of the empire, Arabia in the east to Spain, gathered sometimes for discussing the problem after persecution. We can't see the supremacy of Roman Papacy yet. Some strong and earnest and respected bishop's churches became leader-church, Dionysius' Alexandria, Cyprian's Carthage. The important fact was that all of them insisted and hoped unity of Christianity and fought with heretics (in future!). They were the catholic leaders.
  • 高津 春繁
    西洋古典学研究
    1958年 6 巻 123-125
    発行日: 1958/05/10
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 長谷川 岳男
    西洋古典学研究
    1999年 47 巻 152-155
    発行日: 1999/03/23
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田村 孝
    西洋古典学研究
    1989年 37 巻 129-131
    発行日: 1989/03/15
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 柘植 一雄
    西洋古典学研究
    1973年 21 巻 110-112
    発行日: 1973/03/20
    公開日: 2017/05/23
    ジャーナル フリー
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