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全文: "ユメザメ"
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  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1954年 20 巻 7 号 627-632
    発行日: 1954/11/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In the fourth paper of this series it was reported that the males of Centrosc ymnus show individual varience in the hydrocarbon content of their liver oil, which was supposed to be probably related with the weight of their milts.
    In an attempt at ascertaining that view we have investigated about 30 samples of the same species which were obtained recently and agreed with the previous samples in regard to the average weight of the liver, oil content in the liver and the hydrocarbon content in its oil.
    As a result the milts have been found to weigh only 1.44% to the body weight, oiil content of the milts 0.38% and hydrocarbon content of the oil 6.16%.
    No clear tendency was found in relation between weight of the milt and hydrocarbon content in the liver oil.
  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1953年 19 巻 7 号 836-850
    発行日: 1953年
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1954年 20 巻 4 号 323-327
    発行日: 1954/08/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The present paper deals with chemical analysis of the liver oil of sharks belonging to Dalatiidae which are “yoroizame”, Dalatias licha, “ondenzame”, Somniosus pacificus and “kaeruzame”, Heteroscymnus longus.
    Shown in Tables 1, 3 and 5 are date of fishing, fishing area and major morphometric characters of these sharks.
    In Dalatias used for the study, the weight of the liver averaged about 20% of the body weight, and the oil content of the liver was similar to those of the sharks reported previously1), 2), 3). However, the liver weight and the oil content in the livers of two other species were less than those of Dalatias (Table 2, 4 and 6).
    The hydrocarbon content in the liver of Dalatias was found the highest of these species and followed by these of Heteroscymnus and Somniosus in this order.
    The relation of the unsaponifiable matter content and the hydrocarbon content of the liver oil in Dalatias is proportional as in the the case with the sharks studied on the previous occasions. But the hydrocarbon of the liver oil from Heteroscymnus is remarkably lower in amount than the unsaponifiable matter content in the same sample. The case is the same with Somniosus (Fig. 1).
    The liver oil of Heteroscymnus and Somniosus have a great amount of vitamin A, detail of which will be reported in the near future.
  • 土田 真二, 河戸 勝, 後藤 慎平, 高橋 幸愛, 笠井 彩香, 藤倉 克則, 藤原 義弘
    JAMSTEC Report of Research and Development
    2019年 28 巻 35-42
    発行日: 2019/04/01
    公開日: 2019/04/03
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    陸上や浅海の生態系では,トップ・プレデター(頂点捕食者)が捕食を通じて生態系内の生物量や多様性の維持に重要な役割を果たしていることが知られており,これをトップ・ダウン・コントロールと呼ぶ.しかしながら,深海においては,サメ類などの大型捕食魚類の栄養段階が高く,トップ・プレデター候補であると考えられているものの,情報が乏しくそれらの役割についてもほとんど理解されていない.また,一部には長寿命であるものや成熟サイズに至るまでに長期間を要することが知られている.これまで多くの深海性サメ類の研究ではその脆弱性を考慮することなく,深海トロール調査など致死的な手法を用いて試料採集が行われており,非致死的な研究手法の開発が急務である.そこで,非致死的にわずかな軟組織を採取する自動現場バイオプシー装置の開発を行い,生態系に与える負荷を必要最低限にして,調査を進めることを検討している.サメ類の中には,硬い表皮をもつヨロイザメやユメザメなどが知られており,このような魚類からも容易に試料を採取するためには,サメ類の表皮を効率よく貫通するための針の形状やそのときの貫通力を明らかにする必要がある.そこでヨロイザメ,ユメザメ,サガミザメの3種計11個体用いて,様々な針先の形状(円錐型,ベベル型,三角錐型),針先角度(20度,30度,40度),針径(6mmおよび8mm)の針を使った表皮の刺突性評価試験を実施した.その結果,サメ類ではサガミザメを用いた場合がもっとも貫通力が小さく,針先が三角錐型,針先角度30度の場合で22.1Nであった.ユメザメとヨロイザメでもっとも貫通力が小さかったのは,どちらも針先が三角錐型,針先角度20度の場合で,それぞれ65.3N,95.3Nであった.もっとも貫通力が大きかったヨロイザメの表皮は,サガミザメの3.6~6.0倍,マサバの55.3倍となった.自動現場バイオプシー装置の開発にあたり,針先を三角錐型,針先角度20度もしくは30度とし,95.3N以上の力で押し込む射出機構が必要と考察した.

  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1953年 19 巻 7 号 851-860
    発行日: 1953年
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Of a series of our reports dealing with hydrocarbon contents of deep sea sharks the present work is concerned to that of “heratsunozame”, Deania including at least two different species of which taxonomical indentification has not been available.
    On the basis of morphometric data of about forty samples used for the study (Table 1) an average weight of the liver has been computed at 21.45 per cent of the body for the male fish, and 19 per cent of the female body (Figs 1-2). The liver contains oil for 75-91 per cent (Table 2 and Fig. 3)• Properties of the liver oil and unsaponifiable matters in the oil are shown in Tables 3 and 4 respectively. The refractive index indicated that hydrocarbon in the liver oil of Deania spp. is mainly constituted of squalene (Table 5). When compared the liver oil from different sexes, the hydrocarbon content in the oil was found higher with the male than with the female, but this difference is not so great as the case of “yumezame”, Centroscymnus owstoni (Fig. 5).
    The relation of specific gravity and the hydrocarbon content of the liver oil is expressed by an equation x=1685.43-1863t1………………………………(I)
    where x is the hydrocarbon content of the liver oil,
    and t1, specific gravity (d154) of the liver oil (Fig. 6).
    Judging from the relation of refractive index and the hydrocarbon content of the liver oil shown in Fig. 7, we are in the opinion that Deania under the study consisted at least of two species. One of them, group A, was caught inside of the Tokyo Bay in December 1952 and following January, while the other, group B, was from the Sagami Bay and Kaneda Bay, Ka-nagawa prefecture, in February 1950 and April 1951. The relations of refractive index and the hydrocarbon content for, group A marked with open circle and for group B with, dot (Fig. 7) is indicated by the following equations respectively:
    x=3690t2-5400…………………………(II)
    x=3900t2'-5684.34……………………(III)
    where t2' is refractive index (n_??_) of the liver oil.
    The relation between the hydrocarbon content and unsaponifiable matter content of the liver oil is
    x=0.9313t3-11.86……………………(IV)
    where t3 is unsaponifiable matter content of the liver oil (%) (Fig. 8).
    As a result of investigation of the egg and embryo at different stages of the development, lipids and hydrocarbon in the egg were found to increase as it grows, while they were likely consumed with the growth of the embryo like in case. of Cenfroscymnus (Tables 7-10, and Figs. 10-13.).
  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1953年 19 巻 7 号 861-867
    発行日: 1953年
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Of the “aizame”, Centrophorus spp., several species have been known to exist in waters adjacent to Japan, though detailed taxonomical information has not been elucidated. The deep sea sharks dealt with in this report would consist at least of two different species of the genus Centrophorus.
    Listed on Table 1 are information concerning data of fishing, fished areas and major morphometric characters of the samples used for the present experiment. The following have been obtained from the result of chemical analysis of oil extracted from the liver with ether.
    Weight of the liver averages about 24.7 per cent in proportion to the body weight of the fish. The oil contents are 75-87 per cent for the liver, and about 10 per cent for the eggs and the kidney respectively. However, the flesh and other internal organs were found with oil but very few (Tabs. 1-4, Figs. 1-3).
    The hydrocarbon contents in the liver oil of the fish which are supposed to the highest of all the animal oils that have been known revealed a little individual variance among the samples. When examined with different sexes of the fish, the hydrocarbon contents of the liver oil per kilogram of the body weight proved nearly constant between male and female.
  • 右田 正男, 荒川 清
    日本水産学会誌
    1948年 13 巻 6 号 241-244
    発行日: 1948/05/15
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Jores reported that melanophorhormone in pituitary body is closely related with sight in darkness of animals and plenty of this hormone is found in nocturnal animals or animals kept in darkness.
    Investigating with a dozen of fishes, the present authors confirm that the same holds good for fish, and pituitary bodies of bottom fishes or deep-sea fishes are far richer in the hormone in question than pelagic fishes.
  • 鈴木 秀史
    地球科学
    2012年 66 巻 2 号 47-61
    発行日: 2012/03/25
    公開日: 2017/05/16
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    本論において,中期中新世の横尾層と伊勢山層の泥岩から産出した,深海性サメ類であるツノザメ目3科4属の歯化石を形態的特徴をもとに記載した.これまでの研究と合わせるとツノザメ目5科8属の化石がこの地層から産出したことになる.中新統の地層では,同一の産出地点から同類化石が集中して産出することは極めて珍しい.産状として注目されるのは,最も深い生息域に棲むカラスザメ属,ユメザメ属,フンナガユメザメ属の,生存時に近いと考えられる数本の歯が接合した形で産出したことと,ヨロイザメでは上下顎歯群と皮小歯群が一塊として産出したことである.これらの発見は,サメの接合歯や皮小歯が生存時か死後直後に体から離れ,速やかに泥が被覆し化石化したことを示す.また,これらの化石は中期中新世の北部フォッサマグナ地域の古海況を考察するうえで重要な情報となる.本論により,横尾層上部から伊勢山層下部の地層は,陸棚斜面から深海平原へと連続的に深海化が進んでいったことが明らかとなった.
  • 矢野 和成, 田中 彰
    魚類学雑誌
    1983年 30 巻 3 号 208-216
    発行日: 1983/11/28
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    駿河湾における深海性サメ類の生態学的研究を行ない, 今まで大西洋でのみ報告されていたマルバラユメザメ (新称) Centroscynus coelolepisが水深300mから1, 200mの問で初めて採集された。本報では, 従来日本から報告されているユメザメC.owstoniとマルバラユメザメの形態学的比較を行なった.マルバラユメザメは腹部に隆起を持たない点, 成体の鱗が頭部と躯幹部で同形である点, 腸螺旋弁数が16-21でユメザメの11-15と異なっている点等で区別できる.
  • 東 秀雄, 平尾 秀一, 清水 和子, 山田 充阿彌, 菊地 嶺
    日本水産学会誌
    1953年 18 巻 8 号 349-352
    発行日: 1953/02/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 荒川 清
    日本水産学会誌
    1950年 15 巻 12 号 761-764
    発行日: 1950/05/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    Investigating the effect of freshness of fish upon the potency of their melanophorhormones, it is revealed that the effect is little in lower temperature, e. g. out-door temperature in winter, but considerably large in summer.
    In the previous paper potency of melanophorhormone of fishes is compared, the samples being in different degree of freshness. Therefore, the individual value may need some correction, but the tendency that bottom fishes or deep-sea fishes are rich in the hormone than pelagic fishes can clearly be seem.
  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1953年 18 巻 9 号 411-427
    発行日: 1953/03/05
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 高桑 祐司
    化石
    2007年 81 巻 24-44
    発行日: 2007/03/30
    公開日: 2017/10/03
    ジャーナル フリー
    Accumulating fossil records of deep-sea sharks are important for reconstruction of their paleoecology and evolution, because these fossils are generally rare everywhere in the world. This paper reports the newly discovered and diverse fossil assemblage of deep-sea sharks from the Miocene deposits in the southwestern part of Gunma Prefecture, central Japan. The specimens are isolated teeth found from seven localities of three Middle Miocene formations. These fossils are identified into twelve species of eleven genera belonging to eight families within three orders: eight species from the Obata Formation (earliest Middle Miocene) of the Tomioka Group, six species from the Haratajino Formation (early Middle Miocene) of the Tomioka Group and four species from the Niwaya Formation (middle Middle Miocene) of the Annaka Group. Four genera, Centrophorus, Deania, Squaliolus and Mitsukurina represent the first fossil record in the Northwest Pacific. Somniosus and Centroscymnus mark the second record from the Miocene in the world, and Etmopterus and Pseudocarcharias indicate the second in the circum-Pacific. On the basis of lithofacies, benthic foraminifers and other megafossils, three formations are thought to have been deposited under outer sublittoral to middle bathyal environments. Since these environments accord with the Recent species habitats of the eleven shark genera, this fossil deepsea shark fauna similar to the recent one in species/generic composition had been habited in bathyal environment. The presence of this Miocene fauna suggests that the outline of the recent deep-sea shark fauna in the Northwest Pacific region would have been already established the Miocene. The establishment of the fauna might have been resulted from the vicariance and the isolation that caused by the closure of Indonesian seaway and its associated expansion of shallow sea in the Oligo-Miocene time.
  • 黒田 長禮
    魚類学雑誌
    1954年 3 巻 2 号 64-67
    発行日: 1954/01/31
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
    The author has enumerated four species of fishes with some notes. Among them Ranzania makua and Trulla itina are newly added to the list of the fishes of Suruga Bay, Japan. Hypoptychus dybowskii should be. erased from this' list.
  • 高橋 豊雄, 竹井 誠
    日本水産学会誌
    1954年 20 巻 5 号 421-430
    発行日: 1954/09/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The triptic digestion of the collagen in fish skin was studied with the intention of obtaining some information for the bating of fish skin. The results obtained are as follows:
    (1) It was found that fish skin-collagen was digested by trypsin less easily than collagen which had bee subjected to hydrothermal shrinkage; and the collagen having lower Ts was digested somewhat more easily than that having higher Ts.
    (2) The collagens were digested by trypsin at a certain temperature and above. This temperature was lower for the collagen having lower shrinkage temperature (Ts) than for that with higher Ts.
    (3) The tryptic digestibility of collagen at lower temperature (20-25°C) was increased by the pretreatment with hot water, temperature of which was controlled not to cause heat-shrinkage. The increase of digestibility was remarkable for the collagen in fish skin.
    (4) The collagen which had been shrunk in hot water or in urca solution was easily digested by trypsin. Horny fibre, however, was hardly digested even after it was subjected to a treatment so as to lower Ts from 60°C to 50°C.
    From these results it may be said that when Ts of the skin is low, the temperature of the bating bath should be held lower.
  • 東 秀雄, 金子 徳五郎, 杉井 麒三郎
    日本水産学会誌
    1954年 20 巻 7 号 633-640
    発行日: 1954/11/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    In this paper the content of hydrocarbon contained in the liver oil of various deep sea sharks is reported except those species studied previously.
    Although most species examined for the present study have been found with amounts of hydrocarbon, there were exceptions of species or individuals whose liver oils scarcely contained hydrocarbon. They were sample shark No.8, Pseudotriakis acrages and some of Scymnodon squamulosus.
    Referring to the liver oil obtained from all the samples examined so far the relationships of the hydrocarbon content with either of specific gravity (1), refractive index (2) and the unsaponfiable matter content (3) are expressed by the following equations, respectively;
    x=1773.2-1960 t1……………(1) (Fig.1)
    x=3418.8t2-4991.9……………(2) (Fig.2)
    x=1.266t3-28.7……………(3) (Fig.3)
    where x is the hydrocarbon content in the liver oil (%)
    t1, specific gravity (d_??_) of the liver oil
    t2, refractive index (n_??_) of the liver oil
    t3, unsaponifiable matter in the liver oil (%).
  • 東 秀雄, 増田 興, 井関 重夫
    日本水産学会誌
    1947年 13 巻 2 号 45-47
    発行日: 1947/06/25
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 田内 森三郎
    地学雑誌
    1949年 57 巻 2 号 79-80
    発行日: 1949/03/30
    公開日: 2009/11/12
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 東 秀雄, 平尾 秀一, 山田 充阿弥, 菊地 嶺
    ビタミン
    1953年 7 巻 158-162
    発行日: 1953年
    公開日: 2017/12/20
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 清水 千秋, 福原 忠信
    日本水産学会誌
    1959年 24 巻 9 号 760-764
    発行日: 1959年
    公開日: 2008/02/29
    ジャーナル フリー
    The blood of mackerel oxidizes the linoleic acid, and the oxidizing action of the blood is caused by the catalytic action of hemin pigment and lipoxidase-like enzyme (Fig. 1).
    As mentioned above hemin oxidizes the linoleic acid (vitamin F), but it does not oxidize sorbic acid, eleostearic acid and squalene. These acids and the hydrocarbon are oxidized by the oxide of linoleic acid. The oxides of sorbic acid, eleostearic acid and squalene oxidize the carotinoid pigment as the oxide of the linoleic acid (Fig. 2, 3).
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