Jain Literature preserves major versions of the Rāma and Kṛṣṇa stories. Vimalasūri and other Jain authors wrote many Jain Rāma stories. The authors also referred to Kṛṣṇa stories in their works. But Kṛṣṇa was almost always one of the characters in Neminātha hagiographies.
Jain narratives brought in the Rāma and Kṛṣṇa stories as an essential part. There remains much work about the Jain Rāma story from the 5th century. Jain authors seem to have been keen to portray Rāma as Baladeva, who does not kill anybody and will reach enlightenment. Therefore, the role of killing Rāvaṇa shifted to Lakṣmaṇa in order that Rāma observe ahiṃsā. But other murders by Rāma were often overlooked by authors, although the ahiṃsā of Rāma was the most crucial element for the story.
Because of the inconsistency among Jain Rāma stories, this paper investigates the peculiarity of Rāma stories in Jain works, comparing them to the Kṛṣṇa story, which is very close to Neminātha.
When Nai Pan Hla came to Japan in 1988 as a research fellow of Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, he brought with him numerous copies of Mon documents dealing with the Dhammathat code of laws, inscriptions by King Kyansittha and other monarchs in Mon, histories of Dvaravati, Hanthawaddy and Dhammazedi, Mon songs and folktales and so forth. When he left Kyoto, he gave me several documents dealing with Mon linguistics and Mon literature. Among these papers I found two hand-written copies of a Mon version of the Rama story. The first copy is composed of 190 pages, all in verse and transcribed from an original palm-leaf manuscript preserved in the Bernard Free Library, Rangoon, Burma, several decades ago. The second was brought from Lopburi, Thailand, to Burma by a Mon citizen named Mahaphun in 1950. It is composed of 372 pages, also all in verse. According to the preface of the original palm-leaf manuscripts, both were written in 1834 by a Buddhist monk named Uttamu. In content, the two copies were found to be identical, and it is evident that they derive from the same original. The title of the Mon Rama story is given as “Loik Samoing Ram.” At the 12th International Ramayana Conference held at Kern Institute, Leiden University, Holland, in August 1995,I introduced the general structure and order of arrangement of the Mon Rama story. Here, I shall present the salient features of the Mon Rama story in comparison with Vālmīki Rāmāyana, Non-Vālmīki Rāmāyanas, and other local versions of the Rama story prevalent in Southeast Asia. Comparative study with other versions of Rāmāyana revealed the following noteworthy points in the Mon Rama story. (1) The story begins with Uttara Kāṇḍa, (2) Ram (Ramā) is described as having previously been a Bodhisattva (Future Buddha), (3) Soite (Sītā) is the incarnation of Indra's consort, Wunjeta, (4) Bali (Vāli) is the son of the Sun God, and Soingrid (Sugrīva) is the son of the Moon God, (5) Paddama Devi (Maṇḍodarī) springs from a big lotus flower, (6) the story includes the pre-matrimonial love of Ram and Soite, (7) Totsagri (Rāvaṇa) attends the archery contest, (8) Ram is exiled for twelve years instead of fourteen years as stated in Vālmīki Rāmāyana, (9) Soite changes into a female ape and becomes pregnant with Anuman (Hanumān), (10) the sister of Bali and Soingrid, Swaha, is the real mother who gave birth to Anuman, (11) Sammanukot (Śūrpaṇakhā) is related to Khara and Dūṣaṇa as mother and her children, (12) Sammanukot transforms herself into a golden hind, (13) the blood pouring out of the cave after the duel between Bali and a buffalo changes color from dark to light. The buffalo's blood is in fact diluted by rain, (14) a gigantic crab destroys the foundation of a causeway, (15) Suponnakha, the daughter of Pipek (Vibhīṣaṇa), transforms herself into the dead body of Soite, (16) Lekkhana (Lakṣmaṇa) does not behold Soite's face for three years, (17) Soite drawas a portrait of Totsagri (Daśagrīva) and is exiled from Ram's palace, (18) Soite delivers a son, Ni Kwe. His replica, Ni Choa, is miraculously created by a hermit, (19) King Ram fights with his two sons, (20) Ram and Soite are reunited, (21) Soite, Ongkhut (Aṇgada) and Inda Reje (Indrajit) are mentioned as siblings each other, since Paddama Devi, Totsagri's wife, gave birth to them (two sons and one daughter). It is evident that Loik Samoing Ram derives directly from the Burmese version of the Rama story,
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Jain image worship has been mainly performed for statues of Tīrthaṃkaras and other figures in Jain temples. Most of the objects of worship represent some of the 24 Tīrthaṃkaras, such as Rishabha, Nemi and Pārśva. It is still unclear whether this kind of worship ritual existed from the beginning of Jainism, or whether the Jains introduced image worship from an external religious tradition. However, we can trace it in the literature to the 5th-7th century.
On the other hand, sixty-three great men, including the Tīrthaṃkaras and other essential figures based on the Jain tradition, have been described in the Jain hagiographical Carita literature. We can assume that hagiographies and image worship shared a similar tendency in their development, because both Carita literature and image worship targeted Tīrthaṃkaras and other saints.
This paper examines the changes in the treatment of saints in Jainism based on the descriptions of image worship in the Jain scriptural and Carita literature.
Between the 1990s and 2000s, Anglophone researchers engaged in active discussions concerning policy relevance, the so-called ‘policy (re)turn’ debate. This debate occurred almost exclusively among academics, or what might be termed ‘pure’ geographers, and lacked participation from applied geographers and practitioners. This paper seeks to clarify the nature of these debates in the field of applied geography. Furthermore, this work examines relationships between applied geographers, so-called geographic practitioners, and “pure” geographers as well as academic establishments in the Anglophone world, especially in the United States, since the 1970s.
First, this paper traces developmental processes within the field of applied geography since the early 1970s. In contrast to the pattern in Europe, within American academia applied geography lost vigor because of the strong theoretical focus that gained popularity in the discipline. This shift might be termed the rise of the ‘new geography’ within American academia. Additionally, another factor was a growing demand for positions at the level of university teaching staff owing to postwar economic prosperity and the entrance of baby boomers to university.
There was, however, a resurgence of applied geography shortly after this initial decline of practical studies in favor of theoretical research. Following the relevance debate and the decrease of student enrollment within the field, applied geography began to once again gain popularity in the 1970s. These changes in the discipline were mainly brought about by state universities. These institutions were highly dependent on state subsidies and were therefore also governed by state policy. The geographical academies also pushed for the development of the field of applied geography. The Applied Geography Specialty Group (AGSG) and the James R. Anderson Medal of the Association of American Geographers (AAG) were established for distinguished applied geographers. Academic journals such as Applied Geography were also launched in the early 1980s.
Since the 1990s, there has been a rise in geographical information technologies such as geographic information systems (GISs) and remote sensing. Owing to the popularization of the field through technological developments, an interest in geography was developed outside of the academic discipline. Following this development in the discipline, the National Research Council (NRC) published two documents, Rediscovering geography (NRC, 1997) and Understanding the changing planet (NRC, 2011). These reports emphasized the relevance and applied aspects of geography.
However, academic studies in applied geography did not flourish in comparison with institutionalized progress within the field. Academic journals and sections of journals allotted to applied geography stagnated or were discontinued. Results taken from a citation analysis of journals such as Applied Geography and other key human geography journals demonstrate a lack of interaction between ‘pure’ geographers and applied geographers.
This paper further discusses relationships between ‘pure’ geographers and academic establishments within the discipline of geography. ‘Pure’ geographers tended to criticize applied geographers for their lack of theoretical and philosophical grounding. They further critiqued applied geographers as free riders of geographical methodologies who made little contribution to their evolution. ‘Critical turn’ movements in geography led ‘pure’ geographers to exclusively concentrate their interests even further on thoughts and concepts in methodology with a philosophical background. Owing to these debates, these scholars asked applied geographers to reconsider the foundations of their research area and the relevant questions.
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This study takes up the subject of Ramayana folklore in Indonesia. The epic poem Ramayana from India, has spread throughout among many regions of Southeast Asia, having been adopted as the main theme in various performing art forms such as theater, dance drama, and mask dance even up to the present day. In Indonesia, the Ramayana has been performed in the art forms such as wayang kulit (puppet theatre), wayang golek (rod puppet theatre), and sendratari (dance drama). The tale of Ramayana has also been handed down in written text form such as in novels, romances, and comic books.
In this article, I consider about the Ramayana folklore in Indonesian comic books, citing the characteristic structure and plot of them. Among the Indonesian comic books, R. A. Kosasih’s work is the best-known and most successful one. His comic is called as komik wayang because of its close relationship with the wayang theater. Kosasih adopted many episodes from the wayang tradition, but he dealt these episodes in the unique way. He changed the episodes and also added the episodes created by himself. By doing so intentionally, he prevented “regionalism” such as Javanese, Sundanese or Balinese. He created his own version of the tale of Ramayana. Whereas, we can see the lineage that based on the classical Sanskrit version as written by Valmiki, in the structure of the tales in his comic books, there are many episodes that derived from the Serat Kandha scripts that have close relationship with the stories of the wayang theater. We can also see the many unique episodes that created by Kosasih himself. Through the creation of comic books, Kosasih has succeeded in presentation the entire plot of the Ramayana with his unique version.