This paper focusses on the heads and munshis (native language teachers) of the Hindustani Department at Fort William College (FWC), who undertook several educational and translation activities. Further, this paper attempts to organise information on their careers and activities at the college. FWC was established in Calcutta in 1800 with the aim of educating junior officers of the British East India Company who were to be assigned to administrative posts in India. Although the college was abolished in 1854, it succeeded in producing many competent individuals. The FWC Faculty Division was divided into the European Establishment and the Native Establishment. Western teachers belonged to the European Establishment, and teachers from the East belonged to the Native Establishment. One of the characteristics of FWC was that munshis worked under the instruction of European teachers. The language teachers at FWC mainly taught one or more Indian languages such as Hindustani, Arabic, Persian, and Bengali. Heads of the Hindustani Department who followed John Borthwick Gilchrist produced no noteworthy achievements, but they did work to promote FWC’s educational activities and the status of teachers. In addition, FWC hired munshis in a way that was recognised by FWC officials, and the munshis were invited to the college. It is noteworthy that Lallulāl was a munshi at FWC for an extended period and emphatically promoted FWC’s publication activities. Such activities by the munshis prolonged the continuation of FWC.
With the promotion of the maintenance and utilization of domestic forest resources, a variety of educational activities, called “mokuiku,” which aims to raise awareness of forestation through hands-on experience with wood from early childhood, have been developed with a focus on “mokuiku” toys. In a preliminary study, through a survey and analysis of wooden toys, the author created an index that clearly indicated their educational characteristics and the relationship between children’s developmental stages and design. In this study, we created five prototype designs based on this index, and examined how they would affect children’s growth. The evaluation results of the experiments at the nursery school confirmed the educational effects of each of the prototypes on the nursery school children, including the development of fingertips, concentration, imagination, and coordination, suggesting that the toy designs created based on the indexes may promote children’s growth and development.
THIS STUDY REPORTS ON THE ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE OF CITY FACADE (LONG DISTANT VIEW OF CITY) BY THE METHOD OF FORM DIVISION. FIFTEEN CITIES ARE SELECTED OUT OF MANY PHOTOGRAPHS OF CITY FACADES. THOSE FACADES ARE ANALYZED INTO SEVEN STAGES FROM MACRO-FEATURE(SKYLINE) TO MICRO-FEATURE(DETAILES OF ARCHITECTURE). IT IS EXAMINATED THAT THE MOST CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE OF CITY FACADE APPEARS ON WHICH OF THE SEVEN STAGES. A FRACTAL DIMENSION OF CITY FACADE IS CALCULATED,ALSO. THE CORRELATION BETWEEN FRACTAL DIMENSION AND COMPLEXITY OF CITY FACADE IS EXAMINATED.