The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of class size and small group learning on pupils' academic achievement by using Multilevel Models. Since 1950s to early 1990s, class sizes were reduced to 40 pupil classes. After the 1990s, instead of continuing to reduce class sizes, the Ministry of Education has adopted learning group systems to reduce the pupil-teacher ratio, for example, small group learning and Team-Teaching (TT). Do the class size and these new learning group systems have positive effect on the pupils' academic achievement? This is the theme of this research. Thirty-four elementary school principals and 843 pupils responded to the questionnaires and pupils took brief academic achievement tests for Japanese and Mathematics. This research focuses on the analysis on the effect of adopting teaching methods like small group learning on mathematic tests. The results like many former research findings suggest that small class size and small group learning have positive effect on pupils' academic achievement. To work small group learning effectively, it is necessary to arrange full-time teachers and to group pupils by the similar ability.
A small mobile robot plays an important role in asteroid exploration missions because it can be expected to obtain more detailed scientific findings by moving over an asteroid surface. Robotic mobility on such an asteroid is challenging due to micro-gravity environment on it. As one of the practical solutions to the challenge, we have proposed ciliary micro-hopping locomotion. This mechanism utilizes an elastic force exerted by cilia, and an eccentric motor inside the robot for an actuation source. Although several fundamental studies on the ciliary micro-hopping locomotion in micro-gravity were addressed, the influence of design parameters of the cilia, such as cilia's length or inclination angle, has not been quantitatively clarified. Therefore, in this paper we present experimental motion analysis with various cilia's parameters, and then, show comparative discussions of the experimental data and simulation results.
Modern complicated society asks school education including mathematics education not only to make students understand contents of subject, but also to form humanity. Considering the change of future society, it is necessary to identify immutableness and fashion of “usefulness in the study of mathematics” which Perry. J stated in 1901. Moreover, suggestion of teaching should be given from the view point of mathematical activity. In this paper, the author examined today’s significance of Perry’s aspect of mathematics education perspective by reflecting history of mathematics education in Japan and mathematical literacy, and gave suggestion of teaching by focusing on RME.
In our country, Perry’s aspect of mathematics education was accepted by leader such as Ogura Kinnosuke. Perry’s aspect of mathematics education, however, was near to neglected by worldwide movement such as modernization. Today’s society in which flexible ability such as mathematical literacy are required, Perry’s statement which aims to balance understanding of mathematical contents and forming humanity is worth to be reflected in today’s society. And theoretical coherence of Perry’s statement and RME was shown by compareing Perry’s statement of mathematics education with that of Freudenthal.