The aim of this article is to describe how Israeli non-military occupation policies cause problems among Palestinians and how the Palestinians tackle these problems through a case study of Palestinian merchants in the Old City of Jerusalem. Many studies of Israeli occupation and Palestinian resistance have focused on their military aspect. On the other hand, researches on East Jerusalem have generally examined Israeli occupation policies, particularly the policy of “Judaization,” and their impacts on “the Final Status” negotiation in the future, apart from the context of the occupation and the resistance.
Making use of fieldwork conducted in East Jerusalem by the author, this article will describe the following:
1. Judaization of Jerusalem has been promoted not only by making the population balance desirable for Jewish Israelis and undesirable for the Palestinians, and confiscating as much land belonging to the Palestinians as possible for Jewish citizens, but also by eliminating “non-Jewish” social, historical, economic, and cultural factors.
2. The problems of living under occupation are deeply connected to the daily lives of the Palestinians, such as tax problems and settlement activities by Jewish Israelis. These problems are caused by the legal and administrative systems of the occupier.
3. The reactions of the Palestinians to the problems are also expressed within the occupier’s legal and administrative systems. However, the Palestinians are not subordinate who just obey the occupier’s systems. They re-interpret and utilize the occupier’s legal and administrative systems in order to survive the occupation and keep living in East Jerusalem.
This paper examines early Dutch policy on the Javanese colonization of Gedong Tataän in Southern Sumatra’s Lampung residency, and its influence on the Lampung society.
Lampung was the location of the first colonization to take place under the guidance and support of the Dutch colonial government in Indonesia. In November 1905, migration began in the Gedong Tataän district with 200 householders from Kedu. Subsequently, five settlements were opened, but they encountered many difficulties which retarded their growth.
In 1913 the Dutch colonial government decided to stop promoting the colonization, because due to the inadequacies of the applicants, they could not fill the numbers to be recruited in the fourth, fifth and sixth residencies.
A few years later however, the condition of the settlements improved a great deal. The arable lands, originally intended as wet rice fields but cultivated as dry fields due to the shortage of water, were eventually irrigated and the yields of paddy increased. This led to the resumption of the colonization policy in 1919. From this time, more and more settlers from central Java came at their own expense.
Most of the migrants were landless peasants or small farmers, mainly coming from some districts of Kedu where they had difficulty finding enough income due to the lack of labor opportunities. They could obtain their own land and earn their own living only by migrating to other islands. A strengthening rice trade caused by the expansion of the so-called technically irrigated rice fields, as well as sufficient labor opportunities, greatly helped the development of the colonies.
From the 1920s onward, a sudden rise in the pepper price resulted in continued economic development in Lampung which extended the labor market. Demand for workers was satisfied by the temporary labor supplied by Bantenese migrants and Javanese settlers. The latter, specializing in rice cultivation, also supplied rice to Lampungers. This development of rice trade was one of the conditions that enabled Lampungers to plant pepper without cultivating any food crops.
In the 1920s, the relations among Javanese settlers, Lampungers and Bantenese migrants had a reciprocal nature, and they coexisted with each other by working to their respective strengths and making up for the weaknesses of others.
This study investigates the background, surrounding circumstances characteristics of farm establishments under internal colonization through field research on a specific case in Hardebek, county Segeberg, Schleswig-Holstein. To date, research on internal colonization policies has focused on institutions. Therefore, the topics such as the background of farm establishments, the circumstances surrounding it, and its architectural characteristics are almost entirely unknown. This study also considers the case of a farm established in 1922 in Hardebek by the Public Interest Colonial Company Schleswig-Holstein Agricultural Bank as part of structural alterations in dwelling houses for seasonal workers and discusses the background, surrounding circumstances of early farm establishments in Hardebek, while analyzing related contracts, building permit drawings.