太田 雅夫 (1)
1957 年 (1)
1957年 28 巻 2 号 74-85
Purpose ; The purpose of this study is to analyze the self-control mechanisms of discussion groups, especially to explore two problems as follows ;
1. If the discussion goals and the feedbacked informations are presented to the members of discussion groups, it will become easy for the members to contrast them. How much effect do, then, their presentations exert on the self-control of the discussion processes?
2. The control of discussion process seems to be depending upon both the self-control function served by each member of the group, and that by the group. What effect do, then, both functions exert upon the control of discussion group?
Procedure ; In order to solve these problems, each member's ability of self-control was measured. And on the basis of the results, A groups and B groups were devided ; the former included the subjects of higher level of ability and the latter included the ones of lower level. Two discussions were conducted by each group. One was in the experimental situation which was called a feedback situation (F. situation), where an experimenter gave group mrmbers both goal informations and feedbacked informations, and another was in the controlled situation which was called non-feedback situation (N. situation), where an experimenter gave no goal information and feedbacked information. All speeches in discussion sessions were recorded bu a tapecorder.
Two kinds of discussion goals were used, one was about “bad manners of speaking”and another one was about “to read a comic book”.
Subjects were 70 sixth-grade boys of the elementary school and they were devided into 14 groups, each of whcih was consisted of 5 boys respectively. The experiment was conducted from the 4 th of November to the 11th of December, 1954.
Results ; 1. Type of speeches. Speeches inclined to go more frequently toward the discussion goal in F. situations and to deviate from the goal in N. situations, and the differences of the distributions of these speeches were significant between F. situations and N. situations, and the speeches of A group members inclined to go more frequently toward the discussion goal than of B group members in N. situations, but the speeches of B groups members increased the tendency toward the discussion goal more radically than of A group members in F. situations.
2. Nature of speeches. Every speeches was rated by 5 graduate students. Almost all the rating scores in F. situations seemed to be higher than those in N. situations, but only few differences were significant, and as for the tendency toward the dis-cussion goal, the rating scores of B group members raised up near the scores of A group members in F. situations, although the scores of B group members were considerably lower than A grouop members in N. situation, but the differences were not significant.
3. Regularity of series of speeches. The results from a test of regularity of the series of speeches were as follows : the regularities were siginificantly high in more groups in F. situations than in N. situations, and the difference of this tendency could be seen a little when the regularities of A groups were compared with that of B groups.
4. Self-evaluation. The subjects' self-evaluations were obtained on the degrees of members' understandings of group goal, of tendencies toward the group goal, of relations of each speech to the other speeches and of meaningfulness of members' speeches. And it was found that the rating scores in F. situations were better than in N. situations, but the differences between F. situations and N. situations were not statistically significant only with the exception of the rating scores of relations of each speech to the other speeches.