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  • 西本 孔昭
    情報知識学会誌
    2013年 23 巻 2 号 316-321
    発行日: 2013/05/25
    公開日: 2013/07/25
    ジャーナル フリー
     土地家屋調査士は、他人の依頼を受けて、土地や建物がどこにあって、どのような形状か、どのように利用されているかなどを調査、測量して図面作成、不動産の表示に関する登記の申請手続などを行う国家資格者である。また、土地・建物・道路・地域など生活の場や生産拠点において、困りごとや、近隣とのトラブル時の相談相手としても気軽に相談を受けることができるという国民に身近な資格者であるが、土地家屋調査士という名前が分かり辛いなどの理由から、国民の認知度は、それほどは高くないというのが現状である。ゆえに、本稿では、歴史や諸制度を振り返りながら土地家屋調査士の役割や変遷について述べる。さらに、司法制度改革という潮流の中で生まれた、弁護士恊働型土地家屋調査士会ADR(境界問題相談センター)の概要や展望についても述べる。
  • 寺尾 暎治, 鈴木 茂章, 島谷 政佑
    日本泌尿器科學會雑誌
    1973年 64 巻 2 号 105-112
    発行日: 1973年
    公開日: 2010/07/23
    ジャーナル フリー
    Statistical studies were made on 43 cases who died of urinary bladder cancer during the period of 10 years from 1961 to 1970. Special attention was paid to the causes of death and complications. A similar study was done on 690 cases recoreded in the Annual of the Pathological Autopsy Cases in Japan during the past 9 years from 1961 to 1969.
    1) Direct causes of death:
    i) 15 (34.9%) in our cases and 39.4% of the cases of Ann. Path. Aut. Cases Jap. died of urinary bladder cancer itself.
    ii) 8 (18.6%) in our cases and 18.8% of the cases of Ann. Path. Cases Jap. died of renal insufficiency.
    2) Complications:
    In our cases pyelonephritis was seen in 39.5%, hydronephrosis in 34.9% and, in the cases of Ann. Path. Cases Jap., the former in 44.6% and the latter in 27.1%.
    An autopsy survey of the bladder cancer was made on 8 of our autopsized cases. Pyelonephritis or hydronephrosis was seen in 6 of the 8 cases: 2 in cancerous death and 4 in noncancerous death, wherein all of the 4 noncancerous deaths were complicated with either or both of these complications.
    The high incidence of complications in the upper urinary tracts was verified in our autopsiy cases. This will alarm us for the sincere necessity of examination for and treatment of these complications, hydronephrosis and pyelonephritis, in the cases of bladder cancer.
  • 藤田 宙靖
    土木学会論文集
    1994年 1994 巻 488 号 1-9
    発行日: 1994/04/20
    公開日: 2010/08/24
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 武者 一弘
    日本教育行政学会年報
    1996年 22 巻 110-122
    発行日: 1996/09/27
    公開日: 2018/01/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    The purpuse of this study is to gain a clue to clarify the principles of accountability of educational administration through examining the understandings expressed in court and by the boards of education and the district legal affairs bureaus about "accountability of educational administration" in the cases of students' suicides caused by bullies in public junior high schools. In both judgments at the Fukushima District Court (Iwaki Branch) and the Tokyo District Court,the cases of students' suicides caused by bullies in school was considered as accidents in school, not as obvious errors by the boards of education. The Tokyo City Board of Education actually made disciplinary punishments against the principal and the teachers of the school, as they didn't deal with the bully among students. This means that the boards of education were not held accountable for these cases. Today, "bullies" in schools are widely regarded as a human rights violation among lawyers. However, it is thought to be schoolteachers' accountability to deal with bullies in school, so they claim to the board of education to simply supervise teachers more carefully. This understanding among lawyers is the same as those of the two judgements on the cases of students' suicides caused by bullies, not only as those generally seen in the judgments on "accidents in school." According to the arguments on "public administrative accountability," all of the understandings above can be seen mainly as arguing "formal accountability." In The Japan Educational Administration Society, arguments related to "accountability of educational administration" were presented at the 16th conference (1981) symposium, titled "accountability of schools and its limitation." There, it was commonly understood that "educational accountability of schools" consists of "legal accountability" and "social responsibility or moral responsibility." It can be seen that these two concepts almost correspond to the concepts of "formal accountability" and "informal responsibility" in the public administration. One of the points of the arguments at the symposium was to search for "informal responsibility" in education. Bullies in school have been mainly dealt with by the principle of "students guidance." But "students guidance" would work enough only in so far as teachers have enough abilities as educational professionals and communicate with their students directly and deeply. Educational administration gives guide and advice, sets conditions according to laws on "students guidance" by teachers, and influences various practices in school. This indicates that we can never see "accountability of educational administration" as "public administrative accountability." According to this paper, it is clear that we cannot blame only teachers for "students' suicide caused by bullies in school." It is also obvious that we cannot think "students guidance" by teachers exclusively as "formal accountability." Rather, the board of education should be blamed because it cannot set conditions in school for students and teachers as educational professionals. The accountability concerning bullies in school must be "informal responsibility."
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