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全文: "哲学的ゾンビ"
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  • 佐伯 大輔
    基礎心理学研究
    2016年 35 巻 1 号 13
    発行日: 2016/09/30
    公開日: 2016/10/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 三浦 俊彦, 柴田 正良
    科学哲学
    2011年 44 巻 1 号 1_91-1_93
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2011/10/13
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 内藤 誠一郎, 正原 涼, 勝村 真人
    電子情報通信学会 基礎・境界ソサイエティ Fundamentals Review
    2015年 8 巻 4 号 244-264
    発行日: 2015/04/01
    公開日: 2015/04/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    本稿では,誘導視覚失認(Motion Induced Blindness, MIB)の発見と各種の発展研究,現象分析およびモデル化,また生理学的機序研究の経緯を概観する.同現象を研究するにあたりその基礎となる視覚暗点(Blind Spot: BS)における視覚充填(Filling-In: FI),人工的視野欠損(Artificial Scotoma: AS),また一般に視覚失認現象(Visual Blindness: VB)の知見をまとめる.さらに,最近の筆者等の運動誘導失認に係る研究についてまとめる.一般に視覚失認の研究は視覚刺激が意識に上り「見えた」と気付くという最も基本的な視覚機能を解明する手がかりを与えるものであり, 心理学・生理学また認知科学さらに哲学の観点からも興味深い研究である.
  • 科学哲学
    2008年 41 巻 2 号 2_101-2_134
    発行日: 2008年
    公開日: 2009/08/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 水谷 雅彦
    哲学
    2009年 2009 巻 60 号 67-82_L5
    発行日: 2009年
    公開日: 2010/11/09
    ジャーナル フリー
    Some say virtual reality is evil. It is easy to ridicule this remark as ignorant and naive: a virtual reality need not be regarded as fictional or spurious, but can be seen as an augmentation of the real world, which suffers from various limitations including our limited sensory abilities. In fact, from what source does this negative picture of virtual reality originate? In Plato's allegory of the cave, which is often quoted in the discussion of a virtual reality, the people who have lived chained in a cave are not supposed to return to the cave once released. How come they do not want to?
    This paper examines Nozick's experience machine argument, shows that theories of virtual reality do not necessarily assume psychological hedonism, and argues that they do not fail (with computationalism) through Putnam's ‘brain in a vat’ argument. This conclusion suggests that the difference between a real world and a virtual world can in principle be relative. While a virtual world as something artificial is not, at least in principle, inferior to the real world in terms of its factual (or theoretical) aspect, there remains the possibility that the former may be inferior to the latter in its evaluative (or practical) aspect. But it can also be said that this contention is only the expression of a conservative mentality, provided that one accepts, along with Alfred Schutz, world pluralism and asserts the superiority of the real world, which superiority is based upon a mere custom of ours. Given this perspective, a virtual reality can have the same power to criticize the real world as great novels and movies, the prototypes of a virtual reality, once had.
  • 中村 隆文
    哲学
    2008年 2008 巻 59 号 227-246,L19
    発行日: 2008/04/01
    公開日: 2010/07/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    Within Hume's moral theory, justice is held to be derived by convention, and this is often supposed to involve a kind of utilitarianism. But I doubt the validity of this interpretation since it overlooks the role of individual interest. On the other hand, there is a contractarian interpretation of Hume's theory, emphasizing ‘rationality’, which makes a compatibility between justice and self-interest possible. According to this view, the sense of duty is ‘feigned’ by all subjective minds which wish to secure a predictable ‘rule of law’ for the sake of their own interest. This position may be called ‘subjectivistic Humeanism’. Regarding Hume's theory as an ‘error theory’, it holds that ‘promising’ is an instrument to maintain a stable society for the sake of each member's interest.
    In this paper, I argue that this subjectivistic interpretation is invalid and mistaken, because it misrepresents the background of Hume's theory of justice, seeing the general background of Hume's philosophy as a kind of anti-realism. I present substantial textual evidence to show that Hume does not endorse any general ‘subjectivism’ or ‘projectivism’, and I place special emphasis on the point that Hume recommended proper recognition of values by our moral sense, setting aside ‘superstition’ and ‘enthusiasm’. The aim of this article is to bring out the realistic worldview underlying his thinking and its moderation, and to demonstrate that it can accord with a liberal theory of justice.
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