Traces of human activities are abundant in Japanese national parks due to the zoning system. However, while the national park system has usually been focused on protection of natural sceneries and biodiversity, there is little discussion about assessment of the social and cultural dimensions of local societies. This research reviews the national park designation process of Yoshino, an area around Mt. Yoshino which is part of the Yoshino and Kumano National Park, to analyze how different landscapes of Yoshino were recognized at different stages of the process, and how social and cultural contexts, namely mountain worship called Shugen-do and local traditional forestry, were assessed. Resources related to the designation in the late 1920’s and 1930’s were used in the study, including minutes of the National Park committee meetings on the national parks selection, a document of a local request to the Imperial Diet, town history and journal articles. Traditional perception of Yoshino has highlighted Mt.Yoshino, with its well-known scenic beauty of cherry blossoms, associations with national history and its importance to Shugen-do. During the designation process, Yoshino was recognized as a much wider area and new values, such as the beauty of cedar forests,well-managed by the traditional forestry, were discovered. As a result, new landscape recognitions emerged. However, the forest areas were extensively reduced as the government responded to requests from the forestry sector. Finally, only the national history of Mt.Yoshino was emphasized in the designation, which justified unusual zoning separatingMt.Yoshino from major part of the national park, thus excluding other various social and cultural values of Yoshino.