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  • 一瀬 敏弘
    日本労務学会誌
    2016年 17 巻 1 号 36-49
    発行日: 2016/06/01
    公開日: 2018/01/24
    ジャーナル フリー HTML

    This paper empirically examines the effects of personnel system reform at the Prefectural Police on differences in job grades, which are considered to significantly influence promotion incentives. The analysis found that after Prefectural Police personnel systems were overhauled, differences in wages among job grades widened and age became a less important factor. In short, the starting pay is higher for police work than for general civil service jobs, but because the screening process for police jobs is so strict, future pay raises are lower; so is the average compensation. However, a personnel policy that supplements relatively low pay with good benefits is the general wage practice in Prefectural Police departments. This paper confirms the major point that wage structure reform that increases pay differentials between job grades and promotion system reform that makes it easier to advance to the Assistant Police Inspector level serve as incentives both to those who are likely to be promoted and to those who are not.

  • ──プノム・ペン国立公文書館所蔵文書No.9454の分析──
    北川 香子
    東南アジア -歴史と文化-
    2011年 2011 巻 40 号 145-164
    発行日: 2011年
    公開日: 2016/12/14
    ジャーナル フリー

    This paper analyses a French document entitled “Affaire des jeux a Kompong-Cham ── un théatre chinois pour divertir la population.” in the possession of the National Archive in Phnom Penh (Document No. 9454), compiling investigative materials of the gambling hall held by a Chinese merchant in Kompong-Cham city during the Khmer New Year season in 1916.

    Kompong-Cham is the third city of the Kingdom of Cambodia today, being located midstream along the Mekong River. It came into existence rather recently and appeared in a French record for the first time in 1881.When steamships were introduced into the Mekong River in the late 19th century, however, the port of Kompong-Cham was chosen as a way station between Phnom-Penh and Kracheh, and its hinterland attracted a great deal of interest as the granary of Cambodia in accordance with the progress of transportation. Since the French colonial authority installed a Residence in Kompong-Cham in 1898, a great number of Chinese merchants had flowed in and built a commercial district where tiled shophouses stood in a row along streets around a market. The owner of the house where the gamble in question went on was a Chinese merchant S, who was 32 years old in 1916, therefore supposed to be born somewhere outside of Kompong-Cham and immigrated into the new town born on the midstream of the Mekong River as a youth with his parents. Because he signed to the statement in Chinese characters, his communicative ability in Cambodian or French can not be proved from this document.

    The main exports from Kompong-Cham in those days were rice and fish and S himself was a merchant of paddy as well as a farmer of fishery. The season between Chinese New Year in February and Khmer New Year in April was a busy season of exporting paddy and fish, and also of gambling, because local colonial authority connived at gambling indoors for this period of New Year. S’s gambling house attracted customers from all the provinces along the Mekong River between Phnom-Penh and Kracheh, including European colonial officials in Kompong-Cham city. The inspector found that European officials vaguely believed that gambling was a “charity for war” and S just wanted to earn cash to pay the license fee of fishery of that year.

    Colonial officials were the only European inhabitants of local cities in Cambodia in contrast to Chinese merchants who made up a majority of urban population. The French Resident controlling the district of Kompong-Cham did not arm himself to suppress gamblers and had not much incentive to do that as long as the resource for the license fee of fishery was ensured by running a gambling house.

  • 一瀬 敏弘
    公共政策研究
    2014年 14 巻 109-124
    発行日: 2014/12/20
    公開日: 2019/06/08
    ジャーナル フリー

    本稿では,地方採用警察官の技能形成促進策を明らかにするため,政令指定都市を擁する1万人以上の大規模警察本部の人事データに基づき,その昇進構造を検証することを目的とした。人事データと警察官僚の聞きとり調査による実証分析で得られた知見は,次のとおりである。まず,地方採用警察官が昇進可能な最高階級である警視長(部長職)への昇進には,fast track効果がみられ,早く昇進した者ほど国家公務員(地方警務官:警視長・警視正)へ転身する傾向がみられた。そして,少し遅れて昇進したグループには,警視(警察署長)や警部(警察署課長)への昇進可能性が提示される一方で,その他多くの警察官には,警部補(係長)への昇進可能性が提示される。これらの結果からは,全ての警察官に技能形成へのインセンティブを付与するような人事政策が展開されているとも解釈できる。つまり,自治体警察の昇進構造は,全てのノンキャリア警察官の努力を引き出すよう設計され,その人的リソースを最大動員するための選抜システムが内在されているとも言えるだろう。

  • 中島 節夫
    心身医学
    1999年 39 巻 3 号 203-211
    発行日: 1999/03/01
    公開日: 2017/08/01
    ジャーナル フリー
    わが国の心身医学の歴史を顧みると, その初期には「いわゆる催眠僚法, がかなり用いられ, それなりの効果をあげていたが, 最近, 心身医僚の臨床ではほとんど催眠痕法は用いられなくなった.心身医学の領域で催眠療法が廃れた原因として, alexithymiaの概念がわが国に導入され, 心身症は催眠感受性が低く, 催眠療法は心身症の治療法としては無効であるとされたことと, 心身医学療法に対する診療報酬があまりにも低すぎることがあげられる.その後, 心身症の治僚法として, 催眠を母胎として生まれた自律訓練法, さらにはそれを発展させた自律療法が取り入れられるようになったが, もう一度, 他者催眠を見直してもよい時期にきているのではなかろうか。
  • 一瀬 敏弘
    組織科学
    2017年 50 巻 3 号 57-72
    発行日: 2017/03/20
    公開日: 2017/09/11
    ジャーナル フリー

     本稿では,警察庁が自治体警察と分業することで生じる情報の非対称性問題をインセンティブの観点から考察した.分析の結果,警察官僚が自治体警察の最高幹部に就任することで,自治体警察内の人事権を掌握し,人事情報の非対称性問題を緩和する.その一方で,警察庁は,自治体警察で早く昇進した者に人事業務の責任を負わせ,その代わりに将来の昇進可能性をインセンティブにすることを通じて,間接的に自治体警察を管理統制するシステムを構築していた.

  • 笹森 儀助
    東京人類學會雜誌
    1895年 10 巻 111 号 363-376
    発行日: 1895/06/28
    公開日: 2010/06/28
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 本郷西片町の場合
    加藤 仁美
    都市計画論文集
    1996年 31 巻 295-300
    発行日: 1996/10/25
    公開日: 2018/06/20
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
    WE CAREFULLY RESEARCHED THE LITERATURE ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RESIDENTIAL QUARTER IN NISHIKATA-MACHI, HONGO. WE TRIED TO DELINEATE THE INFRASTRUCTURE AND THEN CLARIFIED HOW LAND AND HOUSING LEASE SYSTEMS WERE UTILIZED. THE FOLLOWING FINDINGS WERE ATTAINED THAT THE HOUSING LOT AND THE RENTAL HOUSING WERE MANAGED AND MAINTAINED BY STEWARDS, LAND AGENTS, AND LABORERS. UNDER THIS SYSTEM, ALMOST EVERY ASPECT OF COMMUNITY LIFE, INCLUDING ROAD REPAIRS, SEWAGE, WELLS AND RENTAL HOUSING, AS WELL AS EPIDEMICS PREVENTION, FIRES, AND CRIMES, WERE CAREFULLY CONTROLLED.
  • 本郷西片町の場合
    平井 聖, 水沼 淑子, 磯野 さとみ, 加藤 仁美
    住宅総合研究財団研究年報
    1996年 22 巻 201-211
    発行日: 1996年
    公開日: 2018/05/01
    ジャーナル オープンアクセス
     明治維新後,東京の旧大名家の屋敷地の多くは官公庁舎用地や軍用地にされたが,有力な旧大名等の屋敷地の内には公収されず宅地化されたものも少なくなかった。明治末期,東京の宅地総面積の約1/4は,1万坪以上の宅地を所有する100人程度の大土地所有者-旧大名などの華族,財閥,豪商,新興富豪等によって支配されていた。この内,旧大名で最大の土地をもっていたのが,旧福山藩主の阿部正桓である。旧福山藩阿部家は,中屋敷のあった本郷西片町(現在の文京区西片1・2丁目)で明治期より賃地貸家経営を行なっていた。本稿では,規模的にも性格的にも東京の宅地形成に影響を与える存在であった大名屋敷跡地の一つである本郷西片町における明治年間の住宅地形成の経緯を阿部家蔵等の史料にもとづき追跡し,基盤整備及び建設家屋の実態,貸地貸家経営のしくみについて解明することを目的とした。その結果,以下の点が明らかとなった。(1)宅地の基盤整備は,従来からの屋敷地内の道路の骨格を基木として道路を開設し宅地割にあわせた街区を形成し,明治後半には下水,水道,瓦斯,電話等が整備されていった。(2)貸地賃家経営の実態として,旧藩士の居住に対し優遇措置を施していたほか,借地人に対し借地上の建設家屋に対し建築費の助成をしたり,借地内の下水や井戸の面積を地代対象面積から差し引いたり,借地上に家屋が末建築である期間の地代を猶予するなど,さまざまな方策を講じていた。(3)建設家屋の実態については,明治10年代の作事関係書類によりその仕様と平面,坪当たり単価等が明らかとなった。(4)宅地及び貸家の維持管理は,家職や差配人,人夫により地主の負担で,道路・下水・井戸・貸家の修繕のほか,防疫から防災や防犯等生活面にいたるまで行なわれていた。今後は,賃地,賃家,建設家屋と居住者の関係,権利移動の実態について解明していく予定である。
  • POLICE CULTURE 論を通して見る警察官の姿
    吉田 如子
    法社会学
    2006年 2006 巻 65 号 148-163,256
    発行日: 2006/09/30
    公開日: 2012/06/20
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Japanese Koban system has long enjoyed the recognition as the key to Japanese low crime rates. By analyzing the field research conducted in 2002-2003 in one Koban in Tokyo, this paper discusses what factors shape its practice and reveals its struggle in Community Policing Era, in the light of Cop Culture theory.
  • 細菌學雜誌
    1897年 1897 巻 25 号 810-823
    発行日: 1897/12/15
    公開日: 2009/07/09
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 石川 巧
    日本文学
    2014年 63 巻 1 号 61-72
    発行日: 2014/01/10
    公開日: 2019/01/26
    ジャーナル フリー

    本稿は、日本の高等教育機関において近代文学という学問が正式に承認され、汎用性のある教科書が編まれるようになったのはいつ頃からか? という問いを立てることから出発し、明治・大正期から昭和戦前期に至る教科書の変遷を追跡したものである。特に、大学講義用教科書の定義を明確にし、詳細な文献調査にもとづいてその起源を明らかにすることに力を注ぐとともに、それぞれの教科書がどのような目的と方法をもって学生の文学的リテラシーを涵養しようとしたかを考察している。

  • 横田 賀英子, 和智 妙子, 大塚 祐輔, 平間 一樹, 渡邉 和美
    心理学研究
    2019年 90 巻 2 号 115-125
    発行日: 2019年
    公開日: 2019/06/27
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2019/05/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    The aim of the current study was to examine the repeat residential burglars’ target selection behaviors. The data consisted of variables relating to target selection behaviors and decision making of 104 serial residential burglars, who had arrest records for residential burglaries in the past. The results of multiple correspondence analysis revealed that residential burglars’ target selection behaviors could be differentiated into three styles: “burgling in the absence of residents”, “burgling in the presence of residents while they are sleeping at night”, and “burgling of mixed styles”. Among 14 variables relating to burglars’ decision making while committing crimes, three factors (risk/reward-oriented, traceless entry-oriented, low effort area-oriented) were extracted by exploratory factor analysis. The level of burgling skill evaluated by the suspect interviewers positively correlated with a factor score of the “risk/reward-oriented” factor (ρ = .20, p < .05) but negatively correlated with a factor score of the “low effort area-oriented” factor (ρ = –.24, p < .05). These results suggest that repeat residential burglars are rational decision makers, but the way they are rational varies.

  • 宮寺 貴之, 渡邉 和美, 久原 恵理子, 小林 寿一
    心理学研究
    2018年 89 巻 5 号 469-478
    発行日: 2018年
    公開日: 2018/12/25
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2018/09/20
    ジャーナル フリー

    This study explores the factors associated with the quantity and quality of children’s testimony in police interviews, focusing on the characteristics of the crime, child victims, interviewers, and interview surroundings. We collected 137 cases of children interviewed as victims of a crime by administering a questionnaire to police officers in charge of the cases across Japan. Categorical principal component analysis, applied to the officers’impressions of the child’s accounts, yielded two aspects of the testimony: the quantity/quality of testimony, and the level of usability in the investigation. Regression analyses with variable selection revealed variables associated with these two aspects. The quantity/quality of testimony was associated with the characteristics of the crime, and the interviewer’s investigation experience, empathy, and history of participation in training, while information usability was related to the children’s characteristics, and the interviewer’s opportunities to talk with children other than their own, outside of work. The timing of the interview was also suggested to be involved in the two aspects of the children’s testimony. Limitations of this study are discussed for future studies.

  • 財津 亘, 長田 泰平
    日本法科学技術学会誌
    2020年 25 巻 2 号 245-257
    発行日: 2020年
    公開日: 2020/07/31
    [早期公開] 公開日: 2020/04/27
    ジャーナル フリー

     This study examined which factors influenced police officers' feeling of ease or difficulty while interviewing suspects. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey with police officers (N=183) who had experience in interviewing five or more suspects during the last decade. The questionnaire consisted of three components: (1) characteristics of police officers (five items, including gender, age, police officer rank, number of years that the police officers had engaged in criminal investigations, and the number of suspects the police officers had interviewed to date), (2) characteristics of suspects (52 items, including “foreign national”, “opposite sex”, “juvenile”, “rapid speaking”, and “compulsive liar”), and (3) circumstances of suspect interview (12 items, including “vicious crimes”, “sex crimes”, and “crime with an accomplice”). A total of 64 items for (2) characteristics of suspects and (3) circumstance of suspect interview were rated, using a seven-point Likert scale, by the police officers according to the degree of ease or difficulty while interviewing suspects. As a result, the police officers evaluated that 36 items (the suspect was a “foreign national”, a “compulsive liar”, and “finding faults”, etc.) made suspect interviews difficult, and 10 items (“full confession” and “existence of physical evidence”, etc.) made the interviews easy. If the suspect was accustomed to police interviews, the police officers' evaluations split into difficult and easy. Exploratory factor analysis extracted three factors from 19 items that were selected on the basis of factor loadings 0.40 and over: (1) the suspect's “self protection”, (2) the interviewer's “anxiety reduction”, and (3) “similar demographics” between interviewers and suspects. The “self protection” factor was found to have a significant positive correlation with number of years the police officers had engaged in criminal investigations. By contrast, each “anxiety reduction” and “similar demographics” factor demonstrated a significant negative correlation with them.

  • エーザイ株式会社アルツハイマー型痴呆症治療薬「アリセプト」探索研究チームの事例より
    小野 善生
    経営行動科学
    2004年 17 巻 3 号 185-196
    発行日: 2004/11/30
    公開日: 2011/01/27
    ジャーナル フリー
    When conducting research into the process of leadership, it is necessary to view it from the standpoint of both the leader and the follower. This is because most studies focus on the characteristic behaviors of the leader as opposed to the team member. While knowledge of these leadership characteristics are tantamount to the success of any project, the implication should not be that guidance and direction only flows “top-down” from leader to subordinate. The relationship between one who leads and one who follows is intrinsically linked, so the perceptions of both should be taken into account when studying the leadership process. With this in mind, the collaborative approach taken by an R & D team in their development of a drug used to treat Alzheimer's, Aricept, is the focus of this paper. The field research I conducted was motivated by this collaboration. I approached this study from a narrative style in obtaining data, as I believe this style best represents the thought processes of the narrator as well as the actions of the participants. The key element of this case study is that the team leader diffused responsibility equally, and cultivated feedback from all members, in the successful development of the drug. This collaboration allowed the team's creative juices to flow continuously, enhanced project efficiency, and contributed to the realization of this innovative drug.
  • 大日本窯業協會雑誌
    1902年 11 巻 124 号 145-156
    発行日: 1902年
    公開日: 2010/04/30
    ジャーナル フリー
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