This paper empirically examines the effects of personnel system reform at the Prefectural Police on differences in job grades, which are considered to significantly influence promotion incentives. The analysis found that after Prefectural Police personnel systems were overhauled, differences in wages among job grades widened and age became a less important factor. In short, the starting pay is higher for police work than for general civil service jobs, but because the screening process for police jobs is so strict, future pay raises are lower; so is the average compensation. However, a personnel policy that supplements relatively low pay with good benefits is the general wage practice in Prefectural Police departments. This paper confirms the major point that wage structure reform that increases pay differentials between job grades and promotion system reform that makes it easier to advance to the Assistant Police Inspector level serve as incentives both to those who are likely to be promoted and to those who are not.
This paper analyses a French document entitled “Affaire des jeux a Kompong-Cham ── un théatre chinois pour divertir la population.” in the possession of the National Archive in Phnom Penh （Document No. 9454）， compiling investigative materials of the gambling hall held by a Chinese merchant in Kompong-Cham city during the Khmer New Year season in 1916.
Kompong-Cham is the third city of the Kingdom of Cambodia today， being located midstream along the Mekong River. It came into existence rather recently and appeared in a French record for the first time in 1881.When steamships were introduced into the Mekong River in the late 19th century， however， the port of Kompong-Cham was chosen as a way station between Phnom-Penh and Kracheh， and its hinterland attracted a great deal of interest as the granary of Cambodia in accordance with the progress of transportation. Since the French colonial authority installed a Residence in Kompong-Cham in 1898， a great number of Chinese merchants had flowed in and built a commercial district where tiled shophouses stood in a row along streets around a market. The owner of the house where the gamble in question went on was a Chinese merchant S， who was 32 years old in 1916， therefore supposed to be born somewhere outside of Kompong-Cham and immigrated into the new town born on the midstream of the Mekong River as a youth with his parents. Because he signed to the statement in Chinese characters， his communicative ability in Cambodian or French can not be proved from this document.
The main exports from Kompong-Cham in those days were rice and fish and S himself was a merchant of paddy as well as a farmer of fishery. The season between Chinese New Year in February and Khmer New Year in April was a busy season of exporting paddy and fish， and also of gambling， because local colonial authority connived at gambling indoors for this period of New Year. S’s gambling house attracted customers from all the provinces along the Mekong River between Phnom-Penh and Kracheh， including European colonial officials in Kompong-Cham city. The inspector found that European officials vaguely believed that gambling was a “charity for war” and S just wanted to earn cash to pay the license fee of fishery of that year.
Colonial officials were the only European inhabitants of local cities in Cambodia in contrast to Chinese merchants who made up a majority of urban population. The French Resident controlling the district of Kompong-Cham did not arm himself to suppress gamblers and had not much incentive to do that as long as the resource for the license fee of fishery was ensured by running a gambling house.
The aim of the current study was to examine the repeat residential burglars’ target selection behaviors. The data consisted of variables relating to target selection behaviors and decision making of 104 serial residential burglars, who had arrest records for residential burglaries in the past. The results of multiple correspondence analysis revealed that residential burglars’ target selection behaviors could be differentiated into three styles: “burgling in the absence of residents”, “burgling in the presence of residents while they are sleeping at night”, and “burgling of mixed styles”. Among 14 variables relating to burglars’ decision making while committing crimes, three factors (risk/reward-oriented, traceless entry-oriented, low effort area-oriented) were extracted by exploratory factor analysis. The level of burgling skill evaluated by the suspect interviewers positively correlated with a factor score of the “risk/reward-oriented” factor (ρ = .20, p < .05) but negatively correlated with a factor score of the “low effort area-oriented” factor (ρ = –.24, p < .05). These results suggest that repeat residential burglars are rational decision makers, but the way they are rational varies.
This study explores the factors associated with the quantity and quality of children’s testimony in police interviews, focusing on the characteristics of the crime, child victims, interviewers, and interview surroundings. We collected 137 cases of children interviewed as victims of a crime by administering a questionnaire to police officers in charge of the cases across Japan. Categorical principal component analysis, applied to the officers’impressions of the child’s accounts, yielded two aspects of the testimony: the quantity/quality of testimony, and the level of usability in the investigation. Regression analyses with variable selection revealed variables associated with these two aspects. The quantity/quality of testimony was associated with the characteristics of the crime, and the interviewer’s investigation experience, empathy, and history of participation in training, while information usability was related to the children’s characteristics, and the interviewer’s opportunities to talk with children other than their own, outside of work. The timing of the interview was also suggested to be involved in the two aspects of the children’s testimony. Limitations of this study are discussed for future studies.
This study examined which factors influenced police officers' feeling of ease or difficulty while interviewing suspects. We conducted a self-administered questionnaire survey with police officers (N=183) who had experience in interviewing five or more suspects during the last decade. The questionnaire consisted of three components: (1) characteristics of police officers (five items, including gender, age, police officer rank, number of years that the police officers had engaged in criminal investigations, and the number of suspects the police officers had interviewed to date), (2) characteristics of suspects (52 items, including “foreign national”, “opposite sex”, “juvenile”, “rapid speaking”, and “compulsive liar”), and (3) circumstances of suspect interview (12 items, including “vicious crimes”, “sex crimes”, and “crime with an accomplice”). A total of 64 items for (2) characteristics of suspects and (3) circumstance of suspect interview were rated, using a seven-point Likert scale, by the police officers according to the degree of ease or difficulty while interviewing suspects. As a result, the police officers evaluated that 36 items (the suspect was a “foreign national”, a “compulsive liar”, and “finding faults”, etc.) made suspect interviews difficult, and 10 items (“full confession” and “existence of physical evidence”, etc.) made the interviews easy. If the suspect was accustomed to police interviews, the police officers' evaluations split into difficult and easy. Exploratory factor analysis extracted three factors from 19 items that were selected on the basis of factor loadings 0.40 and over: (1) the suspect's “self protection”, (2) the interviewer's “anxiety reduction”, and (3) “similar demographics” between interviewers and suspects. The “self protection” factor was found to have a significant positive correlation with number of years the police officers had engaged in criminal investigations. By contrast, each “anxiety reduction” and “similar demographics” factor demonstrated a significant negative correlation with them.